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  • Rottboellia cochinchinensis spikelet (Photo: K Braun, Swaziland s Alien Plants Database)
  • Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Photo: K Braun, Swaziland s Alien Plants Database)
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Common name
konda panookoo (English, India), sagisi (English, Philippines), girum nagei (English, Philippines), anguigay (English, Philippines), barsali (English, India), paja peluda (English, Venezuela), capim-camalote (English, Portugal), doekoet kikisian (English, Indonesia), bandjangan (English, Indonesia), prickle grass (English), jointed grass (English), guinea-fowl grass (English), corn grass (English), bura (English, India), Raoul grass (English), dholu (English, India), kokoma grass (English), gaho (English, Philippines), bukal (English, Philippines), itchgrass (English), annarai (English, Philippines), Kelly grass (English), itch grass (English), sancarana (English, Cuba), swooate (English, India), tsunoaiashi (Japanese), herbe queue-de-rat (French), cebada fina (Spanish), rice grass (English), caminadora (Spanish), sugarcane weed (English), shamva grass (English), graminea corredora (Spanish), lisofya (English)
Synonym
Manisuris exaltata , (L. f.) Kuntze
Rottboellia exaltata , L. f., nom. illeg
Stegosia cochinchinensis , Lour
Aegilops exaltata , L.
Ophiurus appendiculatus , Steud.
Rottboellia arundinacea , Hochst. ex A. Rich
Rottboellia denudata , Steud.
Rottboellia setosa , J.S. Presl ex C.B. Presl
Stegosia exaltata , Nash
Similar species
Sorghum halepense
Summary
Rottboellia cochinchinensis is an erect annual grass that reaches heights of 4 metres. It is a weed of warm-season crops around the world, preferring tropical and subtropical climates. It grows along roadsides and in other open, well-drained sites. R. cochinchinensis is an aggressive weed, considered to be one of the 12 worst weeds that infest sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) in the world. It is also a very competitive weed with maize crops. R. cochinchinensis has irritating hairs on its stem which makes it difficult to control it manually in small-scale farms. It is tolerant to most herbicides that are applied in cotton and maize fields. Management and removal of R. cochinchinensis requires the use of many man hours and the application of several techniques to ensure control.
Species Description
The erect, profusely tillering annual grass R. cochinchinensis is characterised by pale, green-coloured foliage, brace roots near the base of the plant, a cylindrical spikelet seedhead and siliceous hairs on the leaf sheath that can penetrate and irritate the skin.\" (Strahan et al. 2000a; 2000b).
R. cochinchinensis grows up to a height of 4m or more. The inflorescence is a cylindrical raceme that is 3 - 15cm long. The floral units consist of a sessile spikelet, pedicellate spikelet and internode. The pedicel is fused to the swollen floral internode. The spikelets are awnless, 3.5 - 6mm long, and 2.5 - 3mm wide. The floral units separate and fall as soon as they mature, from the top of the raceme downwards (NAPPO, 2003).
Lifecycle Stages
Smith et al. (2001) state that in Costa Rica, \"Rottboellia cochinchinensis life cycle is synchronized with the cropping season because its seed germinates and emerges in response to soil moisture and exposure to light after tillage prior to planting (Thomas 1970b ; Thomas and Allison 1975 ). Seeds do not germinate in the dry fallow season, although in practice, senescing R. cochinchinensis plants that remain after crop harvest may continue to shed seed during the fallow season. Preventing seed-set within crops should, in theory, substantially reduce R. cochinchinensis populations, since this plant's seed bank is short lived, approximately 3 to 5 yr (Rojas et al. 1993b ).\"
Uses
Ishizuka (2001) states that, \"In a village near Lampang, in the northern part of Thailand R. cochinchinensis, injurious due to the thorns on the stems, is being tested in crop rotation as one of three crops in a large part of the village arable land. Because of its relatively fast and vigorous growth, up to 2-3m high in approximately 3 months, the weeds contribute to the retention of soil water and, in the long run, supply organic matter to soil as green manure, as the weed is flattened to the soil surface at harvest time and left there. At that time, the soil surface was covered completely by the harvested weed. It was reported that R. Cochinchinensis has also action of allelopathy. At the expense of one crop cultivation, the species of weed is deliberately seeded. This is one example of the collaboration of local traditional technologies with new ones (Suwannamek U & Chinawong S, personal communication).\"
Habitat Description
NAPPO (2003) state that, \"Rottboellia cochinchinensis is a weed of warm-season crops in a variety of habitats around the world, preferring tropical and subtropical climates. It also grows along roadsides and in other open, well-drained sites and is an important species in old field succession but it can be found in wet places, and even in shallow water. It survives in habitats with full sun, moderate shade, or nearly the full shade of thickets and forests. R. cochinchinensis is most troublesome between 800 and 1300m in elevation. Rainfall is a main limiting factor below 1300 m. Above this elevation, temperature is the main limiting factor (Holm et al. 1977).
Reproduction
Smith et al. (2001) state that, \"Rottboellia cochinchinensis seeds are stimulated to germinate by exposure to light and moisture that occurs upon sowing or tillage. Within each season, several further flushes of R. cochinchinensis seedlings may germinate and emerge, especially after soil disturbance or when there are gaps in the canopy (e.g., on weeding or herbicide application).\" Smith et al. (2001) continue that, \"R. cochinchinensis seed floats easily, and irrigation or floodwater is known to be a source of contamination for other fields (Mercado 1978 ); this is an aspect worthy of consideration for those managing R. cochinchinensis. In addition, the seed is very palatable to some birds, rodents, and insects. In studies of seed-feeding birds in the United States, 26 of 345 birds (4 out of 15 species) collected were found to have R. cochinchinensis seeds in their guts (Aison et al. 1984 ). In feeding trials, only about 0.3% of the seed survived passage through the gut. Similarly, Thomas (1970a) found that guinea fowl, mongoose, and cattle-but not smaller birds and mammals-could disperse R. cochinchinensis seed in Zimbabwe. This evidence from other regions indicates that local fauna could play a major role in destroying R. cochinchinensis seed and that they also contribute to local dispersal.\"

Principal source: Smith et al. 2001. Rottboellia cochinchinensis

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Expert review underway

Publication date: 2005-10-18

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2017) Species profile: Rottboellia cochinchinensis. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/speciesname/Rottboellia+cochinchinensis on 16-12-2017.

General Impacts
Alves (2003) state that, \"Rottboellia cochinchinensis is an aggressive weed, considered to be one of the 12 worst weeds that infest sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) in the world because it obstructs closure of crop rows when densities are above 10 plants m-2 (Holm et al. 1977 ; Mercado 1978 ). According to Cepero and Rodriguez (1983) , Millhollon (1982 , 1992 ), and Morales and Fernandes (1985) , this species is one of the main invaders of sugarcane in Argentina, Cuba, India, Hawai‘i, Mauritius, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, and the United States, where losses can reach 20 to 70%, depending on the cultivar, cutting cycle, and local ecological conditions.\" The authors continue to state that, \"The appearance and dispersal of R. cochinchinensis worries researchers and sugarcane producers in areas that do not yet have R. cochinchinensis because the weed might spread and adapt to their conditions. Because itchgrass biotypes have not been confirmed, the same kind of control is used in every region.\" \r\n

Chikoye et al. (2000) state that, \"R. cochinchinensis is a very competitive weed with crops particularly maize and it has irritating hairs on its stem which makes it difficult to control manually in small-scale farms. It is also tolerant to most herbicides that are applied in cotton and maize fields.\"\r\n

Strahan et al. (2000a) states that, \"R. cochinchinensis is a prolific seed producer with seeds that germinate throughout the growing season (Harger et al. 1980 ; Millhollon 1965 ; Pamplona and Mercado 1982 ), making it difficult to manage. The weed is very competitive, and over a 3-yr period it may reach densities that could prevent crop harvest (Harger et al. 1982 ). Although relatively shade intolerant, R. cochinchinensis has the capacity for high photosynthetic activity and growth rates when exposed to light (Patterson 1979 ). Although adapted to the tropics, R. cochinchinensis has the ability to grow, flower, and set seed under a wide range of environmental conditions, reaching 75 to 100% of its growth potential under the temperature regimes found in the Gulf Coast states, the lower Midwest, the South Atlantic states, and the Southwest (Patterson et al. 1979 ).\" Strahan et al. (2000a) states that, \"The competitiveness of R. cochinchinensis may be related to its ability to extract nutrients from soil more efficiently than Z. mays (El-Shafey et al. 1975 ).\"\r\n

Strahan et al. (2000b) states that, \" R. cochinchinensis is rated among the worst weeds in the world and is considered a serious problem in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), corn, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), upland rice (Oryza sativa L.), and other crops in tropical regions of the world (Holm et al. 1977 ). In Louisiana, R. cochinchinensis, referred to as raoulgrass, is a major weed problem in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), soybean, and corn (Millhollon 1965 ).\"

Management Info
For details on management of this species including preventative, mechanical, biological, chemical and integrated control please read our pdf file on management information.

For comprehensive information on management please see also Valverde, B. E., 2003. Progress on Rottboellia cochinchinensis management.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Rottboellia cochinchinensis
NATIVE RANGE
  • angola
  • australia
  • benin
  • botswana
  • burkina faso
  • cameroon
  • china
  • cote d'ivoire
  • equatorial guinea
  • ethiopia
  • fiji
  • gambia
  • ghana
  • guinea
  • hong kong
  • india
  • indo-china
  • indonesia
  • japan
  • kenya
  • korea, democratic people's republic of
  • korea, republic of
  • lao people's democratic republic
  • liberia
  • madagascar
  • malaysia
  • mauritius
  • mozambique
  • myanmar
  • namibia
  • nepal
  • new guinea
  • nigeria
  • philippines
  • reunion
  • senegal
  • sierra leone
  • solomon islands
  • somalia
  • south africa
  • sri lanka
  • sudan
  • taiwan
  • tanzania, united republic of
  • thailand
  • uganda
  • viet nam
  • zambia
  • zimbabwe
Informations on Rottboellia cochinchinensis has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Rottboellia cochinchinensis in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Alves (2003) state that, \"Rottboellia cochinchinensis is an aggressive weed, considered to be one of the 12 worst weeds that infest sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) in the world because it obstructs closure of crop rows when densities are above 10 plants m-2 (Holm et al. 1977 ; Mercado 1978 ). According to Cepero and Rodriguez (1983) , Millhollon (1982 , 1992 ), and Morales and Fernandes (1985) , this species is one of the main invaders of sugarcane in Argentina, Cuba, India, Hawai‘i, Mauritius, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, and the United States, where losses can reach 20 to 70%, depending on the cultivar, cutting cycle, and local ecological conditions.\" The authors continue to state that, \"The appearance and dispersal of R. cochinchinensis worries researchers and sugarcane producers in areas that do not yet have R. cochinchinensis because the weed might spread and adapt to their conditions. Because itchgrass biotypes have not been confirmed, the same kind of control is used in every region.\" \r\n

Chikoye et al. (2000) state that, \"R. cochinchinensis is a very competitive weed with crops particularly maize and it has irritating hairs on its stem which makes it difficult to control manually in small-scale farms. It is also tolerant to most herbicides that are applied in cotton and maize fields.\"\r\n

Strahan et al. (2000a) states that, \"R. cochinchinensis is a prolific seed producer with seeds that germinate throughout the growing season (Harger et al. 1980 ; Millhollon 1965 ; Pamplona and Mercado 1982 ), making it difficult to manage. The weed is very competitive, and over a 3-yr period it may reach densities that could prevent crop harvest (Harger et al. 1982 ). Although relatively shade intolerant, R. cochinchinensis has the capacity for high photosynthetic activity and growth rates when exposed to light (Patterson 1979 ). Although adapted to the tropics, R. cochinchinensis has the ability to grow, flower, and set seed under a wide range of environmental conditions, reaching 75 to 100% of its growth potential under the temperature regimes found in the Gulf Coast states, the lower Midwest, the South Atlantic states, and the Southwest (Patterson et al. 1979 ).\" Strahan et al. (2000a) states that, \"The competitiveness of R. cochinchinensis may be related to its ability to extract nutrients from soil more efficiently than Z. mays (El-Shafey et al. 1975 ).\"\r\n

Strahan et al. (2000b) states that, \" R. cochinchinensis is rated among the worst weeds in the world and is considered a serious problem in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), corn, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), upland rice (Oryza sativa L.), and other crops in tropical regions of the world (Holm et al. 1977 ). In Louisiana, R. cochinchinensis, referred to as raoulgrass, is a major weed problem in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), soybean, and corn (Millhollon 1965 ).\"

Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
Mechanism
[14] Competition
Outcomes
[1] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Reduction in native biodiversity
[13] Socio-Economic
  • [13] Damage to agriculture
Management information
For details on management of this species including preventative, mechanical, biological, chemical and integrated control please read our pdf file on management information.

For comprehensive information on management please see also Valverde, B. E., 2003. Progress on Rottboellia cochinchinensis management.

Locations
INDONESIA
MALAYSIA
PHILIPPINES
THAILAND
Management Category
Control
Unknown
Bibliography
23 references found for Rottboellia cochinchinensis

Managment information
Alves, P. L. 2003. Identification and characterization of different accessions of itchgrass (Rottboellia cochinchinensis). Weed Science 51: 177-180.
Summary: This page contains information on common names, description, habitat, propagation, native range, impacts, and control measures.
Bowen, B., K. Johnson, S. Franklin, G. Call, and M. Webber. 2002. Invasive Exotic Pest Plants in Tennesee. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science 77(2): 45-48.
Summary: This page contains information on common names, description, habitat, propagation, native range, impacts, and control measures.
Chikoye, D., V. M. Manyong, and F. Ekeleme. 2000. Characteristics of speargrass (Imperata cylindrica) dominated fields in West Africa: crops, soil properties, farmer perceptions and management strategies. Crop Protection 19: 481-487.
Summary: This page contains information on common names, description, habitat, propagation, native range, impacts, and control measures.
Ishizuka, K. 2001. Roles of the new journal. Weed Biology and Management 1: 15-19.
Summary: This page contains information on common names, description, habitat, propagation, native range, impacts, and control measures.
Kadir, J., Ahmad, A., Undated. Potential of Drechslera longirostrata As Bioherbicide For Itch grass
Summary: Available from: http://64.233.187.104/search?q=cache:D5SFElTgxuUJ:unesco.biotec.or.th/file%25207.doc+Rottboellia+cochinchinensis+protected+areas&hl=en [Accessed 10 September 2004]
NAPPO (North American Plant Protection Organization). 2003. Pest Fact Sheet: Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton. NAPPO-PRA / Grains Panel Pest Fact Sheet.
Summary: This page contains information on common names, description, habitat, propagation, native range, impacts, and control measures.
Available from: http://www.nappo.org/PRA-sheets/Rottboelliacochinchinensis.pdf [Accessed 13 August 2004]
Pallewatta, N., J.K. Reaser & A. Gutierrez (eds.). 2003. Prevention and Management of Invasive Alien Species: Proceedings of a Workshop on Forging Cooperation throughout South and Southeast Asia. Global Invasive Species Programme, Cape Town, South Africa.
PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk) 2003. Rottboellia cochinchinensis
Summary: This page contains information on native range, common names, and description.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/rottboellia_cochinchinensis.htm [Accessed 13 August 2004]
RWC-PRISM, Project and Research Information System Module., 2002. Integrated control of itchgrass, Rottboellia cochinchinensis
Summary: Available from: http://www.wisard.org/rwc/shared/asp/projectsummary.asp?Kennummer=7770 [Accessed 19 September 2004]
Smith, M. C., B. E. Valverde, and A. Merayo. 2001. Integrated management of itchgrass in a corn cropping system: modeling the effect of control tactics. Weed Science 49: 123-134.
Summary: This page contains information on common names, description, habitat, propagation, native range, impacts, and control measures.
Smith, M. C., R. H. Reeder, and M. B. Thomas. 1997. A model to determine the potential for biological control of Rottboellia cochinchinesis with the head smut Sporisorium ophiuri. Journal of Applied Ecology 34: 388-398.
Summary: This page contains information on common names, description, habitat, propagation, native range, impacts, and control measures.
Strahan, R. E., J. L. Griffin, D. B. Reynolds, and D. K. Miller. 2000a. Interference between Rottboellia cochinchinesis and Zea mays. Weed Science 48:205-211
Summary: This page contains information on common names, description, habitat, propagation, native range, impacts, and control measures.
Strahan, R. E., J. L. Griffin, D. L. Jordan, and D. K. Miller. 2000b. Influence of adjuvants on Itchgrass (Rottboellia cochinesis) control in Corn (Zea mays) with Nicosulfuron and Primosulfuron. Weed Technology 14: 66-71.
Summary: This page contains information on common names, description, habitat, propagation, native range, impacts, and control measures.
Swaziland s Alien Plants Database., Undated. Rottboellia cochinchinensis
Summary: A database of Swaziland s alien plant species.
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
General information
Centre des ressources biologiques. Plantes tropicales. INRA-CIRAD. 2007.
Summary: Available from: http://collections.antilles.inra.fr/ [Accessed 31 March 2008]
CONABIO. 2008. Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras en M�xico. Especies invasoras - Plantas. Comisi�n Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Fecha de acceso.
Summary: English:
The species list sheet for the Mexican information system on invasive species currently provides information related to Scientific names, family, group and common names, as well as habitat, status of invasion in Mexico, pathways of introduction and links to other specialised websites. Some of the higher risk species already have a direct link to the alert page. It is important to notice that these lists are constantly being updated, please refer to the main page (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), under the section Novedades for information on updates.
Invasive species - Plants is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Plantas [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Spanish:
La lista de especies del Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras de m�xico cuenta actualmente con informaci�n aceca de nombre cient�fico, familia, grupo y nombre com�n, as� como h�bitat, estado de la invasi�n en M�xico, rutas de introducci�n y ligas a otros sitios especializados. Algunas de las especies de mayor riesgo ya tienen una liga directa a la p�gina de alertas. Es importante resaltar que estas listas se encuentran en constante proceso de actualizaci�n, por favor consulte la portada (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), en la secci�n novedades, para conocer los cambios.
Especies invasoras - Plantas is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Plantas [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Conservatoire Botanique National De Mascarin (BOULLET V. coord.) 2007. - Rottboellia cochinchinensis Index de la flore vasculaire de la R�union (Trach�ophytes) : statuts, menaces et protections. - Version 2007.1
Summary: Base de donn�es sur la flore de la R�union. De nombreuses informations tr�s utiles.
Available from: http://flore.cbnm.org/index2.php?page=taxon&num=fb3a30a2e3e8abdcbf63f0aaaadb06e4 [Accessed 9 April 2008]
Fournet, J. 2002. Flore illustr�e des phan�rogames de guadeloupe et de Martinique. CIRAD-Gondwana editions.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System). 2004. Online Database Rottboellia cochinchinensis.
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=504836 [Accessed March 2005]
USDA-GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network). 2004. Rottboellia cochinchinensis. National Genetic Resources Program [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Summary: Information on common names, synonyms, and the distributional range of species.
Available from: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl?Rottboellia+cochinchinensis [Accessed 13 August 2004]
USDA-NRCS (Natural Resource Conservation Service). 2004. Rottboellia cochinchinensis. The PLANTS Database Version 3.5 [Online Database] National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA.
Summary: Available from: http://plants.usda.gov/java/nameSearch?mode=Scientific+Name&keywordquery=Rottboellia+cochinchinensis&go.x=8&go.y=10 [Accessed 13 August 2005]
Contact
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Rottboellia cochinchinensis