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Common name
Asian bush mosquito (English)
Synonym
Aedes japonicus , (Reinert, 2000)
Similar species
Ochlerotatus atropalpus, Ochlerotatus triseriatus
Summary
Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus is a mosquito native to Japan, Korea and eastern China. It has the potential to be an enzootic or epizootic vector of at least three kinds of encephalitis and may serve as a bridge vector for West Nile Virus. It breeds natural rockpools and a range of artificial containers, and is thought to have been introduced to the United States in infested automobile tyres. It is rapidly expanding its range and is now present in at least 32 states including Hawaii and two Canadian provinces.
Species Description
Ochlerotatus j. japonicus has multiple upper and lower head hairs which are arranged in a straight line. Antenna are much shorter than the head with multiple, short tufts inserted into the middle of the shaft. There are two hairs on each of abdominal sections 3 through 8. Oc. j. japonicus has patch comb scales, a siphon with an index of 2.5 and a tuft of 4 to 6 which is inserted within the pecten row; the pecten is detached. The saddle is an incomplete ring, highly spiculated at the distal margin with 2 precratal tufts (Scott & Crans, 2004).\r\n\r\n

Larvae are distinguishable from all other North American mosquitoes by it’s highly spiculated anal saddle, and the upper and lower head hairs which are multiple (tufts) and arranged in a straight line (Scott, 2010).

Notes
A previously accepted name, Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus is used by some authors in literature.
Lifecycle Stages
The lifecycle of Ochlerotatus j. japonicus is similar to that of Aedes triseriatus and is multivoltine (Scott & Crans, 2004). In general, Oc. j. japonicus has a longer active period during the warm season than most container breeding species and is more fecund (Oliver & Howard 2005). Oc. j. japonicus produces freeze and desiccation resistant eggs that can tolerate a wide range of temperature extremes (Andreadis & Wolfe, 2010). The species is very cold tolerant and in the north-eastern US larval development takes place from early March through November.
Habitat Description
Adult Ochlerotatus j. japonicus are commonly found in forested habitats, often at high elevations. Larvae of Oc. j. japonicus are commonly found in artificial and natural containers such as discarded tires, bird baths, plastic drink containers, toys, vinyl tarpaulins covering swimming pools and wood piles, rock pools, tree holes, catch basins, and rain pools. (Andreadis et al., 2001; Kim et al., 2005)\r\n\r\n

A study of larval abundance in rock pool and tyre habitats in Connecticut found that the only pools where Oc. j. japonicus did not predominate were those with water temperatures above 30°C from June to September, indicating a temperature barrier may exist for this species. Thus Oc. j. japonicus may not be able to survive in regions of the United States with relatively high summer temperatures. This is consistent with distribution of the mosquito in its native range of Japan (Andreadis & Wolfe, 2010).

Reproduction
In the United States, larvae of Ochlerotatus j. japonicus have been found at a wide range of altitudes within the Appalachian mountains, up to 1500 meters above sea level where winter temperatures can reach -18 degrees Celsius and with a wide range of other mosquito species (Bevins, 2007). In a laboratory study, Oc. j. japonicus readily oviposited an average of 115 eggs on Styrofoam blocks, with a maximum of 289 and a minimum of 3. Fecundity of Oc. j. japonicus is equal to that of Ochlerotatus atropalpus and exceeds that of Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Oliver & Howard 2005).
Nutrition
Ochlerotatus j. japonicus is a species of mosquito with an aggressive opportunistic feeding habit, taking bloodmeals from avian and mammalian hosts, including humans. Adults reared from containers with more organic debris had a larger average body size, growth, and longer wing length (Bevins, 2007).
Pathway
Ochlerotatus j. japonicus was intercepted in New Zealand in a shipment of used tires which is also the believed pathway of invasion into the United States by this species (Andreadis et al., 2001).

Principal source:
Andreadis, Theodore G.; John F. Anderson, Leonard E. Munstermann, Roger J. Wolfe, and David A. Florin., 2001. Discovery, Distribution, and Abundance of the Newly Introduced Mosquito Ochlerotatus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Connecticut, USA .
Bevins, Sarah N. 2007. Establishment of a Recently Introduced Mosquito Species Ochlerotatus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Southern Appalachians, USA.
Scott, Jamesina J.; Crans, Wayne J., 2003. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) floats for surveillance of Ochlerotatus japonicus.
Scott, Jamesina J. 2010. Ochlerotatus japonicus (Theobald). Rutgers University Entomology/Placer Mosquito. New Jersey Mosquito Control Association Incorporated.

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Theodore G. Andreadis, Center for Vector Biology & Zoonotic Diseases, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station

Publication date: 2010-06-23

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2019) Species profile: Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/speciesname/Ochlerotatus+japonicus+japonicus on 18-07-2019.

General Impacts
Ochlerotatus j. japonicus is a species of mosquito with an aggressive opportunistic feeding habit, taking bloodmeals from avian and mammalian hosts, with a preference for human blood (Molaei et al., 2009). Laboratory studies have shown Oc. j. japonicus to be an efficient vector of West Nile Virus (WNV) but its role in the natural transmission of the virus is unknown (Scott, 2010; Molaei et al., 2009). Furthermore WNV has been detected in field-collected Oc. j. japonicus is at least nine different states. It is thus very likely that this species could serve as a bridge vector of the WNV to humans. \r\n\r\n

Oc. j. japonicus is also a highly efficient vector of St. Louis encephalitis virus and a moderately efficient vector of eastern equine encephalitis and La Crosse viruses in laboratory tests. It has also been known to transmit Japanese B encephalitis to humans (Molaei et al., 2009; Andreadis et al., 2001; Sardelis et al., 2003; Sardelis et al., 2002).\r\n\r\n

Larvae of Oc. j. japonicus are highly effective competitors and can reduce populations of native mosquito populations significantly through interspecific competition for limited resources. Surveys in Connecticut in 2005 revealed that Oc. j. japonicus was the dominant species collected in all waste tyres and natural rock pool environments. Comparisons with data from previous years indicated significant decline of native species including Oc. atropalpus, Oc. triseriatus and Culex restuans.

Management Info
Preventative measures:: It is important for the general public to be informed on preventative steps that can be taken to reduce the risk of contact with mosquitoes. The following are personal protective measures that individuals can carry out to protect themselves from the transmission of disease resulting from mosquito bites: schedule outdoor activity to avoid periods of high mosquito activity (dusk to dawn), use mosquito repellents properly, use mosquito netting on baby carriages and play pens when outdoors, cover as much skin with clothing as much as possible, use and repair screens on windows and doors in homes, remove any standing water from any type of natural or artificial container near homes, and avoid camping near freshwater sources if possible (Massachusetts Department of Public Health, 2007).

Gravid traps placed at a trapping density of 44 square kilometers may be used for seasonal monitoring of Oc. j. japonicus (Falco et al., 2002). In order to avoid failure in detecting Oc. j. japonicus due to low capture rates from gravid or light traps, larvae collection should be carried out in natural and artificial habitats within the sampling area (Moberly et al., 2005). Blocks of expanded polystyrene (EPS) are a cheap alternative to CDC ovitraps for egg collection devices for container dwelling species like Oc. j. japonicus for detection and monitoring purposes (Scott & Crans 2003).

To reduce the risk of introduction of Oc. j. japonicus and other vectors, governing bodies can utilize the inspection and treatment of imported used tires and tire collection facilities, the disinfection of airline cargo holds, increase quarantine inspections, and develop sterile corridors around airports and port facilities (Larish & Savage 2005). In a study of CDC gravid trap attractants in New York state, a common lawn sod infusion using Kentucky bluegrass was found to be a better attractant for Oc. j. japonicus than that of rabbit chow infusion, both under a seven day infusion period (Lee & Kokas 2004). In a New Jersey study, infusion baited gravid traps were found to be the best method of sampling or monitoring for Oc. j. japonicus (Scott et al., 2001). Gravid traps have an increased chance of attracting mosquitos that have had a blood meal, making these traps ideal for arbovirus surveillance studies (Falco et al., 2002).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus
ALIEN RANGE
NATIVE RANGE
  • china
  • japan
  • korea, democratic people's republic of
  • korea, republic of
  • russian federation
  • taiwan
Informations on Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Ochlerotatus j. japonicus is a species of mosquito with an aggressive opportunistic feeding habit, taking bloodmeals from avian and mammalian hosts, with a preference for human blood (Molaei et al., 2009). Laboratory studies have shown Oc. j. japonicus to be an efficient vector of West Nile Virus (WNV) but its role in the natural transmission of the virus is unknown (Scott, 2010; Molaei et al., 2009). Furthermore WNV has been detected in field-collected Oc. j. japonicus is at least nine different states. It is thus very likely that this species could serve as a bridge vector of the WNV to humans. \r\n\r\n

Oc. j. japonicus is also a highly efficient vector of St. Louis encephalitis virus and a moderately efficient vector of eastern equine encephalitis and La Crosse viruses in laboratory tests. It has also been known to transmit Japanese B encephalitis to humans (Molaei et al., 2009; Andreadis et al., 2001; Sardelis et al., 2003; Sardelis et al., 2002).\r\n\r\n

Larvae of Oc. j. japonicus are highly effective competitors and can reduce populations of native mosquito populations significantly through interspecific competition for limited resources. Surveys in Connecticut in 2005 revealed that Oc. j. japonicus was the dominant species collected in all waste tyres and natural rock pool environments. Comparisons with data from previous years indicated significant decline of native species including Oc. atropalpus, Oc. triseriatus and Culex restuans.

Red List assessed species 0:
Management information
Preventative measures:: It is important for the general public to be informed on preventative steps that can be taken to reduce the risk of contact with mosquitoes. The following are personal protective measures that individuals can carry out to protect themselves from the transmission of disease resulting from mosquito bites: schedule outdoor activity to avoid periods of high mosquito activity (dusk to dawn), use mosquito repellents properly, use mosquito netting on baby carriages and play pens when outdoors, cover as much skin with clothing as much as possible, use and repair screens on windows and doors in homes, remove any standing water from any type of natural or artificial container near homes, and avoid camping near freshwater sources if possible (Massachusetts Department of Public Health, 2007).

Gravid traps placed at a trapping density of 44 square kilometers may be used for seasonal monitoring of Oc. j. japonicus (Falco et al., 2002). In order to avoid failure in detecting Oc. j. japonicus due to low capture rates from gravid or light traps, larvae collection should be carried out in natural and artificial habitats within the sampling area (Moberly et al., 2005). Blocks of expanded polystyrene (EPS) are a cheap alternative to CDC ovitraps for egg collection devices for container dwelling species like Oc. j. japonicus for detection and monitoring purposes (Scott & Crans 2003).

To reduce the risk of introduction of Oc. j. japonicus and other vectors, governing bodies can utilize the inspection and treatment of imported used tires and tire collection facilities, the disinfection of airline cargo holds, increase quarantine inspections, and develop sterile corridors around airports and port facilities (Larish & Savage 2005). In a study of CDC gravid trap attractants in New York state, a common lawn sod infusion using Kentucky bluegrass was found to be a better attractant for Oc. j. japonicus than that of rabbit chow infusion, both under a seven day infusion period (Lee & Kokas 2004). In a New Jersey study, infusion baited gravid traps were found to be the best method of sampling or monitoring for Oc. j. japonicus (Scott et al., 2001). Gravid traps have an increased chance of attracting mosquitos that have had a blood meal, making these traps ideal for arbovirus surveillance studies (Falco et al., 2002).

Locations
UNITED STATES
Management Category
Control
Bibliography
64 references found for Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus

Managment information
Eritja, Roger.; Rau�l Escosa, Javier Lucientes, Eduard Marque`s, Ricardo Molina, David Roiz & Santiago Ruiz., 2005. Worldwide invasion of vector mosquitoes: present European distribution and challenges for Spain. Biological Invasions (2005) 7: 87�97
Frampton, E.R., 2005. Pathways of Entry and Spread of Exotic Mosquitoes, With Particular Reference to Southern Saltmarsh Mosquito, Ochlerotatus camptorhynchus. Report for New Zealand Ministry of Health
Summary: Available from: http://www.hpac.govt.nz/moh.nsf/0/BE6579DAFF42F259CC256FE100082E0A/$File/pathwaysofentry.pdf [Accessed 11 March 2008]
Joy, E. James and S. Nichelle Sullivan., 2005. Occurence of tire inhabiting mosquito larvae in different geographic regions of West Virginia. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association Volume 21, Issue 4 (December 2005) pp. 380�386
Joy, James E., 2004. Larval mosquitoes in abandoned tire pile sites from West Virginia. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 20(1). March 2004. 12-17.
Kaufman, Phillip E.; Laura C. Harrington, J. Keith Waldron, and Donald A. Rutz., 2005. The importance of agricultural tire habitats for mosquitos of public health importance in New York state. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association Volume 21, Issue 2 (June 2005) pp. 171�176
Landcare Research, undated. Keys to the mosquitoes of New Zealand. Ochlerotatus (Finlaya) japonicus (Theobald, 1901)
Summary: Available from: http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/research/biocons/invertebrates/mosquitoes/Mosquitoes%20of%20New%20Zealand/html/japonicus.htm [Accessed 8 March 2008]
Lee, Joon-Hak; Kokas, John E. 2004. Field evaluation of CDC gravid trap attractants to primary West Nile virus vectors, Culex mosquitoes in New York State. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 20(3). September 2004. 248-253.
Mabbett, Terry., 2003. Insect vector-borne diseases and their control by aerial application. International Pest Control. 44(6). November-December 2002. 307-309.
Massachusetts Department of Public Health, 2007. Preventing Disease Spread By Mosquitoes. Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Bureau of Communicable Disease Control, Division of Epidemiology and Immunization.
Summary: This is an informational pamplet regarding preventing disease spread by mosquitoes for public use, produced by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health with funding from the Center for Disease Control.
Available from: http://www.mass.gov/Eeohhs2/docs/dph/cdc/arbovirus/mosquito_preventing.pdf [Accessed 7 April 2008]
Medlock, J . M.; Snow, K. R.; Leach, S., 2005. Potential transmission of West Nile virus in the British Isles: an ecological review of candidate mosquito bridge vectors. Medical & Veterinary Entomology. 19(1). March 2005. 2-21.
Mikami, Akiko; Yamashita, Nobuo., 2004. The inhibitory effects of a neem formulation on emergence of Ochlerotatus japonicus and Culex pipiens pallens Medical Entomology & Zoology. 55(3). September 2004. 237-240.
New Zealand BioSecure, 2005. Entomology Newsletter March 2005
Summary: Available from: http://www.smsl.co.nz/biosecure/NZB/Newsletters/2005/newsletter%20March%202005.pdf [Accessed 8 March 2008]
Oliver, Joanne and John J. Howard., 2005. Fecundity of Naturally Blood-Fed Ochlerotatus japonicus. Journal of Medical Entomology Volume 42, Issue 3 (May 2005) pp. 254�259
Sardelis, Michael R.; Turell, Michael J., 2001. Ochlerotatus j. japonicus in Frederick County, Maryland: Discovery, distribution, and vector competence for West Nile virus. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 17(2). June, 2001. 137-141
Scott, Jamesina J.; Crans, Scott C.; Crans, Wayne J., 2001. Use of an infusion-baited gravid trap to collect adult Ochlerotatus japonicus. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 17(2). June, 2001. 142-143.
Scott, Jamesina J.; Crans, Wayne J., 2003. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) floats for surveillance of Ochlerotatus japonicus. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 19(4). December 2003. 376-381.
Spurr, E. B. 2004. Preliminary risk assessment for the establishment of West Nile virus in New Zealand / Eric B. Spurr & Graham R. Sandlant. � Lincoln, N.Z. : Manaaki Whenua Press, 2004.
General information
Andreadis, T.G., Anderson, J.F., Munstermann, L.E. Wolfe, R.J & Florin, D.A. 2001. Discovery, distribution, and abundance of the newly introduced mosquito Ochlerotatus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Connecticut, USA. Journal of Medical Entomology 38: 774-779.
Andreadis, T.G. & Wolfe, R.J. 2010. Evidence for reduction of native mosquitoes with increased expansion of the invasive Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the northeastern United States. Journal of Medical Entomology, 47:43-52.
Andreadis, Theodore G.; John F. Anderson, Leonard E. Munstermann, Roger J. Wolfe, and David A. Florin., 2001. Discovery, Distribution, and Abundance of the Newly Introduced Mosquito Ochlerotatus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Connecticut, USA . Journal of Medical Entomology Volume 38, Issue 6 (November 2001) pp. 774�779
Armistead, J. S., Arias, J.R., Nishimura, N. & Lounibos, L.P. 2008. Interspecific larval competition between Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Northern Virginia. Journal of Medical Entomology, 45: 629-637.
Bevins, N. Sarah., 2007. Establishment and Abundance of a Recently Introduced Mosquito Species Ochlerotatus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Southern Appalachians, USA. Journal of Medical Entomology Volume 44, Issue 6 (November 2007) pp. 945�952
Burger, J.F. & Davis, H. 2008. Discovery of Ochlerotatus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern New Hampshire, U.S.A. and its subsequent increase in abundance in used tire casings. Entomological News, 119: 439-444.
Caldwell, Nathan D.; Reid R. Gerhardt, and Carl J. Jones., 2005. First collection of Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus in the state of Tennessee. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association Volume 21, Issue 3 (September 2005) pp. 322�324
Dunphy, B. M., Tucker, B.J., Peterson, M.J., Blitvich, B.J. & Bartholomay, L.C. 2009. Arrival and establishment of Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Iowa. Journal of Medical Entomology, 46:1282-1289.
Falco, Richard C.; Thomas J. Daniels, and Michael C. Slamecka., 2002. Prevalence and Distribution of Ochlerotatus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Two Counties in Southern New York State. Journal of Medical Entomology Volume 39, Issue 6 (November 2002) pp. 920�925
Fonseca, D.M., Campbell, S., Crans, W.J., Mogi, M., Miyagi, I., Toma, T., Bullians, M., Andreadis, T.G., Berry, R.L. Pajac, B., Sardelis, M. & Wilkerson, R. C. 2001. Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) a newly recognized mosquito in the USA: first analyses of genetic variation in the US and putative source populations. Journal of Medical Entomology, 38:133-146.
Fonseca, D.M., Widdel, A.K., Hutchinson, M., Spichiger, E. & Kramer, L.D. 2010. Fine-scale spatial and temporal population genetics of Aedes japonicus a new US mosquito, reveal multiple introductions. Molecular Ecology, 19:1559-1572.
Gallitano, Stephanie; Blaustein, Leon; Vonesh, James., 2005. First occurrence of Ochlerotatus japonicus in Missouri. Journal of Vector Ecology. 30(2). DEC 2005. 347-348.
Gray, Elmer W., Bruce A. Harrison, Michael L. Womack, Jerry Kerce, C. John Neely, and Ray Noblet ., 2005. Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (Theobald) in Georgia and North Carolina. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association Volume 21, Issue 2 (June 2005) pp. 144�146
Grim, D.C., B.T. Jackson and S.L. Paulson. 2007. Abundance and bionomics of Ochlerotatus j. japonicus in two counties in southwestern Virginia. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association Volume 23, Issue 3 (September 2007) pp. 259�263
Harrison, B.A., Whitt, P.B., Cope, S.E., Payne, G.R., Rankin, S.E., Bohn, L.J., Stell, F.M. & Neely, C.J. 2002. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected near the Great Dismal Swamp: new state records, notes on certain species, and a revised checklist for Virginia. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 104: 655-662.
Heung Chul Kim, Richard C. Wilkerson, James E. Pecor, Won Ja Lee, John S. Lee, Monica L. O Guinn, Terry A. Klein., 2005. New Records and Reference Collection of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) on Jeju Island, Republic of Korea. Entomological Research 35 (1) , 55�66
Holman, S. Mary., Richard, F. Darsie Jr., and Kimberly A. Foss., 2006. A checklist of the mosquitoes of Maine with new state records. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association Volume 22, Issue 2 (June 2006) pp. 327�329
Hughes, T.H., Irwin, P.M., Kaufman, A., Sage, H., Pagac Jr., B.B. & Paskewitz, S.M. 2008. First records of Aedes japonicus japonicus in Wisconsin. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 24: 583-584.
Joy, J. E., Hanna, A.A. & Kennedy, B.A. 2003. Spatial and temporal variation in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) inhabiting waste tires in Nicholas County, West Virginia. Journal of Medical Entomology, 40: 73-77.
Kutz, Frederick W.; Wade, Timothy G.; Pagac, Benedict B. 2003. A geospatial study of the potential of two exotic species of mosquitoes to impact the epidemiology of West Nile virus in Maryland. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 19(3). September 2003. 190-198.
Larish L.B, Savage H.M 2005. Introduction and establishment of Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) on the island of Hawaii: Implications for Arbovirus transmission. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association: Vol. 21, No. 3 pp. 318�321
Moberly, Steven P; Lalor, Craig; McDonough, Mollie; Foster, Brad; Estes, Adam; Bentfield, Douglas J. 2005. Discovery of an exotic Asian mosquito, Ochlerotatus japonicus, (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern Indiana Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science. 114(1). 2005. 62-64.
Molaei, G., Farajollahi, A., Scott, J.J., Gaugler, R. & Andreadis, T.G. 2009. Human bloodfeeding by the recently introduced mosquito, Aedes japonicus japonicus and public health implications. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 25(2): 210-214.
Morris, J.A., Lampman, R.L., Ballmes, G., Funes, J., Halvorsen, J. & Novak, R.J. 2007. First record of Aedes japonicus japonicus in Illinois: defining its spatial distribution and associated mosquito species. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 23(3): 243-251.
Mullen, G.R. 2005. First report of Ochlerotatus japonicus in Alabama. Alabama Vector Management Society Newsletter 15(2):2.
Neitzel, D.F., Johnson, K.A., Brogren, S. & Kemperman, M.M. 2009. First collection records of Aedes japonicus in Minnesota Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 25: 367-369.
Oliver, Joanne; Means, Robert G.; Howard, John J. 2003. Geographic distribution of Ochlerotatus japonicus in New York State. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 19(2). June 2003. 121-124.
Peyton, E.L., Campbell, S.R., Candeletti, T.M., Romanowski, M. & Crans, W. 1999. Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald), a new introduction into the United States. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 15: 238-241.
Qualls, W.A. & Mullen, G.R. 2006. Larval survey of tire-breeding mosquitoes in Alabama. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 22:601-608.
Reeves, W. K.; Korecki, J. A. 2004. Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae), a new invasive mosquito for Georgia and South Carolina. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 106(1). January 2004. 233-234.
Roppo, Monica R; Lilja, Jack L.; Maloney, Francis A; Sames, William J. 2004. First occurrence of Ochlerotatus japonicus in the state of Washington. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 20(1). March 2004. 83-84.
Saenz, L. Virna., Lee H. Townsend, Robert M Vanderpool, Mike J Schardein, Rebecca T. Trout and Grayson C. Brown., 2006. Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus in the state of Kentucky. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association Volume 22, Issue 4 (December 2006) pp. 754�755
Sames, William J. and David Pehling., 2005. Update on Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus in the state of Washington. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association Volume 21, Issue 1 (March 2005) pp. 98�99
Sardelis, Michael R.; David J. Dohm, Benedict Pagac, Richard G. Andre, and Michael J. Turell., 2002. Experimental Transmission of Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus by Ochlerotatus j. japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology Volume 39, Issue 3 (May 2002)
Sardelis, Michael R.,Michael J. Turell, and Richard G. Andre., 2002. Laboratory Transmission of La Crosse Virus by Ochlerotatus j. japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology Volume 39, Issue 4 (July 2002) pp. 635�639
Sardelis, Michael R.; Turell, Michael J.; Andre, Richard G., 2003. Experimental transmission of St. Louis encephalitis virus by Ochlerotatus j. japonicus. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 19(2). June 2003. 159-162.
Schaffner, F. Chouin, S. & Guilloteau, J. 2003. First records of Ochlerotatus (Finlaya) japonicus (Theobald, 1901) in metropolitan France. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 19:1-5.
Schaffner, F., Kaufmann, C., Hegglin, D. & Mathis, A. 2009. The invasive mosquito Aedes japonicus in Central Europe. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 23:448-451.
Scott, Jamesina J.; Carle, Frank L.; Crans, Wayne J., 2001. Ochlerotatus japonicus collected from natural rockpools in New Jersey. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 17(2). June, 2001. 91-92.
Scott, J.J. 2004. Ochlerotatus japonicus (Theobald). Rutgers University Entomology/Placer Mosquito. New Jersey Mosquito Control Association Incorporated.
Summary: This is an abbreviated fact sheet for Ochlerotatus japonicus made by the Rutgers University Department of Entomology.
Available from: http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~insects/ocjap.htm [Accessed 8 April 2008]
Thielman, Aynsley and Fiona F. Hunter ., 2006. Establishment of Ochlerotatus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Ontario, Canada. Journal of Medical Entomology Volume 43, Issue 2 (March 2006) pp. 138�142
UniProt, 2008. Taxonomy, Aedes japonicus
Summary: Available from: http://beta.uniprot.org/taxonomy/140438 [Accessed 10 March 2008]
Young, Catherine L. E.; Beery, Jesse A.; Sheffer, Robert E.; Rand, Kelly M., 2004. First record of Ochlerotatus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in St. Joseph County, Indiana. Great Lakes Entomologist. 37(3-4). FAL-WIN 2004. 196-197.
Contact
The following 4 contacts offer information an advice on Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus
Andreadis,
Theodore
Insects of medical and veterinary importance, insect pathology, microbial control of insects, mosquito biology, epidemiology of vector-borne diseases, electron microscopy, and the biology of microsporidia.
Organization:
Chief Medical Entomologist and Department Head, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station
Address:
The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, PO Box 1106, New Haven, CT 06504
Phone:
203-974-8510
Fax:
203-974-8502
Daniels,
Thomas
Organization:
Vector Ecology Laboratory. Fordham University.
Address:
Vector Ecology Lab, Louis Calder Center, Fordham University, P.O. Box 887, 53 Whippoorwill Rd., Armonk, NY 10504
Phone:
914-273-3078 ext. 22
Fax:
914-273-6346
Falco,
Richard
Organization:
Associate Research Scientist, Co-Director, Vector Ecology Laboratory
Address:
Vector Ecology Laboratory, Louis Calder Center, 53 Whippoorwill Rd., Box 887, Armonk, NY 10504
Phone:
914-273-3078 ext. 33
Fax:
914-273-6346
Scott,
Jamesina J.
Organization:
District Manager/ Research Director, Lake County Vector Control District
Address:
P.O. Box 310, 410 Esplanade, Lakeport, CA 95453
Phone:
707-263-4770
Fax:
707-263-3653
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