Global invasive species database

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Common name
wavy bittercress (English), wavy-leaved bittercress (English), woodland bittercress (English), wood bittercress (English)
Synonym
Cardamine hirsuta , ssp. flexuosa (With.)
Cardamine konaensis , (St. John)
Similar species
Cardamine fallax, Cardamine hirsuta
Summary
Woodland bittercress, Cardamine flexuosa is a highly variable perrenial herb which flowers vigourously and forms dense root mats that can exclude other species. Seeds possibly remain viable in the seed bank for up to seven years requiring intensive management for control/eradication.
Species Description
A low but upright herbaceous plant, normally shorter than 30 cm but can grow taller in marshland. Stem arises from basal rosette of leaves that have about 5 roundish stalked leaflets on each side and a larger one at the end. Stem leaves are similar but smaller and often with narrower leaflets. Flowers are always white, and normally have 6 stamens (Framer, 2002). Ripe side pods are about 12 - 25 mm long and explode when ripe, dispersing seeds up to 500 m (Varnham, 2006). Usually perrenial but can be annual or biannual depending on environmental conditions.
Notes
Cardamine flexuosa is sometimes regarded as a subspecies of Cardamine hirsuta (ITIS, 1998). Morphological resemblances are very strong and the two species are known to hybridise in the wild in Austria (Ellis & Jones, 1969).
Uses
The leaves and roots of Cardamine flexuosa can be eaten raw or cooked (Plants for a Future, 2008).
Habitat Description
Cardamine flexuosa is capable of growing in a variety of environments over a wide range of light and disturbance conditions (Kudoh et al., 1993). Capable of growing in a variety of soil types and acidities but requires it to be moist or wet. In Japan, Cardamine flexuosa is often found as an agricultural weed in paddy fields, crop fields and orchards (Kudoh et al., 1993).
Reproduction
Cardamine flexuosa is a hemaphrodite capable of self-pollination (Plants for a Future, 2008). Hundreds of small seeds are produced in small pods which explode when disturbed (Shanklin, 2006; Varnham, 2006) and can remain viable in the ground for up to 7 years (South Georgia Newsletter, 2005a).
Pathway
Cardamine flexuosa was possibly transported in stores or footwear from the Falkland Islands where it grows abundantly. Seeds are sticky when wet and can be easily spread on clothing or animals.Cardamine flexuosa was possibly introduced to King Edward Point on vehicles brought in for rebuilding in 2000.Cardamine flexuosa was possibly transported in stores or footwear from the Falkland Islands where it grows abundantly. Seeds are sticky when wet and can be easily spread on clothing or animals.

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review:

Publication date: 2010-06-02

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2017) Species profile: Cardamine flexuosa. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/speciesname/Cardamine+flexuosa on 16-12-2017.

General Impacts
Cardamine flexuosa flowers vigourously and forms dense understory root mats (South Georgia Newsletter, 2004). These could potentially alter successional processes and displace native plant species. C. flexuosa is also known as a common agricultural weed in paddy fields, crop gardens and orchards (Kudoh et al., 1993).
Management Info
Physical control: Digging out of Cardamine flexuosa appears to be the most effective form of control at present for the removal of plants and prevention or seeding (South Georgia Newsletter, 2008). Disposal of seed contaminated soils in the sea and weed matting have also been attempted, with a combination of spraying and weed matting reccomended for control on South Georgia at present (Varnham, 2006).

Chemical control: Cardamine flexuosa is resistant to many types of herbicide. A recent study indicates that Weedol2 provides the best initial results while glyphosate gives longer lasting control (Varnham, 2006). As seeds may remain viable in the seed bank for up to seven years, continued spraying may be required for long periods of time (South Georgia Newsletter, 2005a).
Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Cardamine flexuosa
NATIVE RANGE
  • albania
  • algeria
  • austria
  • belarus
  • belgium
  • bulgaria
  • czech republic
  • denmark
  • ex-yugoslavia
  • finland
  • france
  • germany
  • hungary
  • italy
  • morocco
  • netherlands
  • norway
  • poland
  • portugal
  • romania
  • spain
  • sweden
  • switzerland
  • ukraine
  • united kingdom
Informations on Cardamine flexuosa has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Cardamine flexuosa in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Cardamine flexuosa flowers vigourously and forms dense understory root mats (South Georgia Newsletter, 2004). These could potentially alter successional processes and displace native plant species. C. flexuosa is also known as a common agricultural weed in paddy fields, crop gardens and orchards (Kudoh et al., 1993).
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
JAPAN
SOUTH GEORGIA AND THE SOUTH SANDWICH ISLANDS
Mechanism
[2] Competition
Outcomes
[2] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [1] Modification of successional patterns
[1] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Damage to agriculture
Management information
Physical control: Digging out of Cardamine flexuosa appears to be the most effective form of control at present for the removal of plants and prevention or seeding (South Georgia Newsletter, 2008). Disposal of seed contaminated soils in the sea and weed matting have also been attempted, with a combination of spraying and weed matting reccomended for control on South Georgia at present (Varnham, 2006).

Chemical control: Cardamine flexuosa is resistant to many types of herbicide. A recent study indicates that Weedol2 provides the best initial results while glyphosate gives longer lasting control (Varnham, 2006). As seeds may remain viable in the seed bank for up to seven years, continued spraying may be required for long periods of time (South Georgia Newsletter, 2005a).
Locations
SOUTH GEORGIA AND THE SOUTH SANDWICH ISLANDS
Management Category
Control
Bibliography
20 references found for Cardamine flexuosa

Managment information
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands Wiki. Alien Species. This page was last modified 17:07, 19 January 2008.
Summary: Available from http://sgwiki.gs/mediawiki/index.php/Alien_species [Accessed 9 June 2010]
South Georgia Newsletter, December 2004
Summary: Available from http://www.sgisland.gs/pages/main/news17.htm [Accessed 30 March 2010]
South Georgia Newsletter, January 2008. South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands.
Summary: Available from http://www.sgisland.gs/index.php/(h)South_Georgia_Newsletter,_January_2008 [Accessed 9 June 2010]
General information
Bleeker, W., Klausmeyer, S., Peininger, M., & Deinst, M. 2008. DNA sequences identify invasive alien Cardamine at Lake Constance. Biological Conservation, 141, 692-698.
Ellis, R.P., & Jones, B.M.G. (1969). The origin of Cardamine flexuosa with evidence from morphology and geographical distribution. Watsonia, 7(2), 92-103.
Flora of China (eFlora). 2010. Cardamine flexuosa Accessed 31 March 2010.
Summary: Available from http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200009301 [Accessed 31 March 2010]
Framer, C. 2002. Skye Flora, Cardamine flexuosa. Accessed 31 March 2010.
Summary: Available from http://www.plant-identification.co.uk/skye/cruciferae/cardamine-flexuosa.htm [Accessed 31 March 2010]
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). 1998. Cardamine flexuosa
Summary: Taxonomic information for Cardamine flexuosa.
Available from http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=22795 [Accessed 30 March 2010]
Kudoh, H., Ishiguri, Y., & Kawano, S. 1993. Phenotypic variability in life history traits and phenology of field populations of Cardamine flexuosa and C. Fallax (Cruciferae) in Honshu, Japan. Plant Species Biology, 8, 7-20.
Lihova, J., Marhold, K, Kudoh, H., & Koch, M.A. 2006. Worldwide phylogeny and biogeography of Cardamine flexuosa (Brassicaceae) and its relatives. American Journal of Botany, 93, 1206-1221.
Plants for a Future database report. 2008. Cardamine flexuosa. Accessed 31 March 2010.
Summary: Available from http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Cardamine+flexuosa [Accessed 31 March 2010]
Shanklin, Jonathan., 2006. The flora of King Edward Point & Grytviken. Updated 2006 March 29
Summary: Available from http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/met/jds/natural_history/bird_island/KEP_FLORA.htm [Accessed 9 June 2010]
South Georgia Newsletter, December 2009 (2009b)
Summary: Available from http://www.sgisland.gs/index.php/%28h%29South_Georgia_Newsletter%2C_Dec_2009 [Accessed 18 May 2010]
South Georgia Newsletter, Feb 2005 (2005a)
Summary: Available from http://www.sgisland.gs/pages/main/news20.htm [Accessed 18 May 2010]
South Georgia Newsletter, March 2009 (2009a)
Summary: Available from http://www.sgisland.gs/index.php/%28h%29South_Georgia_Newsletter%2C_March_2009 [Accesssed 18 May 2010]
South Georgia Newsletter, May 2005 (2005b)
Summary: Available from http://www.sgisland.gs/pages/main/news23.htm [Accessed 18 May 2010]
Terrestrial flora of South Georgia and Antarctica
Summary: Available from http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/met/jds/baslocal/South%20Georgia.pdf [Accessed 9 June 2010]
Varnham, K. 2006 (Updated 2009). Database of non-native species occurring in UK Overseas Territories. JNCC Report 372, Peterborough, United Kingdom.
Contact
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Cardamine flexuosa