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  • Acacia farnesiana (Photo: Fagg, M., Australian National Botanic Gardens. Website: http://www.anbg.gov.au)
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Common name
cashia (English, Puerto Rico), Ellington curse (English), vaivai vakavotona (English, Fiji), aromo (Spanish, spain), ban baburi (English, Fiji), mimosa (Spanish, Spain), huisache (English, Mexico), esponjeira (Portuguese, Portugal), espino blanco (English, El Salvador), carambuco (Spanish, Spain), espino ruco (English, El Salvador), rayo (English, Puerto Rico), opoponax (English, southern United States), Westindische akazie (German), mimosa bush (English, Australia), needle bush (English, Australia), debena (English, Nauru), tekaibakoa (English, Kiribati), oki (English, Fiji), kolu (English, Hawaii), popinac (English, Guam), aroma (English, Guam), kandaroma (English, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands), popinac (English, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands), titima (English, Cook Islands), acacia jaune (French), klu (English), sweet acacia (English), huisache dulce (Spanish), Small's acacia (English), klu bush (English), cassie (French), esponja (Portuguese, Brazil)
Synonym
Mimosa farnesiana , L.
Mimosa acicularis , Poir.
Acacia minuta ,(M.Jones) Beauchamp subsp. densiflora (Alex. ex Small) Beauchamp
Mimosa indica , Pers.
Acacia indica ,(Pers.) Desv.
Mimosa farnesiana ,L.
Vachellia densiflora ,Alex. ex Small
Acacia smallii ,Isely
Mimosa acicularis ,(Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Poir.
Mimosa edulis ,(Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Poir.
Vachellia farnesiana ,(L.) Wight & Arn.forma typicaSpeg.
Vachellia farnesiana ,(L.) Wight & Arn. var. typicaSpeg.
Vachellia farnesiana ,(L.) Wight & Arn.
Mimosa pedunculata ,(Willd.) Poir.
Acacia farnesiana ,(L.) Willd. var. pedunculata(Willd.) Kuntze
Acacia pedunculata , Willd.
Acacia ferox ,M. Martens & Galeotti
Farnesia odora , Gasp.
Acacia acicularis , Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Acacia lenticellata , F.Muell.
Acacia densiflora ,(Alex. ex Small) Cory
Acacia edulis , Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Similar species
Acacia nilotica, Prosopis
Summary
Probably a native of tropical America, Acacia farnesiana was introduced to many tropical countries for its bark, gum, seed and wood. It is often planted as an ornamental or to check erosion, and is also used in the perfume industry because of its scented flowers. This thorny, deciduous shrub grows to 4m in height forming impenetrable thickets or sometimes a more open cover and prefers dry habitats between sea level and 1000 m. In Australia it occurs along watercourses on rangeland and farmland limiting access to water. It has also become an invasive species in Fiji, French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu.
Species Description
\"This thorny, deciduous shrub grows to 4 metres in height, sometimes forming impenetrable thickets, although in most areas it forms a more open cover\" (Smith, 1985. In PIER, 2002). \"Erect much-branched shrub; leaves with 4-8 pairs of pinnae, pinnae with 10-12 pairs of small asymmetric leaflets ; stipular thorns straight and slender; flowers in pedunculate axillary heads, 1-3 heads together, subglobose; flowers yellow, fragrant; heads about 1-1,5cm across; stamens numerous; pods dark brown or black, up to 8cm long, to 12mm broad, plump, often slightly curved; pulp within sweetish; seeds compressed, elliptic, brown\" (Stone, 1970, in PIER, 2003) (differences according to Paiva, 1999).
Notes
In Hawaii Acacia farnesiana was formerly cultivated for an attempted perfume industry. It is now naturalised and common, sometimes becoming a pest in dry, open, disturbed areas, 2-400m (Wagner et al., 1999. In PIER, 2002). Although the aerial portions of the plant may be killed by fire, it soon regenerates from basal shoots, (Smith, 1985. In PIER, 2002). In Spain Acacia farnesiana is naturalised in rocky, poor soils (Paiva, 1999)
Uses
A tree of economic importance in South and East Africa, Rhodesia, India and the Rio Grande do Sul area of South America (Duke, 1983). The bark and the pods are a source of tannin and are used for tanning and dying leather (University of Connecticut, 2003). The flowers provide a fragrant essential oil which is used in the perfume industry as a violet scent substitute (Le Hou'erou, 2002). A gummy substance obtained from the pods is used in Java as cement for broken crockery. Other parts of the plant are used as an ingredient in the Ivory Coast for arrow poison (University of Connecticut, 2003). Trees add nitrogen and organic material, which improve the soil and are sometimes used for erosion control on poor sloping soils unsuitable for agriculture (Duke, 1983). Products are often used in folk medicine as styptics or astringents (Duke, 1983). In India and some African countries the pods are used as substitute for tamarind Tamarindus indica L. (Paiva, 1999). Cultivated in S.W. Europe for ornamental purposes and for perfumery industry (Tutin et al, 1992).
Habitat Description
Acacia farnesiana thrives in dry localities and on loamy or sandy soils where it may serve as a sand binder (ranging from warm temperate dry through tropical desert to moist forest life zones, Acacia farnesiana is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 6.4 – 40.3 dm (a mean of 20 cases is 14.0 dm), annual mean temperature of 14.7–27.8°C (mean of 20 cases = 24.1°C), and pH of 5.0–8.0 (mean of 15 cases = 6.8) (Duke, 1983). Dry habitats between sea level and 1000m (PIER, 2002). Smith (1985 In PIER, 2002) reports that\r\nalthough the aerial portions may be killed by fire, this plant soon regenerates from basal shoots.
Reproduction
It is a prolific seed producer (Scifres, 1974). The seeds readily germinate after soil disturbance and plants grow rapidly (Mutz et al., 1978, Land Protection, 2001). Seeds are dispersed by ungulates which eat the pods (PIER, 2002).
Nutrition
Acacia farnesiana can fix atmospheric nitrogen through symbiotic relation with Rhizobium allowing growth in nitrogen poor soils. Thrives on poor, dry soils but favours deeper, moister, more fertile soils (Duke, 1983).
Pathway
In Hawaii, formerly cultivated for an attempted perfume industry (Wagner et al., 1999. In PIER, 2002)

Principal source: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk, (PIER, 2002) Acacia farnesiana

Compiler: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Dr. H�lia Marchante. Escola Superior Agr�ria de Coimbra Departamento de Ci�ncias Exactas e Ambiente Sector de Biologia e Ecologia, Bencanta. 3040-316 Coimbra Portugal.

Publication date: 2006-03-23

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2017) Species profile: Acacia farnesiana. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/speciesname/Acacia+farnesiana on 16-12-2017.

General Impacts
Acacia farnesiana can spread readily and grow quickly, (Land Protection, 2001). As it often forms thorny thickets along some watercourses in Australia, it can be a considerable nuisance during mustering and can also hinder access to water (Land Protection, 2001). While access is less of a problem in areas where cattle graze on the mimosa, they readily eat the nutritious seed pods assisting its spread.
Management Info
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Acacia farnesiana for Hawai‘i and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The alien plant screening system is derived from Pheloung et al. (1999) with minor modifications for use in Pacific islands (Daehler et al. 2004). The result is a score of 14 and a recommendation of: \"Likely to cause significant ecological or economic harm in Hawai‘i and on other Pacific Islands as \r\ndetermined by a high WRA score, which is based on published sources describing species biology and behaviour in Hawai‘i and/or other parts of the world.\"

Physical: \"Destroyed by cultivation and grubbing\" (Swarbrick, 1997. In PIER, 2002). Although the aerial portions may be killed by fire, it soon \r\r\nregenerates from basal shoots\"\" (Smith, 1985). Once established, the seedlings grow rapidly and resprout readily following damage or top removal. Acacia \r\r\nfarnesiana sprouts may grow to almost half their original total plant height within 5 months after shredding (Powell et al., 1972). Thus, mechanical top \r\r\nremoval results in only short-term suppression of A. farnesiana (Mutz et al. 1978) and gives the species competitive advantage over associated, slower \r\r\ngrowing woody plants. Almost pure, dense stands of A. farnesiana may develop within two to three growing seasons following brush control methods that \rdisturb the soil.\r\n

Chemical: Probably susceptible to translocated herbicides, including picloram, metsulfuorn-methyl, glyphosate and triclopyr, and possibly 2,4-D applied to the foliage, freshly cut stumps or by stem injection at standard rates.
Also probably susceptible to residual herbicides, including tebuthiuron and hexazinone (Swarbrick, 1997 in PIER, 2002). \"Sensitive to foliar applications of triclopyr at 1 lb/acre and metsulfuron at 0.45 oz/a and to basal bark applications of 2,4-D or triclopyr at 2% in diesel. Drizzle applications were not effective in foliar and basal bark trials at Kihei, Maui, but these trials were confounded by a severe drought\" (Motooka et al. 2002. In PIER, 2002).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Acacia farnesiana
NATIVE RANGE
  • belize
  • bolivia
  • brazil
  • central america
  • colombia
  • costa rica
  • cuba
  • el salvador
  • french guiana
  • georgia
  • guatemala
  • guyana
  • honduras
  • mexico
  • netherlands antilles
  • nicaragua
  • panama
  • peru
  • saint kitts and nevis
  • saint lucia
  • saint vincent and the grenadines
  • suriname
  • tropical america
  • united states
  • venezuela
  • virgin islands, u.s.
Informations on Acacia farnesiana has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Acacia farnesiana in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Acacia farnesiana can spread readily and grow quickly, (Land Protection, 2001). As it often forms thorny thickets along some watercourses in Australia, it can be a considerable nuisance during mustering and can also hinder access to water (Land Protection, 2001). While access is less of a problem in areas where cattle graze on the mimosa, they readily eat the nutritious seed pods assisting its spread.
Red List assessed species 0:
Management information
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Acacia farnesiana for Hawai‘i and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The alien plant screening system is derived from Pheloung et al. (1999) with minor modifications for use in Pacific islands (Daehler et al. 2004). The result is a score of 14 and a recommendation of: \"Likely to cause significant ecological or economic harm in Hawai‘i and on other Pacific Islands as \r\ndetermined by a high WRA score, which is based on published sources describing species biology and behaviour in Hawai‘i and/or other parts of the world.\"

Physical: \"Destroyed by cultivation and grubbing\" (Swarbrick, 1997. In PIER, 2002). Although the aerial portions may be killed by fire, it soon \r\r\nregenerates from basal shoots\"\" (Smith, 1985). Once established, the seedlings grow rapidly and resprout readily following damage or top removal. Acacia \r\r\nfarnesiana sprouts may grow to almost half their original total plant height within 5 months after shredding (Powell et al., 1972). Thus, mechanical top \r\r\nremoval results in only short-term suppression of A. farnesiana (Mutz et al. 1978) and gives the species competitive advantage over associated, slower \r\r\ngrowing woody plants. Almost pure, dense stands of A. farnesiana may develop within two to three growing seasons following brush control methods that \rdisturb the soil.\r\n

Chemical: Probably susceptible to translocated herbicides, including picloram, metsulfuorn-methyl, glyphosate and triclopyr, and possibly 2,4-D applied to the foliage, freshly cut stumps or by stem injection at standard rates.
Also probably susceptible to residual herbicides, including tebuthiuron and hexazinone (Swarbrick, 1997 in PIER, 2002). \"Sensitive to foliar applications of triclopyr at 1 lb/acre and metsulfuron at 0.45 oz/a and to basal bark applications of 2,4-D or triclopyr at 2% in diesel. Drizzle applications were not effective in foliar and basal bark trials at Kihei, Maui, but these trials were confounded by a severe drought\" (Motooka et al. 2002. In PIER, 2002).

Management Category
Prevention
Control
Unknown
Bibliography
30 references found for Acacia farnesiana

Managment information
Ar�valo, Jos� Ram�n; Leila Afonso; Agust�n Naranjo and Marcos Salas, 2010. Invasion of the Gran Canaria ravines ecosystems (Canary Islands) by the exotic species Acacia farnesiana. Plant Ecology. Volume 1 / 1948 - Volume 210 / 2010
Bontrager, O.E., Scifres, C.J. and Drawe, D.L. 1979. Huisache Control by Power Grubbing. Journal of Range Management, 32(3): 185-188.
Summary: Management information by Power Grubbing.
Available from: http://jrm.library.arizona.edu/data/1979/323/6bont.pdf [Accessed 10 October 2002].
Daehler, C.C; Denslow, J.S; Ansari, S and Huang-Chi, K., 2004. A Risk-Assessment System for Screening Out Invasive Pest Plants from Hawaii and Other Pacific Islands. Conservation Biology Volume 18 Issue 2 Page 360.
Summary: A study on the use of a screening system to assess proposed plant introductions to Hawaii or other Pacific Islands and to identify high-risk species used in horticulture and forestry which would greatly reduce future pest-plant problems and allow entry of most nonpests.
Land Protection, 2001. pest series Mimosa bush (Acacia farnesiana). The State of Queensland, Department of Natural Resources and Mines, June 2001.
Le Hou�rou. Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. Grassland Index. UN FAO.
Summary: Drawings, description, common names, habitat, soil, propagation, distribution, crop management, products and uses, links, references, photos.
Available from: http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/Gbase/DATA/Pf000113.HTM [Accessed on 10 October 2002].
Motooka, P., L. Castro, D. Nelson, G. Nagai and L. Ching . 2002. Weeds of pastures and natural areas of Hawaii and their management. In press.
Rasmussen, G.A., Scifres, C.J. and Drawe, D.L. 1983. Huisache Growth, Burning Quality, and Use Browse Following. Journal of Range Management 36(3): 337:342.
Summary: Huisache Growth, Burning Quality, and Use Browse Following.
Available from: http://jrm.library.arizona.edu/data/1983/363/15rasm.pdf [Accessed 10 October 2002].
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
General information
Barthelat, F. 2005. Note sur les esp�ces exotiques envahissantes � Mayotte. Direction de l�Agriculture et de la For�t. 30p
Summary: Tableau synth�tique des plantes exotiques de Mayotte class�es en fonction de leur niveau d envahissement.
Chihuahuan Desert website, 2002. Sweet Acacia (Acacia farnesiana).
Summary: Includes common names and scientific names, plus distribution.
Available from: http://nasa.utep.edu/chih/gardens/plants/acaciafarn.htm [Accessed 27 November 2002].
Conservatoire Botanique National De Mascarin (BOULLET V. coord.) 2007. - Acacia farnesiana Index de la flore vasculaire de la R�union (Trach�ophytes) : statuts, menaces et protections. - Version 2007.1
Summary: Base de donn�es sur la flore de la R�union. De nombreuses informations tr�s utiles.
Available from: http://flore.cbnm.org/index2.php?page=taxon&num=6c8349cc7260ae62e3b1396831a8398f [Accessed 28 March 2008]
Deyrup, M., Davis, L. and Cover, S. 2000. Exotic ants in Florida. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 126: 293-326.
Summary: More than 50 species of exotic ants have established breeding populations in Florida. This is the largest exotic ant fauna of any U.S. state. An annotated list of species (including distribution, origin, and pest status) includes 4 new records for the U.S.
Duke, James A. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. Unpublished. Acacia mearnsii. Center for New Crops & Plant Products, Purdue University.
Summary: Uses, Folk Medicine, Chemistry, Description, Germplasm, Distribution, Ecology, Cultivation, Harvesting, Yields and Economics, Energy, Biotic Factors, References.
Available from: http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Acacia_mearnsii.html [Accessed 10 October 2002].
Fernald, H. T. 1947. The little fire ant as a house pest. J. Econ. Entomol. 40: 428.
Florence J. Chevillotte H. Ollier C.& Meyer J.-Y. 2007. Acacia farnesiana Base de donn�es botaniques Nadeaud de l Herbier de la Polyn�sie fran�aise (PAP).
Summary: Base de donn�es sur le flore de Polyn�sie Fran�aise.
Available from: http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf/Selection_Taxonomie.php?id_tax=2445 [Accessed 26 March 2008]
Franco, J.A. 1943. Dendrologia Florestal. Lisboa.
Summary: Dendrology book of species present in Portugal.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2004. Online Database Acacia farnesiana
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=26427 [Accessed December 31 2004]
Meyer, J.-Y. 2007. Conservation des for�ts naturelles et gestion des aires prot�g�es en Polyn�sie fran�aise. Bois et for�ts des tropiques, 291 (1), 25-30.
Meyer, J.-Y., Loope, L., Sheppard, A., Munzinger, J., Jaffre, T. 2006. Les plantes envahissantes et potentiellement envahissantes dans l archipel n�o-cal�donien : premi�re �valuation et recommandations de gestion. in M.-L. Beauvais et al. (2006) : Les esp�ces envahissantes dans l�archipel n�o-cal�donien, Paris, IRD �ditions, 260 p.+ c�d�rom.
Summary: Synth�se sur les plantes exotiques envahissantes et potentiellement envahissantes en Nouvelle-Cal�donie. Des recommandations de gestion sont �galement propos�es.
Mutz, J.L., Scifres, C.J., Drawe, D.L., Box,T.W. and Whitson, R.E. 1978. Range vegetation after mechanical brush treatments on the Coastal Prairie. Texas Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 1191.
Paiva, J. 1999. Acacia. In Talavera, S. Aedo, C, Castroviejo, S, Romero Zarco, C, S�ez, L, Salgueiro, F.J & Velayos, (ed). Flora Iberica - Plantas Vasculares de la Pen�nsula Ib�rica e Islas Baleares. Vol.VII(I). Leguminosae. Real Jard�n Bot�nico, CSIS. Madrid. ISBN 84-00-06221-3. pp. 11- 25.
Summary: Flora of Iberian Peninsula.
Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC). Research Branch of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.
Summary: Available from: http://pgrc3.agr.ca/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?844 [Accessed 14 December, 2003].
Scifres, C.J. 1974. Salient aspects of huisache seed germination. Southw. Natur. 18:383-392.
Tassin, J., Rivi�re, J.N., Cazanove, M., Bruzzeses, E. 2006. Ranking of invasive woody plant species for management on r�union Island. Weed research 46, 388-403
Summary: L inventaire de 318 esp�ces de plantes ligneuses introduites � la R�union, permet d en identifier 132 comme naturalis�es dans les �cosyst�mes naturels. 26 de ces esp�ces choisies parmi les plus envahissantes ont �t� class�es en fonction de leur impact biologique sur les �cosyst�mes indig�nes.
University of Connecticut. Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. Ecology & Evolutionary Biology Conservatory.
Summary: Common Names, Habitat, Description, Uses, Classification.
Available from: http://florawww.eeb.uconn.edu/acc_num/198500174.html [Accessed on 07 January 2003].
USDA-NRCS (Natural Resource Conservation Service). 2005. Acacia farnesiana. The PLANTS Database Version 3.5 [Online Database] National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA.
Summary: Available from: http://plants.usda.gov/java/nameSearch?mode=Scientific+Name&keywordquery=Acacia+farnesiana [Accessed 12 March 2006].
Contact
The following 4 contacts offer information an advice on Acacia farnesiana
Barthelat,
Fabien
Organization:
Assistant Technique Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature Initiative Cara�bes
Address:
C/O Parc National de Guadeloupe Habitation Beausoleil, Mont�ran 97120 Saint-Claude, Guadeloupe
Phone:
(+590) (0)590 80 86 00
Fax:
(+590) (0)590 80 05 46
Marchante,
Prof. Adjunta H�lia
Conservation of coastal zones, invasive Acacia spp in Portugal.
Webpage
Organization:
Departamento de Ci�ncias Exactas e do Ambiente
Address:
Sector de Biologia e Ecologia Escola Superior Agr�ria de Coimbra Bencanta 3040-316 Coimbra Portugal
Phone:
00351239802940
Fax:
00351239802979
Meyer,
Jean-Yves
Geographic region: Pacific, Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Expert in the botany of French Polynesia and the Pacific Islands, and has worked on ecology and biological control of Miconia calvescens in French Polynesia.
Organization:
D�l�gation � la Recherche
Address:
D�l�gation � la Recherche, Gouvernement de Polyn�sie fran�aise. B.P. 20981, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, Polyn�sie fran�aise
Phone:
689 47 25 60
Fax:
Tassin,
Jacques
Geographic region: Indian Ocean, Pacific
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Centre de coop�ration internationale en recherche agronomique pour le d�veloppement
Address:
CIRAD TA 10 / D Campus International de Baillarguet 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5 France
Phone:
+33 4 67 59 38 22
Fax: