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  • Monomorium pharaonis (Photo: C Beckham, AntWeb, hosted by California Academy of Sciences)
  • Monomorium pharaonis (Photo: AntWeb, hosted by California Academy of Sciences)
  • Monomorium pharaonis (Photo: Zachary Prusak, AntWeb, hosted by California Academy of Sciences)
  • Monomorium pharaonis (Photo: Zachary Prusak, AntWeb, hosted by California Academy of Sciences)
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Common name
fourmi pharaon (French), pharaoh ant (English)
Synonym
Atta minuta , Jerdon
Diplorhoptrum domesticum , (Shuckard)
Formica antiguensis , Fabricius
Formica pharaonis , Linnaeus
Monomorium domestica , (Shuckard)
Monomorium pharaonis , (Linnaeus)
Monomorium vastator , (Smith)
Myrmica (Monomorium) contigua , Smith
Myrmica (Monomorium) fragilis , Smith
Myrmica (Monomorium) vastator , Smith
Myrmica (Myrmecina) domestica , Shuckard
Myrmica contigua , Smith
Myrmica domestica , Shuckard
Myrmica fragilis , Smith
Myrmica pharaonis , (Linnaeus)
Myrmica unifasciata , Bostock
Myrmica vastator , Smith
Similar species
Summary
Monomorium pharaonis (the pharaoh ant) is native to Africa and has successfully invaded areas on every continent except Antarctica. It is concentrated in tropical regions but is also commonly found in temperate zones within suitable human infrastructure, especially buildings associated with the distribution or storage of food. Due to Monomorium pharaonis' ability to act as a vector for some bacterial human pathogens, its presence in hospitals is of great concern as it may increase infection rates.
Species Description
Workers of the pharaoh ants (Monomorium pharaonis) are approximately 2mm in length and have body colours ranging from light-brown to red. The males are the same size as the workers but are black in colour. The queens are 4mm in length and slightly darker than the workers (Nickerson and Harris 2003).

Please click on AntWeb: Monomorium pharaonis for more images and assistance with identification. The AntWeb image comparison tool lets you compare images of ants at the subfamily, genus, species or specimen level. You may also specify which types of images you would like to compare: head, profile, dorsal, or label.
Please see PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) Species Content Page Ants: Pharaoh ant for high quality diagnostic and overview images.

Please follow this link for the information sheet on Monomorium pharaonis prepared as part of 'The invasive ant risk assessment project', Harris et al. 2005., for Biosecurity New Zealand by Landcare Research.

Please follow this link for a fully illustrated Lucid key to common invasive ants [Hymenoptera: Formicidae] of the Pacific Island region [requires the most recent version of Java installed]. The factsheet on Monomorium pharaonis contains an overview, diagnostic features, comparision charts, images, nomenclature and links. (Sarnat, 2008)

Notes
Apparently the name \"pharaoh ant\" originated from Linnaeus' mistaken impression that these ants were one of the biblical plagues during the time of Egyptian pharoahs (Riley 1889, in Ebeling 1996).
Lifecycle Stages
A study by Alvares and colleagues (1993) found that total egg to adult development period of the pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonis) ranged from 25 days to 54 days (greater than the respective minimum and maximum lengths reported in European populations). Eggs hatch within a week, and the larval period lasts up to 19 days. Queens live for about 12 months and non-sterile males die about 4 weeks after mating. A colony can have a population of several hundred thousand. When overcrowding becomes a problem a queen may take a few workers and immature ants and build a new nest, a mechanism known as budding or colony fission.
Habitat Description
Many introduced ants, including Monomorium spp., are restricted to a tropical or subtropical climates. The pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonis) is not known to invade regions with cold climates although it may be associated with human infrastructure, including climate-controlled buildings. Although its abundance in cold climates will be restricted, its continued presence represents a potential to spread to locations more suitable for ant colonisation (McGlynn 1999; Holway et al. 2002). \r\n

Nests are rarely found outdoors but can be found almost anywhere indoors (including light sockets, potted plants and wall cracks or crevices). They typically nest close to sources of warmth and water and many investigators have noted this tendency (Mallis 1969, in Ebeling 1996).\r\n

The effect of climatic and temperature variables on ant abundance have been suggested as important when planning eradication programmes in cold to temperate regions. In laboratory conditions the time needed to eradicate pharaoh ant populations depended on the temperature; at 26°C eradication took 3 weeks; at 8°C an eradication could take only 30 minutes (Berndt 1980). Temperatures near 0°C lead to the eradication of large colonies within 6 days, which lead the author to the suggestion that the cold temperatures of the European winter could be exploited for aiding eradications of the pharaoh ant.

Reproduction
A queen can lay up to 400 eggs in her lifetime and produces about 10 to 12 eggs per reproductive event. Larval instar development is cyclical at the colony level, suggesting reproductive bursts followed by lower reproductive activity of the queens (Alvares et al. 1993). The species is highly polygynous and workers are sterile. Unlike many ant species, M. pharaonis does not need to leave the nest to mate.
Nutrition
Pharaoh ants (Monomorium pharaonis) are primarily nocturnal, feeding on a variety of foods, including fats, proteins, carbohydrates and small insects. Pharaoh ants will recruit to a number of household foods, including sweets, honey, cakes, greasy foods (such as butter) and fatty foods (such as meats) (Antonelli and Akre 2003). \r\n
In laboratory trials Haack and colleagues (1995) investigated the comparative recruitment to and distribution (among workers and larvae) of protein, lipid and carbohydrate. The results were as follows:\r\n
A) Recruitment: Liquid carbohydrate was recruited too quickly, while solid carbohydrate (table sugar) was not actively recruited. Corn starch was ignored by foraging workers. Workers actively recruited to sucrose solution and solid protein (moist egg yolk powder) foods after two days of starvation, but a seven day period of starvation was necessary for active recruitment to lipids such as peanut oil (indicating that lipids may not be rapidly depleted in the metabolism of the pharaoh ant). \r\n
B) Distribution: Peanut oil and sucrose solution baits were rapidly distributed among adult workers. Peanut oil was distributed rapidly to all larval stages, while the sucrose solution and solid protein baits were distributed primarily to older larvae.
Pathway
Commercial trade (transport of potted plants) has been implicated in the spread of M. pharaonis.

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group
Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review:

Publication date: 2010-10-04

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Monomorium pharaonis. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=961 on 30-09-2016.

General Impacts
The pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonis) is classified as a “generalised Myrmicine” because it has generalised food and nesting requirements and defends resources if they are close to the nest (McGlynn 1999). In addition, M. pharaonis is known as a “tramp” species, which means it is particularly reliant on human-mediated dispersal and has a close association with humans. It frequently nests inside human structures but rarely displaces native species outside urban environments (McGlynn 1999; Holway et al. 2002).\r\n

M. pharaonis is a pest in many populated areas of the world. When it nests in homes, grocery stores or restaurants (which it often does) it often becomes a public nuisance. For example, in the Pacific Northwest it is a nuisance particularly in warehouses, grocery stores and other areas where food is kept (Antonelli and Akre 2003). Its presence in hospitals in of particular concern as it is a vector for the transmission of certain human bacterial pathogens (including Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis), which commonly infect hospitalised patients (Nickerson and Harris 2003).

Please read Invasive ants impacts for a summary of the general impacts of invasive ants, such as their affect on mutualistic relations, the competitive pressure they impose on native ants and the effect they may have on vulnerable ecosystems.

Management Info
Preventative measures: The Pacific Ant Prevention Programme is a proposal prepared for the Pacific Plant Protection Organisation and Regional Technical Meeting for Plant Protection. This plan aims to prevent the red imported fire ant and other invasive ant species with economic, environmental or social impacts from establishing within or spreading between countries in the Pacific.

Chemical: In general, ant baits that contain a metabolic inhibitor as the active ingredient (for example hydramethylnon or sulfluramid) have a 2 to 3 day delay before significant mortality occurs, while baits that contain an insect growth regulator (for example methoprene, fenoxycarb or pyriproxyfen) have a delay of several weeks. The latter (IGRs) provide gradual long-term control, while metabolic inhibitors provide short-term, localised and rapid control. As the colonies of pharaoh ant are usually composed of several nest sites a bait containing a metabolic inhibitor (or another fast-acting toxin) may need to be placed at a greater number of sites over a wider area to compensate for the relatively low level of natural toxin spread between the workers (Oi Vail and Williams 2000).

Please follow this link for more detailed information on the management of the Argentine ant Linepithema humile compiled by the ISSG.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Monomorium pharaonis
Informations on Monomorium pharaonis has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Monomorium pharaonis in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
The pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonis) is classified as a “generalised Myrmicine” because it has generalised food and nesting requirements and defends resources if they are close to the nest (McGlynn 1999). In addition, M. pharaonis is known as a “tramp” species, which means it is particularly reliant on human-mediated dispersal and has a close association with humans. It frequently nests inside human structures but rarely displaces native species outside urban environments (McGlynn 1999; Holway et al. 2002).\r\n

M. pharaonis is a pest in many populated areas of the world. When it nests in homes, grocery stores or restaurants (which it often does) it often becomes a public nuisance. For example, in the Pacific Northwest it is a nuisance particularly in warehouses, grocery stores and other areas where food is kept (Antonelli and Akre 2003). Its presence in hospitals in of particular concern as it is a vector for the transmission of certain human bacterial pathogens (including Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis), which commonly infect hospitalised patients (Nickerson and Harris 2003).

Please read Invasive ants impacts for a summary of the general impacts of invasive ants, such as their affect on mutualistic relations, the competitive pressure they impose on native ants and the effect they may have on vulnerable ecosystems.

Red List assessed species 1: NT = 1;
View more species View less species
Locations
GERMANY
JAPAN
POLAND
Mechanism
[3] Disease transmission
Outcomes
[3] Socio-Economic
  • [3] Human health
Management information
Preventative measures: The Pacific Ant Prevention Programme is a proposal prepared for the Pacific Plant Protection Organisation and Regional Technical Meeting for Plant Protection. This plan aims to prevent the red imported fire ant and other invasive ant species with economic, environmental or social impacts from establishing within or spreading between countries in the Pacific.

Chemical: In general, ant baits that contain a metabolic inhibitor as the active ingredient (for example hydramethylnon or sulfluramid) have a 2 to 3 day delay before significant mortality occurs, while baits that contain an insect growth regulator (for example methoprene, fenoxycarb or pyriproxyfen) have a delay of several weeks. The latter (IGRs) provide gradual long-term control, while metabolic inhibitors provide short-term, localised and rapid control. As the colonies of pharaoh ant are usually composed of several nest sites a bait containing a metabolic inhibitor (or another fast-acting toxin) may need to be placed at a greater number of sites over a wider area to compensate for the relatively low level of natural toxin spread between the workers (Oi Vail and Williams 2000).

Please follow this link for more detailed information on the management of the Argentine ant Linepithema humile compiled by the ISSG.

Locations
CZECH REPUBLIC
GERMANY
POLAND
UNITED STATES
Management Category
Control
Unknown
Monitoring
Bibliography
35 references found for Monomorium pharaonis

Managment information
Antonelli, A.L. and Akre, R.D. 2003. EB1514E Pharoah ant. Washington State University.
Summary: Available from: http://cru.cahe.wsu.edu/CEPublications/eb1514e/eb1514e.pdf [Accessed 20 April 2005]
AntWeb, 2006. Monomorium pharaonis
Summary: AntWeb illustrates ant diversity by providing information and high quality color images of many of the approximately 10,000 known species of ants. AntWeb currently focusses on the species of the Nearctic and Malagasy biogeographic regions, and the ant genera of the world. Over time, the site is expected to grow to describe every species of ant known. AntWeb provides the following tools: Search tools, Regional Lists, In-depth information, Ant Image comparision tool PDF field guides maps on AntWeb and Google Earth and Ant genera of the world slide show.
AntWeb is available from: http://antweb.org/about.jsp [Accessed 20 April 2006]
The species page is available from: http://antweb.org/getComparison.do?rank=species&genus=monomorium&name=pharaonis&project=&project= [Accessed 2 May 2006]
Berndt, K.P. 1980. Cold tolerance of the Pharaoh s ants (Monomorium pharaonis) [Abstract], Angew Parasitol. 21(3): 164-172.
Chong, A.C., Cong, N.L., Yap, H.H. and Lee, C.Y. 2002. Effects of Starvation on Nutrient Distribution in the Pharaoh Ant, Monomorium pharaonis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Workers and Various Larval Stages, Internat. Conf. on Urban Pests: 121-128.
Ebeling, W. 1996. Chapter 6: Pests On or Near Food, In: Urban Entomolgy Entomology UC Riverside. University of California (Division of Agricultural Sciences).
Edwards, J.P. and Abraham, L. 1990. Changes in food selection by workers of the pharaoh s ant [Abstract], Monomorium pharaonis, Med Vet Entomol. 4(2): 205-211.
Haack, K.D., Vinson, S.B., Olson, J.K. 1995. Food distribution and storage in colonies of Monomorium pharaonis (L.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Journal of Entomological Science 30(1): 70-81.
Harris, R.; Abbott, K.; Barton, K.; Berry, J.; Don, W.; Gunawardana, D.; Lester, P.; Rees, J.; Stanley, M.; Sutherland, A.; Toft, R. 2005: Invasive ant pest risk assessment project for Biosecurity New Zealand. Series of unpublished Landcare Research contract reports to Biosecurity New Zealand. BAH/35/2004-1.
Summary: The invasive ant risk assessment project, prepared for Biosecurity New Zealand by Landcare Research, synthesises information on the ant species that occur in New Zealand (native and introduced species), and on invasive ants that pose a potential threat to New Zealand.
There is a great deal of information in this risk assessment on invasive ant species that is of global interest, including; biology, distribution, pest status, control technologies.
The assessment project has five sections.1) The Ants of New Zealand: information sheets on all native and introduced ants established in New Zealand 2) Preliminary invasive ant risk assessment: risk scorecard to quantify the threat to New Zealand of 75 ant species. 3) Information sheets on invasive ant threats: information sheets on all ant species scored as medium to high risk (n = 39). 4) Pest risk assessment: A detailed pest risk assessment for the eight species ranked as having the highest potential risk to New Zealand (Anoplolepis gracilipes, Lasius neglectus, Monomorium destructor, Paratrechina longicornis, Solenopsis geminata, Solenopsis richteri, Tapinoma melanocephalum, Wasmannia auropunctata) 5) Ranking of high risk species: ranking of the eight highest risk ant species in terms of the risks of entry, establishment, spread, and detrimental consequences.
NB. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) is considered to be the worst ant pest in the world. However, Solenopsis invicta was specifically excluded from consideration in this risk assessment as this species has already been subject to detailed consideration by Biosecurity New Zealand
(This invasive ant pest risk assessment was funded by Biosecurity New Zealand and Foundation for Research, Science and Technology. Undertaken by Landcare Research in collaboration with Victoria University of Wellington and Otago Museum)
Available from: http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/research/biocons/invertebrates/Ants/ant_pest_risk.asp [Accessed 20 May 2007]
Hooper-Bui, L.M., Appel, A.G. and Rust, M.K. 2002. Preference of food particle size among several urban ant species [Abstract], J Econ Entomol. 95(6): 1222-1228.
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Klunker, R., Rupes, V. and J., Chmela. 1984. Control of Monomorium pharaonis using a methoprene bait in the Berlin Zoo and its combined application with a residue insecticide in the Olomouc Children s Clinic [Abstract], Angew Parasitol. 25(2): 83-93.
Krzeminska, A., Sawicka, B., Gliniewicz, A. and Kanclerski, K. 1997. Preliminary evaluation of the incidence and control of insects: Pest control in Polish hospitals [Abstract], Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 48(3): 295-303.
McGlynn, T.P. 1999. The Worldwide Transfer of Ants: Geographical Distribution and Ecological Invasions, Journal of Biogeography 26(3): 535-548.
Ness, J.H and Bronstein, J.L. 2004. The Effects of Invasive Ants on Prospective ant Mutualists, Biological Invasions 6: 445-461.
Oi, D.H., Vail, K.M. and Williams, D.F. 2000. Bait distribution among multiple colonies of Pharaoh ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Journal of Economic Entomology 93(4): 1247�1255.
Pacific Ant Prevention Programme, March 2004. Pacific Invasive Ant Group (PIAG) on behalf of the IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG).
Summary: A proposal prepared for the Pacific Plant Protection Organisation and Regional Technical Meeting For Plant Protection. This plan aims to prevent the red imported fire ant and other invasive ant species with economic, environmental and/or social impacts, entering and establishing in or spreading between (or within) countries of the Pacific Region.
Rupes, V., Chmela, J. and Ledvinka, J. 1997. Comparison of the efficacy of baits with sulfluramid, hydramethylnon and methoprene against Pharaoh s ant [Abstract], International Pest Control 39(6): 189-191.
Sarnat, E. M. (December 4, 2008) PIAkey: Identification guide to ants of the Pacific Islands, Edition 2.0, Lucid v. 3.4. USDA/APHIS/PPQ Center for Plant Health Science and Technology and University of California � Davis.
Summary: PIAkey (Pacific Invasive Ant key) is an electronic guide designed to assist users identify invasive ant species commonly encountered in the Pacific Island region. The guide covers four subfamilies, 20 genera and 44 species.
The primary tool offered by PIAkey is an interactive key designed using Lucid3 software. In addition to being fully illustrated, the Lucid key allows users to enter at multiple character points, skip unknown characters, and find the most efficient path for identifying the available taxa. Each species is linked to its own web page. These species pages, or factsheets, are linked to an illustrated glossary of morphological terms, and include the following seven sections: 1) Overview of the species; 2) Diagnostic chart illustrating a unique combination of identification characters; 3) Comparison chart illustrating differences among species of similar appearance; 4) Video clip of the species behavior at food baits (where available); 5) Image gallery that includes original specimen images and live images (where available); 6) Nomenclature section detailing the taxonomic history of the species, and 7) Links and references section for additional literature and online resources.
Available from: http://www.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/PIAkey/index.html [Accessed 17 December 2008]
Schedl, W. 1993. The occurrence of pharaoh ants in Tyrol (Austria) [Abstract], Berichte des Naturwissenschaftlich-Medizinischen Vereins in Innsbruck 80(0): 359-361.
Slotterback, J.W., Oboyski, P.T. and Banko, P.C. 2001.Ant invasions of mamane-naio forest at high elevations on Mauna Kea. USGS.
Summary: The USGS provides a description of the impact of the species on Mauna Kea in Hawaii.
Available from: http://biology.usgs.gov/pierc/PLBankoAntpaperJS.htm [Accessed 20 April 2005]
Stanley, M. C. 2004. Review of the efficacy of baits used for ant control and eradication. Landcare Research Contract Report: LC0405/044. Prepared for: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.
Summary: Available from: http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/research/biocons/invertebrates/ants/BaitEfficacyReport.pdf [Accessed 10 December 2005]
Vail, K.M. and Williams, D.F. 1995. Pharaoh ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) colony development after consumption of pyriproxyfen baits [Abstract], J Econ Entomol. 88(6): 1695-1702.
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
Walker, K. 2006. Pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonis) Pest and Diseases Image Library. Updated on 29/08/2006 12:04:04 PM.
Summary: PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) is a Commonwealth Government initiative, developed and built by Museum Victoria s Online Publishing Team, with support provided by DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry) and PHA (Plant Health Australia), a non-profit public company. Project partners also include Museum Victoria, the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and the Queensland University of Technology. The aim of the project is: 1) Production of high quality images showing primarily exotic targeted organisms of plant health concern to Australia. 2) Assist with plant health diagnostics in all areas, from initial to high level. 3) Capacity building for diagnostics in plant health, including linkage developments between training and research organisations. 4) Create and use educational tools for training undergraduates/postgraduates. 5) Engender public awareness about plant health concerns in Australia. PaDIL is available from : http://www.padil.gov.au/aboutOverview.aspx, this page is available from: http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=646 [Accessed 6 October 2006]
General information
Alvares, L.E., Bueno, O.C., Fowler, H.G. 1993. Larval instars and immature development of a Brazilian population of pharaoh s ant, Monomorium pharaonis (L.) (Hym., Formicidae) [Abstract], Journal of Applied Entomology 116(1): 90-93.
Hoffmann, B. 2004. Exotic ants threaten indigenous lands, Australasian Science 25 (6).
Holway, D. A., L. Lach, A. V. Suarez, N. D. Tsutsui, and T. J. Case. 2002. The ecological causes and consequences of ant invasions. Annual review of ecology and systematics 33:181-233.
Summary: A comprehensive review about invasive ants in general.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2008. Online Database Monomorium pharaonis (Linnaeus, 1758)
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=154221 [Accessed 14 January 2008]
Longino, J.T. 2003. Evergreen State University. Monomorium pharaonis (Linnaeus 1758).
Summary: This article gives a brief summary of the species range and natural history.
Available from: http://www.evergreen.edu/ants/genera/monomorium/species/pharaonis/pharaonis.html [Accessed 20 April 2005]
Nickerson, J.C. and Harris, D.L. 2003. Featured Creatures. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (Division of Plant Industry).
Ogata, K. and Terayama, M. 2003. Monomorium pharaonis. Japanese Ant Image Database.
Summary: This web site describes the physical appearance and the species distribution in Japan.
Available from: http://ant.edb.miyakyo-u.ac.jp/E/Taxo/F41107.html [Accessed 20 April 2005]
Sarnat E.M. and E. P. Economo, 2011. Fiji Ants. The online home of Fiji s Myrmecofauna.
Summary: Available from: http://www.fijiants.org/ [Accessed 7 February 2011]
Wetterer, J. K. 2002. Ants of Tonga (1). (Statistical Data Included).Pacific Science, April 2002 v56 i2 p125(11).
Wetterer, J.K., Banko, P.C., Laniawe, L.P., Slotterback, J.W. and Brenner, G.J. 1998. Nonindigenous ants at high elevations on Mauna Kea, Hawai i [Abstract], Pacific Science 52(3): 228-236.
Contact
The following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Monomorium pharaonis
O Connor,
Simon
Simon has previously coordinated New Zealand s national invasive ant programme which included responding to incursions and development and implementation of the surveillance programme. He is currently employed by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community to implement the preliminary stages of the Pacific Ant Prevention Programme. Extensive surveillance through the Pacific islands, project work around specific ant problems and public awareness building has been the main focus of his current role
Organization:
Coordinator, Pacific Ant Prevention Programme Secretariat of the Pacific Community
Address:
C/- MAF PO Box 2526 Wellington New Zealand
Phone:
64 4 8190539
Fax:
64 4 8190736