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  • Setaria verticillata (Photo: Romanm, Scan from Na�e �kodljive rastline(1892) www.commons.wikimedia.org)
  • Setaria verticillata (bristly foxtail) (Photo: Forest and Kim Starr, www.hear.org)
  • Setaria verticillata (bristly foxtail) (Photo: Forest and Kim Starr, www.hear.org)
  • Setaria verticillata (bristly foxtail) (Photo: Forest and Kim Starr, www.hear.org)
  • Setaria verticillata (bristly foxtail) (Photo: Forest and Kim Starr, www.hear.org)
  • Setaria verticillata (bristly foxtail) seed head (Photo: Forest and Kim Starr, www.hear.org)
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Common name
Kransnaaldaar (English, Netherlands), bur bristle grass (English), pata de gallina (Spanish), bristly foxtail (English), pega-pega (Spanish), rough bristle grass (English), almorejo (Spanish), hooked bristlegrass (English), carreig (Spanish), bur grass (English), khishin (English, Lebanan), rabo de zorro (Spanish), capim-grama (Portuguese), zacate pegarropa (Spanish), alorejo (Spanish), lagartera (Spanish), almorejo verticilado (Spanish), quam el-far (Arabic), oehoe (English, Indonesia), kamala (English, Indonesia), milha-verticilada (Portuguese), pega-saias (Portuguese), Kletten Borstenhirse (German), Quirl Bortenhirse (German), Wirtel Borstenhirse (German), dukhain (English, Lebanan), panico maggiore (Italian), fieno stellino (Italian), zaratsukienokorogusa (Japanese), amor de hortelano (Spanish), foxtail (English), lossaig (English, Sudan), kolvhirs (English, Sweden), yah hang chnig-chok (English, Thailand), kirpi dari (English, Turkey), whorled pigeon grass (English), cola de zorro (Spanish), panissola (Spanish), setaria spondyloti (Greek), mau' pilipili (Hawaiian), setaire verticillée (French)
Synonym
Panicum verticillatum , L.
Pennisetum verticillatum , R. Br.
Chaetochloa verticillata , (L.) (Scribn.)
Panicum verticillatum , (L., 1762)
Setaria carnei , (A.S. Hitchc.)
Panicum adhaerens , (Forssk., 1775)
Setaria nubica , (Link)
Pennisetum respiciens , (A. Rich., 1851)
Setaria respiciens , (A. Rich, 1852)
Panicum aparine , (Steud., 1854)
Panicum respiciens , (A. Rich., 1854)
Setaria virdis , (Terracc., 1894)
Setaria aparine , (Stued. 1912)
Setaria adhaerens , (Forssk., 1919)
Panicum rottleri , (Nees, 1841)
Panicum asperum , (Lamk., 1778)
Pennisetum verticillatum , (L.) (Nash, 1817)
Ixophorus verticillatus , (L.) (Nash, 1859)
Setaria verticillformis , (Dumort.)
Setaria ambigua , (Guss.)
Similar species
Summary
Setaria verticillata is a native European grass, invading agricultural, urban, and other disturbed areas throughout North America, Central America, South America Africa, Asia, and the North and South Pacific. A problematic crop weed S. verticillata, has inflicted considerable environmental and economic costs, is known to adapt to local conditions rapidly, and has developed resistance to atrazine and other C 1/5 herbicides.
Species Description
Setaria verticillata is a loosely tufted, annual grass. Its culms reach 10–100 cm high or more, geniculately ascending. Leaf-blades broadly linear, 5–30 cm long, 4–16 mm wide, flaccid, glabrous to loosely pilose; sheaths glabrous to pubescent. Panicle spiciform, linear to untidily lobed, 2–15 cm long, often entangled, the rhachis hispidulous; bristles 3–8 mm long, retrorsely barbed, tenaciously clinging. Spikelets ellipsoid, 1.5–2.5 mm long; lower glume 1/3–1/2, the upper as long as the spikelet; lower floret sterile, the palea minute; upper lemma finely rugose (Aluka, 2008).
Notes
Some authorities recognize Setaria verticillata and Setaria adhaerens as one species while others recognize them as two. The more temperate S. verticillata has ciliate sheath-margins, glabrous blades and spikelets over 2 mm long. The more tropical S. adhaerens has glabrous sheath-margins, hairy blades and spikelets under 2 mm long. However, these are only two among a number of intergrading populations, and some recommend treating the whole complex as a single polymorphic species (Aluka, 2008).
Uses
In South Africa the seeds of Setaria verticillata are used to produce malt for beer. In Nambia, the Topnaar people harvest S. verticillata seeds and use them in making porridge (Biodiversityexpolorer, undated).
Habitat Description
Setaria verticillata generally occurs in temperate to tropical climates, altitudes 0-2200 m, and agricultural or other disturbed locations. It has been reported to prefer shady damp sites, but is rarely found in wetlands generally (PIER, 2008; Aluka, 2008; Calflora, 2009)
Reproduction
Setaria verticillata is a self pollinated annual which forms long-lived, heterogeneous seed pools in the soil resulting from a dormant seed rain. In soil seed pools, after-ripening, the occurrence and timing of seedling emergence, and the induction of secondary, summer dormancy are regulated by seasonally and diurnally varying soil oxygen, water, and temperature signals. This precise and adaptable seed emergence contributes greatly to S. verticillata's success in disturbed areas. It is known to have a considerably low intrapopulation genetic diversity and huge genetic diversity between populations compared to similar plant species (Dekker, 2003).

Principal source: Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)., 2008. Setaria verticillata (L.) P. Beauv., Poaceae
Aluka, 2008. Entry for Setaria verticillata (L.) P. Beauv. [family POACEAE]

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Christos A. Damalas, Department of Agricultural Development of Pieria.

Publication date: 2010-03-27

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2017) Species profile: Setaria verticillata. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/speciesname/Setaria+verticillata on 17-10-2017.

General Impacts
Setaria verticillata is problematic, cosmopolitan crop weed. It has the ability to adapt to a wide range of habitats enabling widespread infestation in temperate, disturbed areas throughout the world. It exhibits phenotypic plasticity and is quite resilient to a number of conditions being resistant to several herbicides, mechanical damage, and drought. Its invasive nature has resulted in significant damage to corn crops and the displacement of native grasses (Dekker, 2003).
Management Info
Chemical: Setaria verticillata was found to develop resistance to Photosystem II inhibitors, or C 1/5 herbicides when it became resistant to field levels of atrazine treatment in one study (Gimenez-Espinosa et al, 1996; Heap, undated). Its rates of recovery of net CO2 mg per dm2 per h/h following a treatment of atrazine, cyanazine, and cyprazine at 1.16x10 -5 M leached through silica sand media were 1.5, 0.5, and 0.3 CO2 mg per dm2 respectively (Jensen et al, 1977)..
Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Setaria verticillata
Informations on Setaria verticillata has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Setaria verticillata in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Setaria verticillata is problematic, cosmopolitan crop weed. It has the ability to adapt to a wide range of habitats enabling widespread infestation in temperate, disturbed areas throughout the world. It exhibits phenotypic plasticity and is quite resilient to a number of conditions being resistant to several herbicides, mechanical damage, and drought. Its invasive nature has resulted in significant damage to corn crops and the displacement of native grasses (Dekker, 2003).
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
SPAIN
Mechanism
[1] Competition
Outcomes
[1] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Damage to agriculture
Management information
Chemical: Setaria verticillata was found to develop resistance to Photosystem II inhibitors, or C 1/5 herbicides when it became resistant to field levels of atrazine treatment in one study (Gimenez-Espinosa et al, 1996; Heap, undated). Its rates of recovery of net CO2 mg per dm2 per h/h following a treatment of atrazine, cyanazine, and cyprazine at 1.16x10 -5 M leached through silica sand media were 1.5, 0.5, and 0.3 CO2 mg per dm2 respectively (Jensen et al, 1977)..
Locations
Management Category
Control
Bibliography
42 references found for Setaria verticillata

Managment information
De Prado, Rafael A. and Antonio R. Franco., 2004. Cross-resistance and herbicide metabolism in grass weeds in Europe: biochemical and physiological aspects. Weed Science [0043-1745] De yr:2004 vol:52 iss:3 pg:441 -447
Gim�nez-Espinosa, Rosa; Eva Romera, Manuel Tena, Rafael De Prado., 1996. Fate of Atrazine in Treated and Pristine Accessions of Three Setaria Species. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 56, 196�207 (1996) Article NO. 0073
Jensen, K. I. N., G. R. Stephenson, L. A. Hunt, J. D. Bandeen., 1977. The effect of atrazine, cyanazine and cyprazine on photosynthesis and growth of nine grasses* Weed Research 17 (6) , 379�386 doi:10.1111/j.1365-3180.1977.tb00497.x
Steel, M G; Cavers, P B; Lee S M., 1983. The Biology of Canadian Weeds 59. Setaria glauca and Setaria verticillata. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 63(3). 1983. 711-726.
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
General information
Agnew, A. D. Q. and John E. C. Flux Plant Dispersal by Hares (Lepus capensis L.) in Kenya. Ecology, Vol. 51, No. 4 (Jul., 1970), pp. 735-737
Aluka, 2008. Entry for Setaria verticillata (L.) P. Beauv. [family POACEAE]
Summary: Available from: http://www.aluka.org/action/showMetadata?doi=10.5555%2FAL.AP.FLORA.FTEA008587 [Accessed 20 June 2008]
Amigo, J; Bujan, M; Romero M I., 1991. Taxonomic review of Genus Setaria Gramineae in the Iberian peninsula. Bulletin de la Societe Botanique de France Lettres Botaniques. 138(2). 1991. 155-166.
Auquier, P., 1979. The Genus Setaria Poaceae in Belgium and Luxembourg. Lejeunia.(97). 1979. 1-13.
Banfi, E., 1989. Notes On Italian Species of Setaria P. Beauv. Poaceae. Atti della Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano. 130(13). 1989. 189-196.
Buyankin, V., 1975. New Weeds For The Uralsk Oblast USSR. Botanicheskii Zhurnal (St. Petersburg). 60(8). 1975. 1190-1191.
CABI, Crop Protection Compendium., 2007. Setaria verticillata
Summary: Available from: http://www.cabicompendium.org/NamesLists/CPC/Full/SET_VE.htm [Accessed 20 June 2008]
CONABIO. 2008. Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras en M�xico. Especies invasoras - Plantas. Comisi�n Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Fecha de acceso.
Summary: English:
The species list sheet for the Mexican information system on invasive species currently provides information related to Scientific names, family, group and common names, as well as habitat, status of invasion in Mexico, pathways of introduction and links to other specialised websites. Some of the higher risk species already have a direct link to the alert page. It is important to notice that these lists are constantly being updated, please refer to the main page (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), under the section Novedades for information on updates.
Invasive species - Plants is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Plantas [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Spanish:
La lista de especies del Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras de m�xico cuenta actualmente con informaci�n aceca de nombre cient�fico, familia, grupo y nombre com�n, as� como h�bitat, estado de la invasi�n en M�xico, rutas de introducci�n y ligas a otros sitios especializados. Algunas de las especies de mayor riesgo ya tienen una liga directa a la p�gina de alertas. Es importante resaltar que estas listas se encuentran en constante proceso de actualizaci�n, por favor consulte la portada (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), en la secci�n novedades, para conocer los cambios.
Especies invasoras - Plantas is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Plantas [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Cox, George W., 2001. An Inventory and Analysis of the Alien Plant Flora of New Mexico. The New Mexico Botanist. A Newsletter for the flora of New Mexico, from the Range Science Herbarium and Cooperative Extension Service, College of Agriculture and Home Economics, New Mexico State University.
Danin, Avinoam and Hildemar Scholz ., 1997. On the Occurrence of Two Taxa of the Setaria verticillata Complex in Israel and the Sinai. Willdenowia, Bd. 27, H. 1/2 (Nov. 17, 1997), pp. 177-179
Dekker, Jack., 2003. The foxtail (Setaria) species-group. Weed Science, 51:641�656. 2003
FloraBase, the Western Australian Flora., 1993. Setaria verticillata (L.) P.Beauv. Whorled Pigeon Grass
Summary: Available from: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/613 [Accessed 20 June 2008]
FloraBase, the Western Australian Flora., 2008. Distribution. Setaria verticillata (L.) P.Beauv. Whorled Pigeon Grass
Summary: Available from: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/map/613 [Accessed 20 June 2008]
Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW)., 2007. Setaria verticillata (Poaceae)
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/gcw/species/setaria_verticillata/ [Accessed 20 June 2008]
G�tze, A.R.; S.S. Cilliers, H. Bezuidenhout and K. Kellner. 2003. Analysis of the riparian vegetation (Ia land type) of the proposed Vhembe-Dongola National Park, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Koedoe 46(2): 45-64. Pretoria. ISSN 0075-6458.
Gudzhinskas, Z. A., 1991. Addition to adventive flora of Kaliningrad Oblast: Poaceae. Botanicheskii Zhurnal (St. Petersburg). 76(10). 1991. 1441-1446.
Hovenden, Mark J. and Dennis I. Morris., 2002. Occurence and distribution of native and introduced C4 grasses in Tasmania. Australian Journal of Botany, 2002, 50, 667-675.
HYPPA., 2007. Setaria verticillata (L.) P. Beauvois Unit� de Malherbologie & Agronomie, Weed Science & Agronomy INRA-Dijon
Summary: Available from: http://www2.dijon.inra.fr/hyppa/hyppa-a/setve_ah.htm [Accessed 20 June 2008]
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2009. Online Database. Setaria verticillata (L.) Beauv.
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=41232 [Accessed 20 June 2008]
Kaantonen, M., 1976. Notes on the establishment and survival of some adventive plants in the Tampere region South Finland. Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica. 52 1976. 15-18.
New South Wales Flora Online., 2009. Setaria verticillata (L.) P.Beauv.
Summary: Available from: http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Setaria~verticillata [Accessed 20 June 2008]
Oppenheimer, H. R, undated. Sand Swamp and Weed Vegetation at the Estuary of the Rubin River (Palestine). Division of Citricuhure and Agricuhura| Botany, Agricultural Research Station of the Jewish Agency for PaIestine, Rehovot
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)., 2008. Setaria verticillata (L.) P.Beauv., Poaceae
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/setaria_verticillata.htm [Accessed 20 June 2008]
Pond, U., B.B. Beesley, L.R. Brown & H. Bezuidenhout. 2002. Floristic analysis of the Mountain Zebra National Park, Eastern Cape. Koedoe 45(1): 35�57. Pretoria. ISSN 0075-6458.
Rathi, A. S.; Panwar, M. S., 1993. Setaria verticillata: A new host record of Claviceps fusiformis Loveless. Indian Journal of Mycology & Plant Pathology. 23(3). 1993. 332.
Rostanski, Krzysztof., 1996. Bristle-grasses (Setaria, Poaceae) in Poland. Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica. 41(2). 1996. 507-512.
Salimi, H.; Termeh, F., 2002. A study on seed dormancy and germination in ten species of grass weeds. Rostaniha. 3(1-4). 2002. 9-12.
Torma, M; Hodi, L., 2002. Reproduction biology of some important monocot weeds in Hungary. Zeitschrift fuer Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz.(Sp. Iss. 18). 2002. 191-196.
USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program., 2009. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Summary: Available from: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl?Setaria%20verticillata[Accessed 20 June 2008]
USDA, NRCS. 2009. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, 19 June 2008). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
Summary: Available from: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SEVE3 [Accessed 20 June 2008]
Veblen, Thomas T., 1975. Alien Weeds in the Tropical Highlands of Western Guatemala. Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 2, No. 1, (Mar., 1975), pp. 19-25
Villase�or, Jose L; Francisco J. Espinosa-Garcia., 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions 10 (2) , 113�123 doi:10.1111/j.1366-9516.2004.00059.x
Contact
The following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Setaria verticillata
Damalas,
Christos A.
Organization:
Department of Agricultural Development of Pieria.
Address:
Department of Agricultural Development of Pieria, 28th Octovriou 40, 60100 Katerini, Greece
Phone:
+30 2351 351 219
Fax:
+30 2351 351 111