Global invasive species database

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Common name
long-leaf wattle (English), acácia-de-espigas (Portuguese, Portugal), acácia (Portuguese, Portugal), acácia-de-folhas-longas (Portuguese, Portugal), acácia-marítima (Portuguese, Brazil), acácia-trinervis (Portuguese, Brazil), salgueiro-amarelo (Portuguese, Brazil), golden wattle (English), sallow wattle (English, Australia), Sydney golden wattle (English), western yarrow (English), langblaarwattel (Afrikaans, South Africa)
Synonym
Acacia latifolia , hort.
Mimosa longifolia , Andrews
Mimosa macrostachya , Poir.
Phyllodoce longifolia , (Andr.) Link
Racosperma longifolium , (Andr.) C .Mart.
Acacia longifolia , var. typica Benth.
Similar species
Acacia floribunda, Acacia longifolia sophorae
Summary
Acacia longifolia is a shrub or small tree that is part of the nitrogen-fixing Acacia family. Native to the South-eastern coast of Australia, it has naturalised in many other places and has become invasive in other parts of Australia (Victoria, New South Wales), in New Zealand, South Africa, Spain, Portugal and Brazil. It was primarily introduced into these areas to stabilise sand dunes and as an ornamental. Acacia longifolia is fast growing, and a large part of its invasiveness has been attributed to long-lived seeds. In new locations it displaces native vegetation and modifies ecosystems and habitats.
Species Description
Acacia longifolia is a bushy shrub or small tree, which may form thickets. It grows up to 7-8 m tall. Phyllodes are typically thin and pliable and range from 5 to 20 cm long and 5 – 15 mm wide. Usually broadest near the middle or just below, and gradually narrows towards the apex. Pods are generally straight or (very) slightly curved. Twigs are sharply angled and either sparsely hairy or smooth. Inflorescence consists of a spike of pale- to golden-yellow flowers.\r\n

The related acacia species A. sophorae is often mistaken for A. longifolia, as they appear similar. However, there are a few major differences between them. Acacia sophorae typically has coiled or contorted pods, while the phyllodes are usually thick and often fleshy. The widest point of the phyllodes also differs - A. sophorae phyllodes are usually broadest near or above the middle. (Hill 2005, NZPCN 2010).

Notes
Acacia longifolia used to be classified as part of the pea family (Fabaceae), subfamily Mimosoideae, but is now classified as part of Mimosaceae (Hill, 2005).
Lifecycle Stages
Acacia longifolia propagates from seed. It reaches sexual maturity in two to three years. Flowering occurs in July to August in its native range and in New Zealand (NZPCN, 2010). In Portugal most trees flower during February to March; pods are formed between March and July and buds between July and March (Morais & Freitas 2008).
Uses
Acacia longifolia is primarily introduced as an ornamental, and to stabilise sand dunes in coastal areas.
Habitat Description
Acacia longifolia flourishes in coastal areas, particularly those that were disturbed by fire. It is also found in riparian zones, scrub area, grassland and woodland. Acacia longifolia grows in a variety of habitats, including nutrient-poor ecosystems - this is thought to be due, in part, to its ability to fix nitrogen (Werner et al. 2009). While tolerant to dry periods, frost and sea spray, a major limiting factor is thought to be rainfall as A. longifolia generally propagates in areas that receive at least 550 mm rainfall annually (Department of Primary Industries 2009a). Disturbance by fire may cause mass germination.
Reproduction
Acacia longifolia produces large quantities of seeds annually (up to 11,500 per tree), which are thought to be viable for 50 years. In Portugal often more than 90% of the seeds are viable (E. Marchante, pers. comm.).
Pathway
Introduced to dune-based coastlands for dune management.Acacia longifolia is sold for ornamental purposes. Seeds for sale online, for eg in New Zealand on the TradeMe website (http://www.trademe.co.nz).

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Auckland Regional Council (ARC)

Review: Elizabete Marchante, Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Portugal

Publication date: 2010-08-02

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2017) Species profile: Acacia longifolia. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/speciesname/Acacia+longifolia on 16-12-2017.

General Impacts
Impacts include reduction in native biodiversity, ecosystem change, habitat alteration and changes in hydrology and fire regimes (le Maitre et al. 2002; van Wilgen et al. 2004, Marchante et al. 2003). Many of the impacts are due to changes in habitat and ecosystem that A. longifolia causes. Examples include modification of soil microbiota and soil chemistry, and modification of shade in riparian habitats (Marchante et al. 2009; Samways & Taylor 2004). Acacia longifolia may also provide stabilisation to sediment in areas which are traditionally free-flowing, modifying riparian zones and coastal sediment flow (Galatowitsch & Richardson 2005). In terms of changes in fire regimes, the presence of A. longifolia (especially thickets) increases the risk and intensity of fires. However, due to the nature of A. longifolia seed and high growth rate, A. longifolia also hinders regeneration of native flora after fire. Some of these impacts can be long-lasting, even after the removal of the invasive species (Marchante et al. 2004, Marchante et al. 2009).
Management Info
A variety of management techniques have been used to manage the spread of A. longifolia, including biological control, and physical methods.\r\n

Biological: Biological control agents used are the gall wasp, Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae, and the seed-feeding weevil, Melanterius ventralis (Dennill & Donnelly 1991). Both of these insects control A. longifolia at seed level - T. acaciaelongifoliae affects floral buds and occasionally vegetative buds, causing gall formation that halts normal development of buds, while M. ventralis preys on seeds that are unaffected by T. acaciaelongifoliae (Dennill & Donnelly 1991). Together these two organisms have decreased A. longifolia reproductive potential by >90% in South Africa (Dennill et al. 1999). Similar biological control agents are being investigated for New Zealand and Portugal (Hill 2005; Marchante et al. 2005).\r\n

Physical and Other: Physical management techniques used on A. longifolia include felling, felling followed by herbicide application on stumps, felling, ringbarking and prescribed burning. As resprouting can occur after felling (although not always), a combination of these techniques is sometimes used (Galatowitsch & Richardson 2005; Hicks et al. 2001; Marchante et al. 2005.)

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Acacia longifolia
NATIVE RANGE
  • australia
Informations on Acacia longifolia has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Acacia longifolia in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Impacts include reduction in native biodiversity, ecosystem change, habitat alteration and changes in hydrology and fire regimes (le Maitre et al. 2002; van Wilgen et al. 2004, Marchante et al. 2003). Many of the impacts are due to changes in habitat and ecosystem that A. longifolia causes. Examples include modification of soil microbiota and soil chemistry, and modification of shade in riparian habitats (Marchante et al. 2009; Samways & Taylor 2004). Acacia longifolia may also provide stabilisation to sediment in areas which are traditionally free-flowing, modifying riparian zones and coastal sediment flow (Galatowitsch & Richardson 2005). In terms of changes in fire regimes, the presence of A. longifolia (especially thickets) increases the risk and intensity of fires. However, due to the nature of A. longifolia seed and high growth rate, A. longifolia also hinders regeneration of native flora after fire. Some of these impacts can be long-lasting, even after the removal of the invasive species (Marchante et al. 2004, Marchante et al. 2009).
Red List assessed species 2: VU = 1; LC = 1;
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Mechanism
[5] Competition
[3] Flammability
Outcomes
[20] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [2] Modification of hydrology/water regulation, purification and quality /soil moisture
  • [2] Modification of nutrient pool and fluxes
  • [7] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [4] Habitat degradation
  • [1] Habitat or refugia replacement/loss
  • [3] Modification of fire regime
  • [1] Soil or sediment modification: erosion
[1] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Limited access to water, land and other
Management information
A variety of management techniques have been used to manage the spread of A. longifolia, including biological control, and physical methods.\r\n

Biological: Biological control agents used are the gall wasp, Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae, and the seed-feeding weevil, Melanterius ventralis (Dennill & Donnelly 1991). Both of these insects control A. longifolia at seed level - T. acaciaelongifoliae affects floral buds and occasionally vegetative buds, causing gall formation that halts normal development of buds, while M. ventralis preys on seeds that are unaffected by T. acaciaelongifoliae (Dennill & Donnelly 1991). Together these two organisms have decreased A. longifolia reproductive potential by >90% in South Africa (Dennill et al. 1999). Similar biological control agents are being investigated for New Zealand and Portugal (Hill 2005; Marchante et al. 2005).\r\n

Physical and Other: Physical management techniques used on A. longifolia include felling, felling followed by herbicide application on stumps, felling, ringbarking and prescribed burning. As resprouting can occur after felling (although not always), a combination of these techniques is sometimes used (Galatowitsch & Richardson 2005; Hicks et al. 2001; Marchante et al. 2005.)

Locations
Management Category
Control
Monitoring
Bibliography
74 references found for Acacia longifolia

Managment information
Carvalho, Lu�s M., Pedro M. Antunes, M. Am�lia Martins-Lou��o and John N. Klironomos, 2010. Disturbance influences the outcome of plant�soil biota interactions in the invasive Acacia longifolia and in native species. Oikos 119: 1172�1180, 2010
Community-based Dune Management for the Mitigation of Coastal Hazards and Climate Change Effects: A Guide for Local Authorities
Summary: Available from: http://www.lgnz.co.nz/projects/EnvironmentalSustainability/ClimateChange/CommunityBasedDuneMangementPart2.pdf [Accessed June 8 2010]
Dennill, G. B., 1985. The effect of the gall wasp Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on reproductive potential and vegetative growth of the weed Acacia longifolia. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment Volume 14, Issues 1-2, November 1985, Pages 53-61
Dennill, G. B., 1987. Establishment of the Gall Wasp Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae (Pteromalidae) for the biological control of Acacia longifolia in South Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment Volume 19, Issue 2, June 1987, Pages 155-168
Dennill, G. B., 1988. Why a gall former can be a good biocontrol agent: the gall wasp Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae and the weed Acacia longifolia. Ecological Entomology (1988) 13, 1-9
Dennill, G. B., 1990. The contribution of a successful biocontrol project to the theory of agent selection in weed biocontrol�the gall wasp Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae and the weed Acacia longifolia. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment Volume 31, Issue 2, June 1990, Pages 147-154
Dennill, G. B. and D. Donnelly, 1991. Biological control of Acacia longifolia and related weed species (Fabaceae) in South Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment Volume 37, Issues 1-3, October 1991, Pages 115-135
Dennill, G. B.; Donnelly, D.; Chown, S. L., 1993. Expansion of host-plant range of a biocontrol agent Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae (Pteromalidae) released against the weed Acacia longifolia in South Africa. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment. 43(1). 1993. 1-10.
Department of Primary Industries, 2007a. Invasiveness Assessment - Sallow Wattle (Acacia longifolia) in Victoria. Victorian Resources Online. Government of Victoria
Summary: Available from: http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/vro/vrosite.nsf/pages/invasive_sallow_wattle [Accessed 8 June 2010]
Department of Primary Industries, 2007b. Impact Assessment - Sallow Wattle (Acacia longifolia) in Victoria. Victorian Resources Online. Government of Victoria
Summary: Available from: http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/vro/vrosite.nsf/pages/impact_sallow_wattle [Accessed 8 June 2010]
Elst, P. Ver; Pieterse, P. J., 2006. Quality as a factor influencing the possible utilization of eight exotic legume species as mulches. South African Journal of Plant & Soil. 23(4). 2006. 237-245.
Emeny, Jennifer; Duff, Gordon; Simmons, Dianne; Wallis, Anne, 2006. Investigating the distribution of Acacia longifolia ssp sophorae in south-west Victoria using satellite remote sensing and GIS. Plant Protection Quarterly. 21(1). 2006. 30-38.
Fourie, S., 2008. Composition of the soil seed bank in alien-invaded grassy fynbos: Potential for recovery after clearing. South African Journal of Botany 74 (2008) 445�453
Galatowitsch, S.; Richardson, D. M., 2005. Riparian scrub recovery after clearing of invasive alien trees in headwater streams of the Western Cape, South Africa. Biological Conservation. 122(4). April 2005. 509-521.
Hicks, D.L., D.J. Campbell, and I.A.E. Atkinson, 2001. Options for managing the Kaimaumau wetland, Northland, New Zealand SCIENCE FOR CONSERVATION 155
Summary: Available from: http://conservation.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/sfc155.pdf [Accessed 8 June 2010]
Hilton, M.; Macauley, U.; Henderson, R. 2000: Inventory of New Zealand s active dunelands. Science for conservation 157. 30 p. + 124 maps
Summary: Available from: http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/sfc157.pdf [Accessed June 8 2010]
Macdonald I. A. W.; Clark D. L.; Taylor H. C., 1989. The History and Effects of Alien Plant Control in the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve South Africa 1941-1987. South African Journal of Botany. 55(1). 1989. 56-75.
Manongi, F. S.; Hoffmann, J. H., 1995. The incidence of parasitism in Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae (Froggatt) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a gall-forming biological control agent of Acacia longifolia (Andr.) Willd. (Fabaceae) in South Africa. African Entomology. 3(2). 1995. 147-151.
Marchante, Elizabete; Kjoller, Annelise; Struwe, Sten; Freitas, Helena. 2009. Soil recovery after removal of the N-2-fixing invasive Acacia longifolia: consequences for ecosystem restoration. Biological Invasions. 11(4). APR 2009. 813-823.
Marchante, Helia S.; Marchante, Elizabete M.; Buscardo, Erika; Maia, Jose; Freitas, Helena, 2004. Recovery potential of dune ecosystems invaded by an exotic Acacia species (Acacia longifolia). Weed Technology. 18(Suppl. S). 2004. 1427-1433.
Marchante, H.; Marchante, E. & Freitas, H. 2004. Effectiveness of mechanical cutting on Acacia longifolia control. 3rd International Conference on Biological Invasions NEOBIOTA � From Ecology to Control. Berna, Sui�a. 30 Setembro - 1 Outubro.
Marchante, H., Marchante, E., Hoffmann, J. & Freitas, H. 2006. Potential Use of Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae as a biocontrol agent of Acacia longifolia in Portugal. Biocontrol News and Information 27(2), 27�46.
McGeoch, M. A.; Wossler, T. C., 2000. Range expansion and success of the weed biocontrol agent Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae (Froggatt) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in South Africa. African Entomology. 8(2). September, 2000. 273-280.
Moll E. J; Trinder-Smith T., 1992. Invasion and Control of Alien Woody Plants on the Cape Peninsula Mountains of South Africa 30 Years on. Biological Conservation. 60(2). 1992. 135-143.
Murray, D. R., W. J Ashcroft, R. D Seppelt and F. G Lennox, 1978. Comparative Biochemical and Morphological Studies of Acacia sophorae (Labill.) R.Br. and A. longifolia (Andrews) Willd. Australian Journal of Botany 26(6) 755 - 771
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER), 2007. Acacia longifolia (Andrews) Willd., Fabaceae
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/Pier/species/acacia_longifolia.htm [Accessed 8 June 2010]
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER), 2007. Risk Assessment Acacia longifolia (Andrews) Willd., Fabaceae
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/Pier/wra/pacific/acacia_longifolia_htmlwra.htm [Accessed 8 June 2010]
Pieterse, P. J. 1994. Foliar-applied herbicides for chemical control of Acacia longifolia and Paraserianthes lophantha. Applied Plant Science. 8(2). 1994. 54-56.
Pieterse P. J.; Cairns A. L. P., 1986. The Effect of Fire on an Acacia longifolia seed bank in the South-Western Cape of South Africa. South African Journal of Botany. 52(3). 1986. 233-236.
Pieterse, P. J.; McDermott, J. B., 1994. Season of application and glyphosate formulation as factors influencing the efficacy of glyphosate on phyllode-bearing Australian acacias. South African Journal of Plant & Soil. 11(1). 1994. 50-53.
Post, J. A.; Kleinjan, C. A.; Hoffmann, J. H.; Impson, F. A. C. 2010. Biological control of Acacia cyclops in South Africa: The fundamental and realized host range of Dasineura dielsi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Biological Control. 53(1). APR 2010. 68-75.
Prinsloo, G. L.; Neser, O. C., 2007. Revision of the pteromalid wasp genus Trichilogaster Mayr (Hymenoptera : Chalcidoidea): gall-inducers on Australian acacias. African Entomology. 15(1). MAR 2007. 161-184
Richardson, David M.; Kluge, Robert L., 2008. Seed banks of invasive Australian Acacia species in South Africa: Role in invasiveness and options for management. Perspectives in Plant Ecology Evolution & Systematics. 10(3). 2008. 161-177.
Taylor H. C.; Macdonald S. A., 1985. Invasive Alien Woody Plants in the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve South Africa. Results of a 1st Survey in 1966. South African Journal of Botany. 51(1). 1985. 14-20.
Taylor H. C.; Macdonald S. A.; Macdonald I. A. W., 1985. Invasive Alien Woody Plants in the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve South Africa. Results of a 2nd Survey from 1976-1980. South African Journal of Botany. 51(1). 1985. 21-29.
Van Wilgen, B. W.; de Wit, M. P.; Anderson, H. J.; Le Maitre, D. C.; Kotze, I. M.; Ndala, S.; Brown, B.; Rapholo, M. B., 2004. Costs and benefits of biological control of invasive alien plants: case studies from South Africa. South African Journal of Science. 100(1). January 2004. 113-122.
Veldtman, Ruan; Chown, Steven L.; McGeoch, Melodie A. 2010. Using scale-area curves to quantify the distribution, abundance and range expansion potential of an invasive species. Diversity & Distributions. 16(1). JAN 2010. 159-169.
General information
Carr, G. W., 2001. Australian plants as weeds in Victoria. Plant Protection Quarterly. 16(3). 2001. 124-125.
Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), 2010. Species: Acacia longifolia (Andrews)Willd.
Summary: Available from: http://data.gbif.org/species/13625549/ [Accessed 15 June 2010]
Hellmann C., Sutter R., Rascher K., M�guas C., Correia O. & Werner C., 2011. Influence of an exotic N2-fixing Acacia on community composition and N status of native Mediterranean species. Acta Oecologia 37: 43-50. (doi:10.1016/j.actao.2010.11.005)
Henderson, L., 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia. 36(2). OCT 2006. 201-222.
Horus Institute. 2005. Acacia longifolia.
Summary: Available from: http://www.institutohorus.org.br/download/fichas/Acacia_longifolia.htm [Accessed August 2, 2010]
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), 2010. Acacia longifolia (Andr.) Willd.
Summary: Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=26429 [Accessed 8 June 2010]
Kraaij T., Cramer M. D., 1999. Do the gas exchange characteristics of alien Acacias enable them to successfully invade the fynbos? South African Journal of Botany. 65(3). June, 1999. 232-238.
Marchante, E., Kj�ller, A., Struwe, S. & Freitas, H. 2009. Soil recovery after removal of the N2-fixing invasive Acacia longifolia: consequences for ecosystem restoration. Biological Invasions. 11 (4): 813-823
Marchante, Elizabete; Kjoller, Annelise; Struwe, Sten; Freitas, Helena. 2008a. Invasive Acacia longifolia induce changes in the microbial catabolic diversity of sand dunes. Soil Biology & Biochemistry. 40(10). OCT 2008. 2563-2568.
Marchante, Elizabete; Kjoller, Annelise; Struwe, Sten; Freitas, Helena. 2008b. Short- and long-term impacts of Acacia longifolia invasion on the belowground processes of a Mediterranean coastal dune ecosystem. Applied Soil Ecology. 40(2). OCT 2008. 210-217.
Marchante, H., Marchante, E., Freitas, H., 2003. Invasion of the Portuguese dune ecosystems by the exotic species Acacia longifolia (Andrews) Willd.: effects at the community level. In: Child, L.E., Brock, J.H., Brundu, G., Prach, K., Pys?ek, P., Wade, P.M., Williamson, M. (Eds.), Plant Invasion: Ecological Threats and Management Solutions. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands, pp. 75�85.
Mitchell, Ellen; Wilson, Barbara A., 2006. The response of small mammals to the invasion of coast wattle (Acacia longifolia var. sophorae) in a fragmented heathland, south-west Victoria. Plant Protection Quarterly. 21(4). 2006. 148.
Morais M.C. & Freitas H. 2008. Phenological patterns of two Acacia longifolia (Andrews) Willd. communities of central Portugal. In: Py�ek P. and Pergl J. (eds) NEOBIOTA: Towards a Synthesis. 5th European Conference on Biological Invasions, p 203, Institute of Botany Pruhonice, Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic).
New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. 2010. Acacia longifolia
Summary: Available from: http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora_details.asp?ID=2418 [Accessed August 2, 2010]
New Zealand Plant Conservation Network (NZPN) 2010. Acacia longifolia
Summary: Available from: http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora_details.asp?ID=2418 [Accessed June 8 2010]
Peperkorn, Ralf; Werner, Christiane; Beyschlag, Wolfram, 2005. Phenotypic plasticity of an invasive Acacia versus two native Mediterranean species Functional Plant Biology. 32(10). 2005. 933-944.
Pereira, Ana P.; Graca, Manuel A. S.; Molles, Manuel, 1998. Leaf litter decomposition in relation to litter physico-chemical properties, fungal biomass, arthropod colonization, and geographical origin of plant species. Pedobiologia. 42(4). Sept., 1998. 316-327.
Prinsloo, F. W.; Scott, David F., 1999. Streamflow responses to the clearing of alien invasive trees from riparian zones at three sites in the Western Cape Province. Southern African Forestry Journal. 0(185). July, 1999. 1-7.
Rascher, K.G., C. Werner, C. M�guas, O. Correia, 2010. Tracing seasonal changes in water use of an invasive Acacia and a native Pine in Southern Portugal by measurement of sap flow. ISHS Acta Horticulturae 846: VII International Workshop on Sap Flow
Rascher K.G., Gro�e-Stoltenberg A., M�guas C., Meira J. & Werner C., 2011. Acacia invasion impacts vegetation structure and regeneration dynamics in open dunes and pine forests. Biological Invasions 13: 1099-1113. (doi 10.1007/s10530-011-9949-2)
Rascher K.G., Gro�e-Stoltenberg A., M�guas C., Werner C., 2011. Understory invasion by Acacia longifolia alters the water balance and carbon gain of a Mediterranean pine forest. Ecosystems 14: 904�919 (doi:10.1007/s10021-011-9453-7)
Rascher K.G., Hellmann C., M�guas C., Werner C., 2012. Community scale 15N isoscapes: tracing the spatial impact of an exotic N2-fixing invader. Ecology Letters, in press, doi10.1111/j.1461-0248.2012.01761.x
Rascher K.G., M�guas C. & Werner C., 2010. On the use of phloem sap d13C as an indicator of canopy carbon discrimination. Tree Physiology 30: 1499-1514. doi:10.1093/treephys/tpq092
Rodriguez-Echeverria, Susana; Crisostomo, Joao A.; Freitas, Helena, 2008. Genetic diversity of rhizobia associated with Acacia longifolia in two stages of invasion of coastal sand dunes. Applied & Environmental Microbiology. 73(15). AUG 2007. 5066-5070.
Rodriguez-Echeverria, Susana; Crisostomo, Joao A.; Nabais, Cristina; Freitas, Helena. 2009. Belowground mutualists and the invasive ability of Acacia longifolia in coastal dunes of Portugal. Biological Invasions. 11(3). MAR 2009. 651-661.
Samways, Michael J.; Caldwell, P. M.; Osborn, Rae, 1996. Ground-living invertebrate assemblages in native, planted and invasive vegetation in South Africa. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment. 59(1-2). 1996. 19-32.
Samways, M.J. and S. Taylor, 2004. Impacts of invasive alien plants on Red-Listed South African dragonflies (Odonata). South African Journal of Science 100, January/February 2004
Sanz Elorza, M., Dana S�nchez, E.D., Sobrino Vesperinas, E., (Eds.), 2004. Atlas de las Plantas Al�ctonas Invasoras en Espa�a. Direcci�n General para la Biodiversidad, Madrid, 384pp.
Torrinha, Ana; Marchante, Helia, 2005. Dispersion and viability of Acacia longifolia (Andrews) Willd. seeds in dune ecosystems. Revista de Biologia (Lisbon). 23(1-4). 2005. 53-65.
Wark, Margaret C., 2000. Regeneration of Melaleuca lanceolata Otto. and Melaleuca squarrosa Donn ex Sm. communities of the coast and river valleys in the north-eastern Otway Ranges 1-10 years after the wildfire of February 1983. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria. 111(2). Nov. 3, 1999. 173-213.
Werner, Christiane; Zumkier, Ulrich; Beyschlag, Wolfram; Maguas, Cristina. 2010. High competitiveness of a resource demanding invasive Acacia under low resource supply. Plant Ecology. 206(1). JAN 2010. 83-96
Contact
The following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Acacia longifolia
Marchante,
Elizabete
Organization:
Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Portugal
Address:
University of Coimbra/Universidade de Coimbra, P.O. Box 3046/Apartado 3046, 3001-401, Coimbra, Portugal
Phone:
Fax: