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Common name
smallhop clover (English), lesser trefoil (English), hop clover (English), suckling clover (English), yellow clover (English), low hop clover (English), shamrock (English)
Chrysaspis dubia , (Sibth.) Desv.
Trifolium filiforme , var. dubium (Sibth.) Fiori
Trifolium parviflorum , Bunge ex Nyman
Trifolium minus , Sm.
Similar species
Trifolium dubium is an annual legume that naturally occurs over most of Europe. T. dubium prefers higher altitude biomes, such as the areas it is found in both Australia and New Zealand. It has been introduced world-wide as a soil improver and forage crop.
Species Description
Trifolium dubium has been described as having 5-15 flowered heads, leaflets that are 0.5cm long, and marginally hairy stipules (Swenson et al, 1997). This description was made in its occurance on the Juan Fernandez Islands, so may not hold true elsewhere. In Taiwan T. dubium is described as reaching heights of 0.3m, having 1 seed per pod, and was introduced as a forage species (Wu et al, 2003).
Lifecycle Stages
Trifolium dubium is an annual legume (Caradus, 1994).
Trifolium dubium has been reported as being used as a bee crop, a revegetator, and soil improver and a forage species (USDA-ARS, 2010).
Habitat Description
In Australia Trifolium dubium is found in only small quantities in the sub-alpine and montane regions of Kosciuszko National Park in the Snowy Mountains where it is described as \"widespread but rarely common\" (MacDougall et al, 2005). This habitat preference is also reflected in its abundance in New Zealand, where it occurs in high-altitude swards in the South Island (Caradus, 1994). Caradus further decribed T dubium as preferring \"dry, infertile regions\". T. dubium has also been found to occur though in the coastal regions near Wanganui (Champion & Reeves, 2009). In the Falkland Islands T. dubium occurs in built up areas and gardens, improved grassland and dwarf shrub heath (Broughton & McAdam, 2002). T. dubium was found to be one of the most frost tolerant Trifolium species in a study by Caradus (1994), shown to have a frost-tolerance down to -13.8 degrees Celcius. T. dubium dominate the deep-soil seed bank and can increase threefold following disturbance (MacDougall et al, 2006).

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment


Publication date: 2010-06-08

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2024) Species profile: Trifolium dubium. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/speciesname/Trifolium+dubium on 22-06-2024.

Management Info
Preventative Measures: Trifolium dubium is listed as an agricultural weed in Japan (Miyawaki & Washitani, 2004).
Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Trifolium dubium
  • albania
  • austria
  • belarus
  • belgium
  • bulgaria
  • cyprus
  • czech republic
  • denmark
  • ex-yugoslavia
  • france
  • germany
  • greece
  • hungary
  • ireland
  • israel
  • italy
  • latvia
  • lithuania
  • morocco
  • netherlands
  • norway
  • poland
  • portugal
  • romania
  • russian federation
  • spain
  • sweden
  • switzerland
  • tunisia
  • turkey
  • ukraine
  • united kingdom
Informations on Trifolium dubium has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Trifolium dubium in information
Arrival date
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Red List assessed species 0:
Management information
Preventative Measures: Trifolium dubium is listed as an agricultural weed in Japan (Miyawaki & Washitani, 2004).
18 references found for Trifolium dubium

Management information
Auld, Bruce; Hirohiko Morita; Tomoko Nishida; Misako Ito and Peter Michael, 2003. Shared exotica: Plant invasions of Japan and south eastern Australia. Cunninghamia (2003) 8(1): 147�152
Summary: Available from: http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/58904/Cun8Aul147.pdf [Accessed 28 June 2010]
Champion, P. D. and P. N. Reeves, 2009. Factors causing dune ephemeral wetlands to be vulnerable to weed invasion. DOC Research & Development Series 310
Summary: Available from: http://conservation.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/drds310entire.pdf [Accessed 28 June 2010]
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
General information
Broughton, D. A. & McAdam, J. H. 2002. The Non-native Vascular Flora of the Falkland Islands. Botanical Journal of Scotland, 2002, Vol. 54 Issue 2, p153, 38p; (AN 9063913)
Caradus, J. R., 1994. Frost tolerance of Trifolium species. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 1994, Vol. 38: 157-162
Hull�, Maurice; Evelyne Turpeau; Sylvie Hudaverdian; Bernard Chaubet; Yannick Outreman and Marc Lebouvier, 2010. Aphids and associated natural enemies on Ile Amsterdam and Ile Saint-Paul, Southern Indian Ocean. Antarctic Science
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), 2010. Trifolium dubium Sibthorp
Summary: Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=26205 [Accessed 28 June 2010]
Johnston FM, Pickering CM. 2001. Exotic plants in the Australian Alps. Mountain Research and Development 21:284�291.
MacDougall, A.S.; Boucher, J.; Turkington, R. & Bradfield G.E., 2006. Patterns of plant invasion along an environmental stress gradient. Journal of Vegetation Science 17: 47-56, 2006
McDougall, Keith L.; John W. Morgan; Neville G. Walsh; Richard J. Williams, 2005. Plant invasions in treeless vegetation of the Australian Alps. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 7 (2005) 159�171
Swenson, Ulf; Tod F. Stuessey; Marcelo Baeza and Daniel, J. Crawford., 1997. New and Historical Plant Introductions, and Potential Pests in the Juan Fernandez Islands, Chile! Pacific Science (1997), vol. 51, no. 3: 233-253
USDA-NRCS, 2010. Trifolium dubium Sibth. suckling clover
Summary: Available from: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=TRDU2&photoID=trdu2_001_avd.tif [Accessed 28 June 2010]
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Trifolium dubium
Trifolium dubium
smallhop clover, lesser trefoil, hop clover, suckling clover, yellow clover, low hop clover, shamrock
Date assessed
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Eicat category
Justification for EICAT assessment
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Mechanism(s) of maximum impact
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Description of impacts
Recommended citation
(2024). Trifolium dubium. IUCN Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (EICAT).