Global invasive species database

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  • Impact
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Common name
maina vao (Samoan), jungle myna (English)
Synonym
Similar species
Acridotheres tristis, Acridotheres javanicus
Summary
Acridotheres fuscus is native to India and south-east Asia and is now established in many Pacific islands. Acridotherea can be translated as “grasshopper hunter” - presumably an indication of its major food source in some parts of its native region. It is perceived as a problem to agricultural sectors dependant on crops. Both rural villages and urban areas are at risk of invasion. They feed off rubbish and food scraps and nest in any available spaces in houses and buildings. This behaviour and their close association with human habitations combine to cause a wide variety of problems for humans.
Species Description
The jungle myna is a 22 to 24cm grey-brownish bird with a tuft of feathers forming a small crest on the forehead and at the base of the bill which is not normally present on the common Indian myna (Acridotheres tristis). It has a black head with the upper areas being more grey-brown and the chin, breast and belly dark ashy-grey. It has a whitish underside, brownish wings and a typical yellow-orange beak. The jungle myna is sleeker than the common Indian myna and lacks the distinguishing yellow patch of skin on the posterior side of the eye. Interestingly, the colour of its iris is yellow in northern India, whereas in southern India, its bluish-white (Feare and Craig, 1999).
Notes
Mynas in India are also regarded as symbols of undying love, because they often pair for life. Maina is sometimes used as a term of endearment for young girls (Tidemann 2007).
Uses
Mynas are scavengers (Hails 1985, Kang et al. 1990). They can also kill numerous injurious insects, such as sheep and cattle ticks (Oliver 1955, Roots 1976).
Habitat Description
Jungle mynas are known to inhabit altitudes as high 2000m above sea level. However, they prefer lowlands and foothills of well-wooded deciduous, spacious areas which primarily includes tea plantations, villages and coastal plains (Feare & Craig 1999).
Reproduction
In southern India, breeding occurs during the months between February to May, while in the northern regions, April to June-July (Feare & Craig 1999). Typically, two broods are raised at one time with the clutch being 3-6 eggs in size. It is known that both sexes participate in the rearing of their young (Feare & Craig 1999).
Nutrition
Mynas are scavengers with a varied omnivorous diet consisting of insects, fruit, seeds and nectar. Mynas also devour insect pests on sheep and cattle, such as ticks (Oliver 1955, Roots 1976). Analysis showed that their stomach content consisted predominantly of grasshopper remains, as well as crickets, termites, beetles, ants, caterpillars and fly larvae. (Hails 1985; Kang et al. 1990; Feare & Craig 1999).
Pathway
Introduced by acclimatisation societies.

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review: Dr. Charlotte Yap Aye May and Dr. Navjot S Sodhi, Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore. Singapore

Publication date: 2009-11-19

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2018) Species profile: Acridotheres fuscus. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=362 on 19-11-2018.

General Impacts
Jungle mynas may affect growers of commercial crops due to their love of fruit (Atkinson & Atkinson, 2000). In addition, there is concerns that this species may compete for nest sites with native species.
Management Info
Poisons such as avicides (starlacide DRC1339) were used against the jungle myna (Acridotheres fuscus) with highly promising outcomes, in contrast to narcotics (Alphachloralose), herbicide and pesticide. Trapping is a commonly employed tactic. A variety of foraging traps are used. These include the Tidemann trap, decoy trap and the Kadavu trap. In addition, shooting and netting methods are sometimes used (Pierce, 2005).
Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Acridotheres fuscus
ALIEN RANGE
NATIVE RANGE
  • india
Informations on Acridotheres fuscus has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Acridotheres fuscus in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Jungle mynas may affect growers of commercial crops due to their love of fruit (Atkinson & Atkinson, 2000). In addition, there is concerns that this species may compete for nest sites with native species.
Red List assessed species 4: LC = 4;
Locations
Mechanism
[1] Competition
[2] Predation
[1] Bio-fouling
[1] Interaction with other invasive species
Outcomes
[2] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [1] Habitat degradation
[3] Socio-Economic
  • [2] Damage to agriculture
  • [1] Damage to infrastructures
Management information
Poisons such as avicides (starlacide DRC1339) were used against the jungle myna (Acridotheres fuscus) with highly promising outcomes, in contrast to narcotics (Alphachloralose), herbicide and pesticide. Trapping is a commonly employed tactic. A variety of foraging traps are used. These include the Tidemann trap, decoy trap and the Kadavu trap. In addition, shooting and netting methods are sometimes used (Pierce, 2005).
Locations
TOKELAU
Management Category
Monitoring
Bibliography
15 references found for Acridotheres fuscus

Managment information
Bomford, M., 2003. Risk Assessment for the Import and Keeping of Exotic Vertebrates in Australia. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra.
Summary: Available from: http://www.feral.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/PC12803.pdf [Accessed August 19 2010]
Doherty, N. 2006. Information booklet for the �National Control of the myna� (Acridotheres spp.). Government of Samoan Division of Environment & Conservation
Summary: Available from: http://www.mnre.gov.ws/documents/projects/environment/terrestrial/Myna/Myna%20Bird_fact%20sheets.pdf [Accessed 3 November 2009]
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Pacific Invasives Initiative (PII). Undated. A major myna matter: managing invasive birds in the Pacific.
Pierce, R.J. 2005. A Preliminary Review of Interactions Between Introduced Mynas and Indigenous Vertebrate Fauna and Methods for Controlling Mynas.
General information
Avibase, undated. The world bird database: Jungle Myna (Acridotheres fuscus) (Wagler, 1827)
Summary: Available from: http://www.bsc-eoc.org/avibase/species.jsp?lang=EN&id=C8C378BB36C577B3&ts=1203996833593&sec=summary [Accessed 27 February 2008]
Feare, C., and A. Craig. 1999. Starlings and mynas. Illustrated by Barry Croucher, Chris Shields and Kamol Komolphalin. Princeton University Press Princeton New Jersey
Summary: Description, habitat.
Freifeld, H.B.; Steadman, D.W. and Sailerb, J.K. 2001. Landbirds on Offshore Islands in Samoa, Journal of Field Ornithology 72(1): 72�85.
Summary: Mentions presence of mynas on main islands of Samoa.
Heather B.D.; Robertson H.A. 2000. The new field guide to the birds of New Zealand. Viking, Auckland.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2004. Online Database Acridotheres fuscus
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=558401 [Accessed December 31 2004]
Lever, C. 1987. Naturalized birds of the world. Wiley
Summary: Description, habitat.
Peacock, D.S., van Renburg, B.J., Robertson, M.P. 2007. The distribution and spread of the invasive alien common myna, Acridotheres tristis L. (Aves: Sturnidae), in southern Africa, South African Journal of Science 103(11-12): pp. 465-473.
Robson, C. 2000. A Guide to the birds of Southeast Asia: Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia. Princeton University Press.
Summary: Description, habitat.
Samoa s starlings. Unknown. In: P. Craig (Ed.), Natural History Guide To American Samoa. Dept. Marine and Wildlife Resources: Pago Pago, American Samoa
Summary: The is a guide to wildlife in American Samoa and provides information on native birds and the potential impact of introduced mynas on native starlings.
Contact
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Acridotheres fuscus