Global invasive species database

  • General
  • Distribution
  • Impact
  • Management
  • Bibliography
  • Contact
prev
  • Archontophoenix cunnnghamiana seeds (Photo: Kahuroa, Wikimedia Commons)
  • Archontophoenix cunnnghamiana (Photo: Kahuroa, Wikimedia Commons)
  • Archontophoenix cunnnghamiana (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr)
next
Common name
Synonym
Jessenia amazonum , Drude
Loroma amethystina , O.F.Cook
Loroma cunninghamiana , (H.Wendl.) O.F.Cook
Ptychosperma cunninghamianum , H.Wendl.
Seaforthia elegans , Hook.
Seaforthia cunninghamii , (H.Wendl.) Hort. ex F.M.Bailey
Seaforthia nobilis ,Lhotsky
Similar species
Archontophoenix alexandrae
Summary
Archontophoenix cunninghamiana, commonly known as the bangalow palm, the king palm and the piccabeen palm, is largely cultivated for its tall, graceful appearance. It is endemic to the south east Australian coast, where it fruits and flowers all year round, and can grow up to 30 m high. A. cunninghamiana is extremely tolerant of shade and is able to grow in a range of soils; it has become invasive in several countries, including Australia, Brazil and New Zealand. It is monoecious, a prolific seeder, and can germinate fairly quickly (1 - 3 months), all of which contribute to its invasiveness.
Species Description
Archontophoenix cunninghamiana is a tall, graceful palm that can grow up to 30 m in its native habitat. The trunk is undivided, of a uniform diameter (to 30 cm) and smooth and ringed . It has visible leaf scars and may be slightly swollen at the base. The crown is leafy, with leaves up to 4.5 m long, which are bright-to-dark green on both surfaces. Leaves are compound, deciduous, unarmed and pinnately divided, with 70 - 90 pairs of leaflets that are up to 1 m long. Inflorescence is monoecious and occurs all year round in its native range and Brazil. It is many branched, with flowers that are purple-lavender, with a panicle of 30 - 40 cm long. Once emerged, inflorescence hangs 1 - 1.2 m below the crown shaft. Staminate flowers are 6 mm, pistillate flowers are 4 mm. Flowers develop into ovoid green fruits (1.5 cm), which ripen to bright orange-red. (Cameron 2000; Christianini 2006; Dowe 2009; PIER 2008a; WestOne undated).
Uses
Ornamental. (USDA-ARS 2008).
Habitat Description
Juvenile Archontophoenix cunninghamiana plants are susceptible to frost, but mature trees can withstand light frosts. While able to grow in full shade, A. cunninghamiana grows better in sunlight. A. cunninghamiana prefers moist to wet clay loams to loams at a pH5 to 7.5, but is adaptable. (PIER 2008a; WestOne undated; Williams 2008).
Reproduction
Archontophoenix cunninghamiana is monoecious, with both male and female flowers occurring on the inflorescence. In Brazil and in its native range it flowers and fruits all year round. A. cunninghamiana produces a copious amount of seeds, which are distributed by gravity, birds and water currents. Seeds germinate readily (1-3 months). (Christianini 2006; Dowe 2009; Ellis et al. 1985).

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Auckland Regional Council (ARC)

Review:

Publication date: 2010-06-10

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2020) Species profile: Archontophoenix cunninghamiana. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1665 on 18-09-2020.

General Impacts
Archontophoenix cunninghamiana can shade out native species. It can also displace native palm species, such as nikau (Rhopalostylis sapida) in New Zealand and may be taking advantage of the absence of the native palm Euterpe edulis in Brazil. Its ability to grow in a range of soil conditions, and the fact that it is self-fertile and a prolific seeder increases its invasiveness. (ARC 2008; Christianini 2006; Williams 2008).
Management Info
Archontophoenix cunninghamiana is an organism requiring research for management purposes in New Zealand and Brazil. Physical control measures have been recommended for A. cunninghamiana control in forest fragments in São Paulo, Brazil. (ARC 2008; Christianini 2006; Dislich & Pivello 2002; NRC 2009; Williams 2008).
Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Archontophoenix cunninghamiana
NATIVE RANGE
  • australia
Informations on Archontophoenix cunninghamiana has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Archontophoenix cunninghamiana in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Archontophoenix cunninghamiana can shade out native species. It can also displace native palm species, such as nikau (Rhopalostylis sapida) in New Zealand and may be taking advantage of the absence of the native palm Euterpe edulis in Brazil. Its ability to grow in a range of soil conditions, and the fact that it is self-fertile and a prolific seeder increases its invasiveness. (ARC 2008; Christianini 2006; Williams 2008).
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
BRAZIL
NEW ZEALAND
UNITED STATES
Mechanism
[2] Competition
Outcomes
[2] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [2] Reduction in native biodiversity
[2] Environmental Species - Population
  • [2] Reduces/inhibits the growth of other species
[1] Unknown
  • [1] Unknown
Management information
Archontophoenix cunninghamiana is an organism requiring research for management purposes in New Zealand and Brazil. Physical control measures have been recommended for A. cunninghamiana control in forest fragments in São Paulo, Brazil. (ARC 2008; Christianini 2006; Dislich & Pivello 2002; NRC 2009; Williams 2008).
Locations
BRAZIL
NEW ZEALAND
UNITED STATES
Management Category
Prevention
Unknown
Bibliography
26 references found for Archontophoenix cunninghamiana

Managment information
Cameron, E.K. 2000. Bangalow palm (Archontophoenix cunninghamiana) begins to naturalise. New Zealand Botanical Society Newsletter 60: 12-16.
Summary: Available from: http://www.nzbotanicalsociety.org.nz/newsletter/NZBotSoc-2000-60.pdf [Accessed August 24 2010]
Dislich, Ricardo; Kisser, Nabor; Pivello, Vania R., 2002. The invasion of a forest fragment in Sao Paulo (SP) by the Australian palm Archontophoenix cunninghamiana H. Wendl. & Drude. Revista Brasileira de Botanica. 25(1). 2002. 55-64.
Dislich, Ricardo; Pivello, Vania Regina, 2002. Tree structure and species composition changes in an urban tropical forest fragment (Sao Paulo, Brazil) during a five-year interval. Boletim de Botanica da Universidade de Sao Paulo. 20 2002. 1-11.
Foxcroft, Llewellyn C.; David M. Richardson & John R. U. Wilson, 2008. Ornamental Plants as Invasive Aliens: Problems and Solutions in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Environmental Management (2008) 41:32�51
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER), 2008. Risk Assessment: Archontophoenix cunninghamiana (H.Wendland) Wendl. & Drude, Arecaceae
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/wra/pacific/archontophoenix_cunninghamiana_htmlwra.htm [Accessed 24 August 2010]
Williams, A. Peter, . The role of blackbirds (Turdus merula) in weed invasion in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology (2006) 30(2): 285-291
Summary: Available from: http://www.newzealandecology.org.nz/nzje/free_issues/NZJEcol30_2_285.pdf [Accessed 24 August 2010]
General information
Catalogue of Life 2010. Archontophoenix cunninghamiana. Catalogue of Life: 2010 Annual Checklist.
Summary: Available from: http://www.catalogueoflife.org [Accessed 25 August 2010]
Christianini, Alexander V., Fecundity, dispersal and predation of seeds of Archontophoenix cunninghamiana H. Wendl. & Drude, an invasive palm in the Atlantic forest. Revista Brasil. Bot., V.29, n.4, p.587-594, out.-dez. 2006
County of San Diego undated. Lakeside Tropical Pool Plant List.
Summary: Available from: http://www.sdcounty.ca.gov [Accessed 25 August 2010]
Dowe, J.L. 2009. Archontophoenix (Arecaceae): description of species and notes. The Palm Journal, 102:4-11.
Summary: Available from: http://www-public.jcu.edu.au/idc/groups/public/documents/journal_article/jcuprd_054782.pdf [Accessed 24 August 2010]
Dowe, John L.; Hodel, Donald R., 1994. A revision of Archontophoenix H.Wendl. and Drude (Arecaceae) Austrobaileya. 4(2). 1994. 227-244.
Downer J., Hodel D. 2001. The effects of mulching on establishment of Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Becc., Washingtonia robusta H. Wendl. and Archontophoenix cunninghamiana (H. Wendl.) H. Wendl. & Drude in the landscape. Scientia Horticulturae 87: 85-92.
Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW) 2007. Archontophoenix cunninghamiana (Arecaceae)
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org [Accessed 25 August 2010]
Jury A. 2010. Our most stylish weed. Taranaki Daily News online.
Summary: Available from: http://www.stuff.co.nz/taranaki-daily-news [Accessed 25 August 2010]
Waterhouse, J. T & C. J. Quinn, 1978. Growth patterns in the stem of the palm Archontophoenix cunninghamiana. Botanzcal Journal of the Linnean Society, 77: 73-93. 1978
WestOne undated. Archontophoenix cunninghamiana.
Summary: Available from: http://www.westone.wa.gov.au [Accessed 25 August 2010]
Wiser, S.K. and R.B. Allen, 2006. 13 What Controls Invasion of Indigenous Forests by Alien Plants? in Ecological Studies,Vol. 186 R.B.Allen and W.G.Lee (Eds.) Biological Invasions in New Zealand
Contact
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Archontophoenix cunninghamiana
  • EICAT impact category for this assessment:
  • EICAT impact mechanism (or 2-3 mechanisms):
  • Justification:
  • EICAT Confidence rating:
  • Country/Countries with max impact:
  • Description of impacts:
  • Assessors:
  • Date: