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Common name
Javan deer (English), cerf de Java (French), Timor deer (English), rusa deer (English), cerf rusa (French)
Similar species
Native to Indonesia, the rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) was introduced to New Caledonia and La Réunion as well as to Mauritius, Australia and New Zealand. In New Caledonia the rusa deer is present in all parts of Grande-Terre, where it represents an important threat to the exceptional endemic flora of this archipelago. Rusa deer also represent an important resource for local people (hunting, farming).
Cervus timorensis russa were introduced for hunting purposes.Introduced by acclimatisation societies.

Principal source:

Compiler: Comit� fran�ais de l'UICN (IUCN French Committee) & IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)


Publication date: 2007-05-17

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2023) Species profile: Cervus timorensis russa. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/speciesname/Cervus+timorensis+russa on 20-03-2023.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Cervus timorensis russa
  • indonesia
  • timor-leste
Informations on Cervus timorensis russa has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Cervus timorensis russa in information
Arrival date
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Red List assessed species 0:
[2] Grazing/Herbivory/Browsing
[1] Interaction with other invasive species
[5] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [2] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [1] Habitat degradation
  • [2] Modification of successional patterns
[1] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Damage to forestry
Management information
Management Category
21 references found for Cervus timorensis russa

Management information
Atti�, M. 1994. Impact du cerf de Java, Cervus timorensis russa , � la plaine des chicots et propositions de restauration du milieu. Rapport ONF/Conseil R�gional. 39pp.
Barr�, N., Bianchi, M., Chardonnet, L. 2001. Role of Rusa deer Cervus timorensis russa in the cycle of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus in New Caledonia. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 25 :79-96.
Barr�, N., Bianchi, M., de Garine-Witatitsky, M. 2002. Effect of the association of cattle and rusa deer (Cervus timorensis rusa) on the maintenance of a viable cattle tick Boophilus microplus population. Pr�sentation orale au STVM/WDA workshop, Afrique du Sud, 22-27 juillet 2001 . Edition dans Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 969: 280-289.
BirdLife International 2004. Coracina newtoni. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Summary: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species provides taxonomic, conservation status and distribution information on taxa that have been globally evaluated using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. This system is designed to determine the relative risk of extinction, and the main purpose of the IUCN Red List is to catalogue and highlight those taxa that are facing a higher risk of global extinction (i.e. those listed as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable). The IUCN Red List also includes information on taxa that are categorized as Extinct or Extinct in the Wild; on taxa that cannot be evaluated because of insufficient information (i.e. are Data Deficient); and on taxa that are either close to meeting the threatened thresholds or that would be threatened were it not for an ongoing taxon-specific conservation programme (i.e. are Near Threatened).
Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/5296/all [Accessed 23 April 2007]
Chardonnet, P 1988. Etude de la faisabilit� technique et �conomique de l �levage de cerfs en Nouvelle-Cal�donie. Maisons-Alfort CIRAD-EMVT/ADRAF: 282 pp.
De Garine-Wichatitsky, M. 2005 sous presse. Rusa deer Cervus timorensis in New Caledonia�: overview of current research and management. In Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre Workshop: What are the issues for the management of wild deer in Australia? 9-10th November 2005, Canberra, Australia.
De Garine-Wichatitsky, M., Chardonnet, P., De Garine, I. 2004. Management of introduced game species in New Caledonia�: reconciling biodiversity conservation and resource use? Game and Wildlife Science, 21 (4), 697-706.
Summary: This paper presents the technical and social challenges for the management of two invasive game species in New Caledonia : rusa deer and feral pigs
Spaggiari, J. & De Garine-Wichatitsky, M. 2006. Home range and habitat use of introduced rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in a mosaic of savannah and native sclerophyll forest of New Caledonia. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 33: 175�183
Summary: The results of this study confirm that rusa deer are likely to have a significant impact on the threatened sclerophyll forests, and they give some positive prospects for population control implemented locally.
Webley, L. S., K. R. Zenger., A. W. English and D. W. Cooper., 2004. Low levels of genetic variation within introduced Javan rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in Australia. European Journal Wildlife Research 50: 137�140
General information
Barau, A., Barr�, N., Jouanin, C. 2005. Le grand livre des oiseaux de la R�union. Edition Orphie. 207 p
Summary: The introduction of this book presents the major threats to native birds (eg: introduced species)
Barrau et Devambez. 1957. Quelques r�sultats inittendus de l acclimatation en Nouvelle-Cal�donie. Terre et Vie, 4 : 324-334.
Summary: This article describes the invasion pathway of several aliens species in New caledonia and the acclimatation and these species.
Bouchet, P., Jaffre, T., & Veillon, J.M. 1995. Plant extinction in New Caledonia: protection of sclerophyll forests urgently needed. Biodiversity & Conservation, 4, 415-428.
Summary: This article presents the threats to sclerophyll forests (land clearance, grazing by cattle or deer, and fire) and the urgency to protect the remaining biodiversity of the forests.
De Garine-Wichatitsky, M., Duncan, P., Labbe, A., Suprin, B., Chardonnet, P., & Maillard, D. 2003. A review on the diet of rusa deer Cervus timorensis rusa in New Caledonia: are the endemic plant defenceless against this introduced eruptive ruminant? Pacific Conservation Biology, 9, 136-142.
Summary: This article gives some informations on the diet of the rusa deer in New Caledonia. The impact of rusa deer on endemic plants is discussed.
De Garine-Wichatitsky, M., Soubeyran, Y., Maillard, D., & Duncan, P. 2005. The diets of introduced rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in a native sclerophyll forest and a native rainforest of New Caledonia. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 32, 117-126.
Summary: This article gives some informations on the diet of the rusa deer in a native sclerophyll forest and a native rainforest of New Caledonia
De Garine-Wichatitsky, M. & Spaggiari, J. 2005, sous presse. Alien plants in native sclerophyll forests of New Caledonia: the role of ungulate? In Atelier de travail r�gional sur les plantes envahissantes des espaces pastoraux, Kon�, Nouvelle Cal�donie.
Summary: This article gives some informations on the role of rusa deer in the dissemination of alien plants species.
Le Bel, S., Sarrailh, J., & Brescia, F. 2001. Pr�sence du Cerf rusa dans le massif de l Aoupini� en Nouvelle-Cal�donie et impact sur les reboisements en Koaris. Bois et For�ts des Tropiques, 269, 5-17.
Summary: This article gives some informations on the ecological and economical impacts of rusa deer and on their importance for local population. Some management measures are proposed.
Moulama, T. 2005. Le cerf � la Roche Ecrite. Info Nature. Bulletin de liaison de la SREPEN, p 10-12.
Summary: A newspaper article about the rusa deer at the natural reserve of Roche �crite .
Moutou, F. 1983. Introduction dans les �les: l exemple de l �le de la R�union. C.R Soc. Biog�ogr. 59 (2) : 201-211
Summary: This article presents the historic of introductions in the Reunion island
Pascal, M., Barr�, N., De Garine-Wichatitsky, Lorvelec, O., Fr�tey, T., Brescia, F., Jourdan, H. 2006. Les peuplements n�o-cal�doniens de vert�b�br�s : invasions, disparitions. Pp 111-162, in M.-L. Beauvais et al., : Les esp�ces envahissantes dans l�archipel n�o-cal�donien, Paris, IRD �ditions, 260 p.+ c�d�rom
Summary: Synth�se des introductions d esp�ces de vert�br�s en Nouvelle-Cal�donie et �valuation de leurs impacts.
Probst, J.M. 1997. Animaux de la R�union. Azal�es �ditions. 167 p.
Summary: This book describes the ecology and the biology of animals of the R�union island.
The following 3 contacts offer information an advice on Cervus timorensis russa
Geographic region: Pacific
Institut Agronomique n�o-Cal�donien.
Axe 2 Diversit�s biologique et fonctionnelle des Ecosyst�mes BP 73, 98890 Pa�ta, Nouvelle-Cal�donie (France)
(687) 437425
de Garine-Wichatitsky,
Geographic region: Pacific, southern Africa
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Centre de coop�ration internationale en recherche agronomique pour le d�veloppement
CIRAD/UR22, Integrated Wildlife Management. 37 Arcturus Road, Highlands, P.O. Box 1378, Harare, Zimbabwe
(263)4 443422
Geographic region: Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Office National des For�ts
ONF. Domaine Forestier de la Providence, 97488 Saint Denis cedex
Cervus timorensis russa
Javan deer, cerf de Java, Timor deer, rusa deer, cerf rusa
Date assessed
Year published
Eicat category
Justification for EICAT assessment
Confidence rating
Mechanism(s) of maximum impact
Countries of most severe impact
Description of impacts
Recommended citation
(2023). Cervus timorensis russa. IUCN Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (EICAT).