Global invasive species database

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Common name
greater Antillean anole (English), common Puerto Rican anole (English), Puerto Rican crested lizard (English), Virgin Islands crested anole (English), crested anole (English)
Synonym
Ptychonotus (Istiocercus) cristatellus , Fitzinger, 1843
Xiphosurus cristatellus , O'Shauhnessy, 1875
Anolis lindeni , Ruthven, 1912
Anolis cozumelae ,Smith, 1939
Anolis cristatellus , Dum�ril & Bibron, 1837
Similar species
Summary
Anolis cristatellus or the crested anole, is native to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands and is best distinguished by the high crests on the middle of the back and on the base of the tail. It has most likely been dispersed unintentionally over long distances to its introduced range. Its aggressiveness and high fecundity makes A. cristatellus a strong competitor capable of displacing native anole lizard species or forcing them to use different parts of their natural habitat.
Species Description
Anolis cristatellus is a robust, grayish brown lizard with a snout to vent length of 70 - 76 mm in fully adult males and 39 - 56 mm in sexually mature females with the tail averaging about 1.7 times the snout to vent length (Fitch et al. 1989). The most distinctive trait of this species is the presence of high crests on the middle of the back and on the base of the tail giving A. cristatellus a \"dragon-like\" appearance; some populations however have weakly developed or absent crests (Fitch et al., 1989).
Notes
Two subspecies are recognised Anolis cristatellus cristatellus Dumeril & Bibron 1837 and Anolis cristatellus wileyae Grant 1931 (Reptiles Database 2010).
Habitat Description
Anolis cristatellus occupies a wide range of habitat conditions and while its preferred body temperature was found to be 29.6 C, it has shown high versatility in its thermoregulation (Fitch et al., 1989).
Reproduction
The generation time for Anolis cristatellus is approximately 12 months, with females producing eggs every 2 weeks during the rainy season, producing up to 6 viable offspring under isolated laboratory conditions (J. Eales, pers. obs., in Eales et al., 2008). A captive laid egg was found to hatch after 61 days of incubation, however it is thought that temperatures in nature would be higher and therefore result in a faster development time (Fitch et al., 1989).
Nutrition
Anolis cristatellus primarily feeds on invertebrates, but has been recorded feeding on fruit, (Lazell & Perry, 1997; in Owen & Perry, 2005), Sphaerodactylus geckos (Schwartz & Henderson, 1991; in Owen & Perry, 2005) and juvenile conspecifics (Perry, unpublished data; in Owen & Perry, 2005). On Tortola, A. cristatellus was observed feeding on a Hemidactylus mabouia (Owen & Perry, 2005).

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review:

Publication date: 2010-07-07

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2018) Species profile: Anolis cristatellus. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1686 on 12-11-2018.

General Impacts
In its introduced range, Anolis cristatellus appears to interact competitively with other lizard species, capable of completely displacing or forcing them to use different parts of their natural habitat (Salzburg et al., 1984; Fitch et al., 1989; Malhotra et al., 2007). A. cristatellus may also predate on hatchings and out-produce native species due to a shorter generation time and a higher egg laying frequency (Fitch et al., 1989).
Management Info
Biological control: On Guana Island, British Virgin Islands, Anolis cristatellus is preyed upon by the pearly-eyed thrasher, (Margarops fuscatus), a falconiform raptor (Lu, 2009). It is also preyed upon by the snake, Alsophis portoricensis and the Indian mongoose, (see Herpestes javanicus (Lu, 2009).
Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Anolis cristatellus
NATIVE RANGE
  • puerto rico
  • virgin islands, british
  • virgin islands, u.s.
Informations on Anolis cristatellus has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
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Impact information
In its introduced range, Anolis cristatellus appears to interact competitively with other lizard species, capable of completely displacing or forcing them to use different parts of their natural habitat (Salzburg et al., 1984; Fitch et al., 1989; Malhotra et al., 2007). A. cristatellus may also predate on hatchings and out-produce native species due to a shorter generation time and a higher egg laying frequency (Fitch et al., 1989).
Red List assessed species 1: LC = 1;
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Management information
Biological control: On Guana Island, British Virgin Islands, Anolis cristatellus is preyed upon by the pearly-eyed thrasher, (Margarops fuscatus), a falconiform raptor (Lu, 2009). It is also preyed upon by the snake, Alsophis portoricensis and the Indian mongoose, (see Herpestes javanicus (Lu, 2009).
Bibliography
13 references found for Anolis cristatellus

Managment information
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
General information
Ackley, Jeffrey W.; Muelleman, Peter J.; Carter, Ruth E.; Henderson, Robert W.; Powell, Robert, 2009. A rapid assessment of herpetofaunal diversity in variously altered habitats on Dominica. Applied Herpetology. 6(2, Sp. Iss. SI). 2009. 171-184.
Brach V., 1977. Notes on the Introduced Population of Anolis cristatellus in South Florida. Copeia, Vol. 1977, No. 1 (Mar. 16, 1977), pp. 184-185
Eales, J.; Thorpe, R. S.; Malhotra, A., 2008. Weak founder effect signal in a recent introduction of Caribbean Anolis. Molecular Ecology. 17(6). MAR 2008. 1416-1426
Fitch, H. S.; Henderson, R. V.; Guarisco, H., 1989. Aspects of the ecology of an introduced Anole Anolis cristatellus in the Dominican Republic. Amphibia-Reptilia 10(3) 1989. 307-320.
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), 2010. Ctenonotus cristatellus (Dum�ril and Bibron, 1837)
Summary: Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=564580 [Accessed 2 July 2010]
Lazell, James; Perry, Gad, 1997. Anolis cristatellus wileyae (Virgin Islands crested anole). Frugivory. Herpetological Review. 28(3). 1997. 150.
Lu, Wenhua, 2009. Anolis cristatellus (Crested Anole). Avian predation. Herpetological Review. 40(2). JUN 2009. 219-220.
Malhotra, Anita; Thorpe, Roger S.; Hypolite, Eric; James, Arlington, 2007. A report on the status of the herpetofauna of the Commonwealth of Dominica, West Indies. Applied Herpetology 4(2). 2007. 177-194.
Owen, Jennifer; Perry, Gad, 2005. Anolis cristatellus wileyae (Virgin Islands Crested Anole). Saurophagy. Herpetological Review. 36(4). DEC 2005. 444-445.
Reptiles Database, 2010. Anolis cristatellus Dumeril & Bibron, 1837
Summary: Available from: http://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species.php?genus=Anolis&species=cristatellus [Accessed September 8 2010]
Salzburg, Mark A., 1984. Anolis sagrei and Anolis cristatellus in Southern Florida: A Case Study in Interspecific Competition
Contact
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