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  • Mycale grandis (Photo: Steve Coles, Hawaii Biological Survey)
  • Mycale grandis (Photo: Steve Coles, Hawaii Biological Survey)
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Common name
orange keyhole sponge (English, USA, Hawaii), orange sponge (English)
Synonym
Similar species
Summary
Mycale grandis is an introduced sponge that is considered invasive and a potential threat to corals and reefs in Hawaiian waters. It is generally restricted to shallow-water fouling communities in major harbours associated with disturbed habitats, but has recently been observed over-growing native corals in lagoon-patch reef communities in Kane‘ohe‘ohe Bay, O‘ahu, Hawaii.
Species Description
Mycale grandis is an orange-red brightly coloured sponge. The colouring is both internal and external. It can grow as thickly encrusting to lobate-massive cushions up to 1 metre diameter and 0.5m thick or larger. The upper surfaces of large sponges show large ostia or \"keyholes\", hence the common name. The sponge's surface is uneven. The texture is fibrous and firm but compressible, and can be torn easily. The interior is cavernous, and often packed with small ophiuroids (Ophiactis cf. savignyi) (Eldredge and Smith 2001).
Habitat Description
Mycale grandis is typically restricted to shallow-water fouling communities (i.e. pier pilings, floating docks) in major harbours or on associated disturbed habitats (i.e. dredged channels and artificial lagoons). This species has also been found over-growing native coral communities in areas of Hawaii like Kane‘ohe'ohe Bay, where it grows on patch reefs in the southeast corner of the bay as well as artificial structures (Eldredge and Smith 2001; Coles and Bolick 2006).
Reproduction
Like most sponges, Mycale grandis is probably capable of asexual reproduction by fragmentation but specific details regarding sexual reproduction of this species are unstudied (Eldredge and Smith 2001).
Nutrition
Mycale grandis is a filter feeder, continuously circulating water through its body. Microscopic food particles are removed from the water by specialised collar cells. Digestion is intracellular (Eldredge and Smith 2001).
Pathway
Unintentional introduction, most likely as fouling on ships' hull (Eldredge and Smith 2001).

Principal source: Dr. Steve Coles, Bishop Museum.
Coles, S. L and Bolick, H. 2006. Assessment of invasiveness of the orange keyhole sponge Mycale armata in Kane`ohe Bay, O`ahu, Hawai`i.

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Steve Coles \ Research Zoologist \ Bishop Museum Hawai'i USA

Publication date: 2006-03-23

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2019) Species profile: Mycale grandis. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=953 on 26-05-2019.

General Impacts
Mycale grandis is a fouling organism whose ecological impacts have not been well studied. Observations suggest that it competes for space with native sponge and coral species and threatens lagoon-patch reef communities around Hawaii where it is overgrowing two of the dominant reef-forming corals in the Kane‘ohe‘ohe Bay. (Coles et al. 2004a; Eldredge and Smith 2001).
Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Mycale grandis
NATIVE RANGE
  • india
  • indonesia
Informations on Mycale grandis has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Mycale grandis in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
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Impact information
Mycale grandis is a fouling organism whose ecological impacts have not been well studied. Observations suggest that it competes for space with native sponge and coral species and threatens lagoon-patch reef communities around Hawaii where it is overgrowing two of the dominant reef-forming corals in the Kane‘ohe‘ohe Bay. (Coles et al. 2004a; Eldredge and Smith 2001).
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
UNITED STATES
Mechanism
[1] Competition
Outcomes
[1] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Reduction in native biodiversity
Management information
Locations
Management Category
Control
Monitoring
Bibliography
15 references found for Mycale grandis

Managment information
Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.
Summary: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
The decision support tools are available from: http://cefas.defra.gov.uk/our-science/ecosystems-and-biodiversity/non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx [Accessed 13 October 2011]
The guidance document is available from http://www.cefas.co.uk/media/118009/fisk_guide_v2.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009].
Coles, S. L. & H. Bolick., 2007. Invasive introduced sponge Mycale grandis overgrows reef corals in Kane�ohe Bay, O�ahu, Hawai�i. Coral Reefs (2007) 26:911
General information
Burton, M. 1934. Sponges. Scientific report on the Great Barrier Reef Expedition 4:513-621
Summary: Synonymized M. armata with M. grandis
Coles, S.L., DeFelice, R.C. and Eldredge, L.G., 1999b. Nonindigenous marine species introductions in the harbors of the south and west shores of O�ahu, Hawai�i. Tech. Rep. No. 15, Bishop Museum, Honolulu
Summary: Survey of native and introduced species in Hanolulu Harbor., Keehi Lagoon, Kewalo Basin, Ala Wai Harbor and Barbers Point Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii, with locations of reports of M. armata.
Available from: http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/pdf/southshore.pdf [Accessed 6th February 2006]
Coles, S.L., DeFelice, R.C. and Eldredge, L.G., 2002. Nonindigenous marine species introductions in Kane�ohe Bay, O�ahu, Hawai�i. Tech. Rep. No. 24, Bishop Museum, Honolulu
Summary: Survey of native and introduced species in Kaneohe Bay. Oahu, Hawaii, with locations of reports of M. armata
Available from: http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/pdf/kbay-report.pdf [Accessed 6 February 2006]
Coles, S.L., DeFelice, R.C., Eldredge, L.G. and Carlton, J.T., 1997. Biodiversity of marine communities in Pearl Harbor, O�ahu, Hawai�i with observations on introduced species. Tech. Rep. No. 10, Bishop Museum, Honolulu
Summary: Survey of native and introduced species in Pearl Harbor. Oahu, Hawaii, with locations of reports of M. armata
Available from: http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/pdf/PHReport.pdf [Accessed 6 February 2006]
Coles, S. L., DeFelice, R., C., Eldredge, L. G. and Carlton, J. T. 1999a. Historical and recent introductions of nonindigenous marine species into Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Marine Biology 135: 147-158
Summary: Survey of native and introduced species in Pearl Harbor. Oahu, Hawaii, with locations of reports of M. armata
Coles, S.L., Reath, P.R., Longenecker, K Bollick, H and. Eldredge, L.G., 2004b. Assessment of nonindigenous marine species in harbors and on nearby coral reefs on Kaua�i, Moloka�i, Maui and Hawai�i. Tech. Rep. No. 29, Bishop Museum, Honolulu
Summary: Survey of native and introduced species in harbors on the neighbouring islands of Hawaii, with locations of reports of M. armata.
Available from: http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/pdf/tr29.pdf [Accessed 6 February 2006]
Eldredge, L. G. and C. M. Smith. 2001 A guidebook of marine introduced species in Hawaii. Bishop Museum Tech. Rep. 21 80 pp.
Summary: Illustrated guidebook to frequently found introduced species in the Hawaiian Islands
Available from: http://www2.bishopmuseum.org/HBS/invertguide/species_pdf/guide.pdf [Accessed 6 February 2006]
Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), 2008. Species: Mycale grandis Gray, 1867
Summary: Available from: http://data.gbif.org/species/14696026/ [Accessed 15 June 2010]
Gray, J. E. 1867. Notes on the arrangement of sponges, with the description of some new genera. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 492-558
Summary: Description of the species Mycale grandis
Hooper, J. N. A. and Weidenmayer, F. 1994 Porifera. In Wells, A. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Vol. 12 Melbourne: CSIRO Australia xiii 624 pp
Summary: Accepted M. armata as a junior synonym of M. grandis, to maintain the staus quo lacking new evidence to make a revision, but sceptical because of known errors in Burton s 1934 work (pers. comm. To S. L. Coles , 2004)
Thiele, J. 1903. Kieselschwamme von Ternate. II Abh. Senckenb. Naturf. Ges. 25:933-968
Summary: Description of the species Mycale armata
Contact
The following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Mycale grandis
Coles,
Steve. L. Ph. D.
Research interests include ecology of marine species invasions, ecology and biogeography of reef corals and symbionts, effects of natural and pollution stresses on corals and coral reefs, environmental factors inducing coral bleaching and marine communities in high latitude coral reef systems.
Webpage .
Organization:
Research Zoologist Bishop Museum, Department of Natural Science
Address:
1525 Bernice St. Honolulu, HI 96817 US
Phone:
(808)847-8256
Fax:
(808) 847-8252
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