Global invasive species database

  • General
  • Distribution
  • Impact
  • Management
  • Bibliography
  • Contact
Common name
erythrina gall wasp (EGW) (English), erythrina gall wasp (English)
Synonym
Similar species
Summary
Unusual growths, caused by the Erythrina gall wasp (Quadrastichus erythrinae), on leaves and young shoots of coral trees (Erythrina spp). alerts to the presence of this emerging invasive species. Q. erythrinae measures a mere 1.5mm and may be spread easily via infected leaves from infected Erythrina specimens.
Species Description
Female: Length 1.45–1.6 mm. Dark brown with yellow markings. Head yellow, except gena posteriorly brown. Antenna pale brown except scape posteriorly pale. Pronotum dark brown. The mid lobe of mesoscutum with a ‘‘V’’ shaped or inverted triangular dark brown area from anterior margin, the remainder yellow. Scapula yellow. Scutellum, axilla and dorsellum brown to light brown. Propodeum dark brown. Gaster brown. Fore and hind coxae brown. Mid coxa almost pale. Femora mostly brown to light brown. Specimens from Mauritius are generally darker than those from Singapore. Oviposter sheath not protruding, short in dorsal view (Kim Delvare and La Salle 2004).
Male. Length 1.0–1.15 mm. Pale coloration white to pale yellow as opposed to yellow in female. Head and antenna pale. Pronotum dark brown (but in lateral view, only upper half dark brown; lower half yellow to white). Scutellum and dorsellum pale brown. Axilla pale. Propodeum dark brown. Gaster in anterior half pale; remainder dark brown. Legs all pale. Antenna with 4 funicular segments; without the whorl of setae; F1 distinctly shorter than the other segments and slightly transverse; about 1.4 wider than long. Ventral plaque extending 0.4– 0.5 length of scape and placed in apical half. Gaster shorter than female. Genitalia elongate, with digitus about 0.4 length of the long, exserted aedagus (Kim Delvare and La Salle 2004).
Lifecycle Stages
Studies conducted by the Hawai'i Department of Agriculture (HDOA) on Erythrina gall wasp indicate a life cycle (egg to adult) of about 20 days. A one-day old female wasp contains about 60 mature eggs in its ovaries. The adult female wasp exhibited a preference for depositing eggs in very young terminal leaves and stems, but not mature leaves. Adult wasps not given any food survived less than 3 days (males - 2.5 days, females - 2.9 days) while those provided with honey lived longer (males - 10.3 days, females - 6.1 days). The sex ratio of emerging wasps in lab-infested plants was 7 males to 1 female (Heu et al. 2006).
Habitat Description
The Erythrina gall wasp infests Erythrina species, of which there are approximately 110 in tropical regions around the world. Erythrina are used as ornamentals, ‘living fences’, and nitrogen-fixing components of agroforestry systems.
Reproduction
A single female Erythrina gall wasp carries on average approximately 320 eggs (Yang et al. 2004).
Pathway
Boats carrying fallen infested leaves raise the risk of spreading Erythrina gall wasp (Quadrastichus erythrinae) (SPC 2006).

Principal source:

Compiler: Major update underway: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Gene-Sheng Tung Forest Protection Division, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC

Publication date: 2010-02-26

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Quadrastichus erythrinae. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=965 on 27-08-2016.

General Impacts
Like other gall-forming eulophid wasps, the Erythrina gall wasp inserts its eggs inside young leaf and stem tissue. The wasp larvae, which develop within plant tissue, induce the formation of galls in the leaflets and petioles. As the infestation progresses, leaves curl and appear deformed while petioles and shoots become swollen. After feeding is complete, larvae pupate within the leaf and stem tissue. After pupation within the galls, adult wasps emerge after cutting exit holes through to the outside. Heavily galled leaves and stems result in a loss of growth and vigour. Severe infestations can cause defoliation and death of trees (Yang et al. 2004; Heu et al. 2006).

The Erythrina gall wasp infests Erythrina spp. of which there are approximately 110 mostly in tropical regions around the world. (Kim et al. 2004). Erythrina spp. are also known as coral trees and have a variety of functions in different locations. In Taiwan they are highly associated with farming and fishing activities (Yang et al. 2004). As indicated by its Latin name \"erythros\" meaning red, its obvious red flowers have been used as a sign of the arrival of spring and as a working calendar by tribal peoples (Yang et al. 2004). Specifically, the blooming of its showy red flowers serves as a signal to the coastal people to begin their ceremonies for catching flying fish, and for the Puyama people to plant sweet potatoes (Yang et al. 2004).

In Hawai'i the Erythrina gall wasp infests coral trees, Erythrina variegata, E. crista-galli and the native E. sandwicensis (Heu et al. 2006). E. sandwicensis, known as the wiliwili tree, is endemic to Hawai'i and a “keystone species in Hawai'i's lowland dry forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems in the world.” For a closer look at the threat posed by the Erythrina gall wasp to the native Hawai'i wiliwili, please see Wiliwili on Maui: threatened by the Erythrina gall wasp . Control of the spread of Erythrina gall wasp in Hawai'i was predicted to cost over $1 million in 2008 (Brannon, 2007).

The Erythrina gall wasp has caused approximately 95% mortality of Erythrina endemic to Hawai'i (E. sandwicensis and E. variegate ) over 2 years (Medeiros, 2008, personal communication, 28 Nov). The Erythrina gall wasp, although thought to be native to Africa (Gates & Delvare, 2008), has been identified as a threat to Erythrina trees in Latin America, Asia, Africa, and Oceania (including the Pacific) (Messing, 2008; Li et al. 2006).

Management Info
Section being updated
Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Quadrastichus erythrinae
Informations on Quadrastichus erythrinae has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Quadrastichus erythrinae in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Like other gall-forming eulophid wasps, the Erythrina gall wasp inserts its eggs inside young leaf and stem tissue. The wasp larvae, which develop within plant tissue, induce the formation of galls in the leaflets and petioles. As the infestation progresses, leaves curl and appear deformed while petioles and shoots become swollen. After feeding is complete, larvae pupate within the leaf and stem tissue. After pupation within the galls, adult wasps emerge after cutting exit holes through to the outside. Heavily galled leaves and stems result in a loss of growth and vigour. Severe infestations can cause defoliation and death of trees (Yang et al. 2004; Heu et al. 2006).

The Erythrina gall wasp infests Erythrina spp. of which there are approximately 110 mostly in tropical regions around the world. (Kim et al. 2004). Erythrina spp. are also known as coral trees and have a variety of functions in different locations. In Taiwan they are highly associated with farming and fishing activities (Yang et al. 2004). As indicated by its Latin name \"erythros\" meaning red, its obvious red flowers have been used as a sign of the arrival of spring and as a working calendar by tribal peoples (Yang et al. 2004). Specifically, the blooming of its showy red flowers serves as a signal to the coastal people to begin their ceremonies for catching flying fish, and for the Puyama people to plant sweet potatoes (Yang et al. 2004).

In Hawai'i the Erythrina gall wasp infests coral trees, Erythrina variegata, E. crista-galli and the native E. sandwicensis (Heu et al. 2006). E. sandwicensis, known as the wiliwili tree, is endemic to Hawai'i and a “keystone species in Hawai'i's lowland dry forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems in the world.” For a closer look at the threat posed by the Erythrina gall wasp to the native Hawai'i wiliwili, please see Wiliwili on Maui: threatened by the Erythrina gall wasp . Control of the spread of Erythrina gall wasp in Hawai'i was predicted to cost over $1 million in 2008 (Brannon, 2007).

The Erythrina gall wasp has caused approximately 95% mortality of Erythrina endemic to Hawai'i (E. sandwicensis and E. variegate ) over 2 years (Medeiros, 2008, personal communication, 28 Nov). The Erythrina gall wasp, although thought to be native to Africa (Gates & Delvare, 2008), has been identified as a threat to Erythrina trees in Latin America, Asia, Africa, and Oceania (including the Pacific) (Messing, 2008; Li et al. 2006).

Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
AMERICAN SAMOA
CHINA
INDIA
MAURITIUS
PHILIPPINES
REUNION
SINGAPORE
TAIWAN
UNITED STATES
Mechanism
[9] Parasitism
Outcomes
[4] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [4] Reduction in native biodiversity
[3] Environmental Species - Population
  • [3] Plant/animal health
Management information
Section being updated
Locations
JAPAN
Management Category
None
Bibliography
29 references found for Quadrastichus erythrinae

Managment information
Fischer, J. B.; Strom, B. L.; Smith, S. L., 2009. Evaluation of a commercially available ELISA kit for quantifying imidacloprid residues in Erythrina sandwicensis leaves for management of the Erythrina gall wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim. Pan-Pacific Entomologist. 85(2). APR 2009. 99-103.
Gates, M. & Delvare, G. 2008. A new species of Eurytoma (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) attacking Quadrastichus spp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) galling Erythrina spp. (Fabaceae), with a summary of African Eurytoma biology and species checklist. Zootaxa 1751: 1�24.
Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project (HEAR), 2006. Species Info Quadrastichus erythrinae (Eulophidae)
Summary: The mission of the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR) is to provide technology, methods, and information to decision-makers, resource managers, and the general public to help support effective science-based management of harmful non-native species in Hawaii and the Pacific. HEAR is available from http://www.hear.org/
This page is available from: http://www.hear.org/species/quadrastichus_erythrinae/
Heu, R.A., Tsuda, D.M., Nagamine, W.T., Yalemar, J.A. and Suh, T.H. 2006. Erythrina gall wasp Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), New Pest Advisory. Department of Agriculture: Manoa (Hawaii).
Kanai, Kenichi; Matsuhira, Kunihiko; Uechi, Nami; Yukawa, Junichi, 2008. Invasion of the Amami Islands, Kagoshima, Japan by Quadrastichus erythrinae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology & Zoology. 52(3). 2008. 151-154.
Rubinoff, Daniel; Holland, Brenden S.; Shibata, Alexandra; Messing, Russell H.; Wright, Mark G., 2010. Rapid Invasion Despite Lack of Genetic Variation in the Erythrina Gall Wasp (Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim). Pacific Science. 64(1). JAN 2010. 23-31.
Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC), 2006. Erythrina Gall Wasp (Quadrastichus erythinae), in American Samoa. 2006. Pest Alert. Plant Protection Service, Secretariat of the Pacific Community.
Summary: English language version available from: http://www.spc.int/pps/PestAlerts/PestAlertNo35_EGwasp.pdf; French language version: http://www.spc.int/pps/PestAlerts/PestAlertNo35_EGwasp_French.pdf [Accessed 2 August 2010]
Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) Pest Focus - February 2006 Erythrina gall wasp (Quadrastichus erythrinae)
Walker, K. 2007. Erythrina gall wasp (Quadrastichus erythrinae) Pest and Diseases Image Library.
Summary: PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) is a Commonwealth Government initiative, developed and built by Museum Victoria s Online Publishing Team, with support provided by DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry) and PHA (Plant Health Australia), a non-profit public company. Project partners also include Museum Victoria, the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and the Queensland University of Technology.
The aim of the project is: 1) Production of high quality images showing primarily exotic targeted organisms of plant health concern to Australia. 2)Assist with plant health diagnostics in all areas, from initial to high level. 3) Capacity building for diagnostics in plant health, including linkage developments between training and research organisations. 4)Create and use educational tools for training undergraduates/postgraduates. 5) Engender public awareness about plant health concerns in Australia. PaDIL is available from : http://www.padil.gov.au/aboutOverview.aspx, this page is available from: http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=989 [Accessed 10 November 2007]
Wang Yan-Ping; Wen Jun-Bao, 2006. Potential risk assessment of a new invasive pest, Quadrastichus erythrinae, to the mainland of China . Chinese Bulletin of Entomology. 43(3). MAY 2006. 364-367.
Xu, T., Christopher M. Jacobsen, Arnold H. Hara, Ji Lia and Qing X Lic, 2008. Efficacy of systemic insecticides on the gall wasp Quadrastichus erythrinae in wiliwili trees (Erythrina spp.). Pest Management Science 65(2): pp. 163 - 169.
General information
Gerlach, J.; Madl, M., 2007. Notes on Erythrina variegata (LINNAEUS 1754) (Rosopsida : Fabaceae) and Quadrastichus erythrinae kim 2004 (Hymenoptera : chalcidoidea : Eulophidae) in Seychelles. Linzer Biologische Beitraege. 39(1). JUL 2007. 79-82.
Hurley, T. 2005. Tiny wasp may kill off native trees, Hawaii Advertiser.
Jiao Yi; Chen Zhi-lin; Yu Dao-jian; Kang Lin; Yang Wei-dong, 2006. A new record genus and new record species of Eulophidae (Hymenoptera) in continental China . Entomotaxonomia. 28(1). MAR 2006. 69-74.
Jiao Yi; Chen Zhi-Lin; Yu Dao-Jian; Kang Lin; Yang Wei-Dong; Chen Zhi-Nan; Chen Xiao-Ying, 2007. Bionomics of the erythrina gall wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim (Hymenoptera : Eulophidae) Acta Entomologica Sinica. 50(1). JAN 20 2007. 46-50.
Kim, I., Delvare, G. and La Salle, J. 2004. A new Species of Quadrastichus (Hymenoptera: Euphidae): A Gall-Inducing Pest on Erythrina (Fabaceae), J. HYM. RES. 13(2): 243-249.
Kore, Basavaraj, 2006. Erythrina gall wasp Quadrastichus erythrinae. Current Science (Bangalore). 91(1). JUL 10 2006. 8.
Messing, R. H., Sandra Noser and Josef Hunkeler, 2008. Using host plant relationships to help determine origins of the invasive Erythrina gall wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Biological Invasions. Volume 11, Number 10 / December, 2009
Rubinoff, Daniel; Brenden S. Holland; Alexandra Shibata; Russell H. Messing, and Mark G. Wright, 2010. Rapid Invasion Despite Lack of Genetic Variation in the Erythrina Gall Wasp (Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim). Pacific Science (2010), vol. 64, no. 1:23�31
Uechi, Nami; Takumi Uesato and Junichi Yukawa, 2007. Detection of an invasive gall-inducing pest, Quadrastichus erythrinae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), causing damage to Erythrina variegata L. (Fabaceae) in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan Entomological Science (2007) 10, 209�212
Contact
The following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Quadrastichus erythrinae
Tung,
Gene-Sheng
Organization:
Forest Protection Division
Address:
Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC
Phone:
Fax: