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Common name
Queensland fruit fly (English), Q-fly (English), QFF (English), Fruchtfliege Queensland (German), Mouche des fruits de Queensland (French)
Synonym
Chaetodacus tryoni , (Froggatt)
Dacus ferrugineus tryoni , (Froggatt)
Dacus tryoni , (Froggatt)
Strumeta tryoni , (Froggatt)
Tephritis tryoni , Froggatt
Similar species
Bactrocera aquilonis, Bactrocera neohumeralis
Summary
The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni), also known as Q-fly and QFF, is common in towns and horticultural areas throughout eastern Australia. It was introduced into New Caledonia around 1969 and French Polynesia around 1970. It is now widespread in New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Pitcairn Islands. It was introduced but eradicated from Perth (Western Australia) and Easter Island in the mid-Pacific. More recently, it was detected in Rarotonga, Cook Islands, on the 21st November 2001. Its detection prompted a quick emergency response. The Q-fly is very destructive to a large range of fruit hosts, and has significant economic impacts on the areas in which it lives.
Species Description
The adult Queensland fruit fly (Q-fly) is about 7 mm long. It has a wing span of 10 – 12 mm. They are a reddish brown colour, with yellow markings. Its “abdomen is constricted at the base, flared in the middle, and broadly rounded at the tip” (Weems & Fasulo, 2007). The female has a retractable ovipositor at the tip of her abdomen, with which she can lay several hundred eggs during her lifetime inside maturing and ripe fruit. Q-flies can move quickly if disturbed. They are usually found either on maturing fruit, or on the underside of leaves (Dominiak, 2007a). Larvae, which can be up to 10mm long, emerge from the eggs relatively quickly, and cause damage inside the fruit by feeding inside it for a number of days. The infested fruit can appear to be undamaged.

NSW Agriculture have produced an Online ID key to distinguish fruit flies.
Please see PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) Species Content Page for Queensland fruit fly for high quality diagnostic and overview images.

Lifecycle Stages
Egg: Normally about six white, banana-shaped eggs are laid in a flask-shaped chamber, which is dug out about 3mm deep in the outer layer of host fruit (Dominiak, 2007a).
Larva (maggot): The eggs normally hatch after 2 or 3 days (MAFBNZ, 2008a), and a small maggot emerges from each egg. These maggots use eat towards the centre of the fruit, utilising their sharp cutting jaws. The fruit can continue to look perfect from the outside while this is happening on the inside. Maggots have cutting jaws which help to tear the fruit into pieces small enough to swallow. Maggots tend to eat towards the centre of the fruit. This also promotes rotting of the fruit, although it may look perfect from the outside (DPI, 2008).
The larvae are usually feeding inside the fruit for 10 to 31 days after hatching (MAFBNZ, 2008a). After its growth is completed, the maggot eats its way out of the fruit, which has by now usually fallen onto the ground, and burrows into the soil (DPI, 2008). Up to 70 individuals can develop from a single fruit (MAFBNZ, 2008a).
Pupa: After the larvae enter the soil, they become inactive and change into brown, hard, oval-shaped pupae, in which the adult fly develops (DPI, 2008). Pupal development time varies from a week in Summer to over a month in Winter (Weems & Fasulo, 2007). High levels of pupal mortality occur at high and low extremes of soil moisture (Hulthen & Clarke, 2006).
Adult (fly): After emerging from the pupae, adult flies first find a food source. After feeding, flies search for a mate, and mating occurs. After “passing through a two-week pre-oviposition stage following emergence from the pupae” (Weems & Fasulo, 2007), females then look for ripening fruit. She then either punches a hole into the fruit, in which she lays groups of up to 7 eggs. Q-fly females often use existing punctures within fruit (DPI, 2008). Studies have shown that Q-flies “prefer to oviposit in existing punctures rather than drill a fresh puncture” (Prokopy et al. 1991). Female fruit flies can lay between 500 and 800 eggs in the duration of their life, which can last anywhere from 6 months to a year (Heaven, 2007).
Habitat Description
Major hosts of Bactrocera tyroni include Malus (ornamental species apple), Pyrus (pears), Cydonia oblonga (quince), Malus domestica (apple), Prunus armeniaca (apricot), Coffea arabica (coffee), Eremocitrus glauca (australian desert lime), Persea americana (avocado), Morus nigra (black mulberry), Rubus fruticosus (blackberry), Rubus ursinus (california berry), Physalis peruviana (cape gooseberry), Averrhoa carambola (carambola), Anacardium occidentale (cashew), Citrus medica (citron), Ficus racemosa (cluster fig), Ficus carica (fig), Psidium guajava (guava), Annona reticulata (custard apple), Phoenix dactylifera (date palm), Musa acuminata (wild banana), Juglans regia (walnut), Vitis labrusca (fox grape), Passiflora quadrangularis (giant granadilla), Citrus x paradisi (grapefruit), Opuntia ficus-indica (indian fig prickly pear), Ziziphus mauritiana (jujuba), Flacourtia jangomas (indian plum), Spondias cytherea (jew plum), Solanum laciniatum (kangaroo apple), Dovyalis caffra (kei apple), Citrus limon (lemon), Eriobotrya japonica (loquat), Citrus reticulata (mandarin), Mangifera indica (mango), Prunus cerasifera (myrobalan plum), Olea europaea (olive), Carica papaya (pawpaw), Prunus persica (peach), Pyrus communis (pear), Diospyros kaki (persimmon), Prunus domestica (plum), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Citrus grandis (pummelo), Passiflora edulis (passionfruit), Syzygium jambos (rose apple), Fortunella japonica (round kumquat), Mimusops elengi (spanish cherry), Psidium littorale (strawberry guava), Annona squamosa (sweetsop), Eugenia uniflora (surinam cherry), Prunus avium (cherry), Citrus sinensis (orange (sweet), Capsicum frutescens (chilli), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), Terminalia catappa (tropical almond), Syzygium aqueum (watery rose-apple), Ficus benjamina (weeping fig), Morus alba (mulberry), Casimiroa edulis (white sapote), Vitis vinifera (grapevine), Cananga odorata (ylangylang).

Queensland fruit fly has also been recorded from 60 wild hosts , belonging to the following families: Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Capparidaceae, Celastraceae, Combretaceae, Cunoniaceae, Davidsoniaceae, Ebenaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lauraceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Naucleaceae, Oleaceae, Passifloraceae, Rhamnaceae, Rutaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, Siphonodontaceae, Smilacaceae, Solanaceae and Vitaceae. This very wide host range enables Queensland fruit fly to build up large populations in forest areas (in its native range), which then act as reservoirs from which to invade crops (Botha et al 2004).

Reproduction
The Queensland fruit fly mates at dusk (Raphael et al. 2004). Female Q-flies have been found to be poor at detecting a difference between the numbers of calling males, in groups of different sizes (Weldon, 2006). The Q-fly does not mate continuously throughout the year, but it passes the winter in the adult stage. The total life cycle of the Q-fly requires 2 weeks in summer but up to 2 months in autumn. Adult females usually live for a number of months (Weems & Fasulo, 2007).
Nutrition
Over 100 species of fruits and vegetables can act as hosts of the Queensland fruit fly. “Adults feed primarily upon juices of host plants, nectar, and honeydew secreted by various kinds of insects” (Weems & Fasulo, 2007).
Pathway

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review:

Publication date: 2010-09-28

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Bactrocera tryoni. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=925 on 27-08-2016.

General Impacts
The Queensland fruit fly is the most costly and serious insect pest effecting agriculture in Australia. It infests all commercial fruit crops in Australia, other than pineapple and strawberry. The majority of an estimated A$100 million a year potential losses if fruit flies were not controlled in Australia would be caused by Queensland fruit fly (Botha et al. 2000).

The Queensland fruit fly (Q-fly) lays its eggs in a wide range of maturing or ripe fruit. The maggots, which hatch from the eggs inside the fruit, tend to destroy the fruit, either due to their feeding, or decaying. The Q-fly is such a problem as it has a large number of host fruits world-wide, and has a fairly wide climatic tolerance.

Research has found that the Q-fly can displace other Bactrocera fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera kirki) in coastal areas (Vargas et al. 2007).

Management Info
Preventative measures: Early detection of an outbreak of any invasive species is very important, as it increases the odds of a successful eradication, before the pest becomes established. In South Australia there is an ‘early warning system’ of traps to detect outbreaks of adult Q-flies. “A grid of more than 3800 fruit fly trapping sites in metropolitan Adelaide, Northern Adelaide Plains, Adelaide Hills, Riverland and a number of country towns are checked regularly by PIRSA officers” (Heaven, 2007). There is also a ‘Fruit Fly Hotline’ for the public to report possible discoveries of Q-fly.

In New Zealand, an annual fruit fly surveillance trapping program is undertaken by MAF Biosecurity New Zealand (MAFBNZ) to detect any incursions of fruit flies, including the Q-(MAFBNZ, 2008b).There are over 7500 traps used nationwide in this surveillance, and they are “concentrated in populated areas serving as centers for tourism and/or trade, areas of significant horticultural activity and areas specified as being climatically conducive to the establishment of fruit fly” http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/pests/queensland-fruit-fly (MAFBNZ, 2008a).

Integrated management: As with the control of many pest species, a single control method by itself is often not sufficient to eradicate (or even effectively control) the Queensland fruit fly (Q-fly) from an area. The best results are gained from a combination of the methods found in the section below. For example, bait spraying, male annihilation and good hygiene have been used in combination in attempts to eradicate Q-fly in New South Wales, Australia (Gilchrist, pers. Comm. 2008).

Please follow this link for detailed information on the prevention, control and management of the Queensland fruit fly

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Bactrocera tryoni
ALIEN RANGE
NATIVE RANGE
  • australia
Informations on Bactrocera tryoni has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
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Impact information
The Queensland fruit fly is the most costly and serious insect pest effecting agriculture in Australia. It infests all commercial fruit crops in Australia, other than pineapple and strawberry. The majority of an estimated A$100 million a year potential losses if fruit flies were not controlled in Australia would be caused by Queensland fruit fly (Botha et al. 2000).

The Queensland fruit fly (Q-fly) lays its eggs in a wide range of maturing or ripe fruit. The maggots, which hatch from the eggs inside the fruit, tend to destroy the fruit, either due to their feeding, or decaying. The Q-fly is such a problem as it has a large number of host fruits world-wide, and has a fairly wide climatic tolerance.

Research has found that the Q-fly can displace other Bactrocera fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera kirki) in coastal areas (Vargas et al. 2007).

Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
PITCAIRN
Mechanism
[1] Grazing/Herbivory/Browsing
Outcomes
[2] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Damage to agriculture
  • [1] Human nuisance 
Management information
Preventative measures: Early detection of an outbreak of any invasive species is very important, as it increases the odds of a successful eradication, before the pest becomes established. In South Australia there is an ‘early warning system’ of traps to detect outbreaks of adult Q-flies. “A grid of more than 3800 fruit fly trapping sites in metropolitan Adelaide, Northern Adelaide Plains, Adelaide Hills, Riverland and a number of country towns are checked regularly by PIRSA officers” (Heaven, 2007). There is also a ‘Fruit Fly Hotline’ for the public to report possible discoveries of Q-fly.

In New Zealand, an annual fruit fly surveillance trapping program is undertaken by MAF Biosecurity New Zealand (MAFBNZ) to detect any incursions of fruit flies, including the Q-(MAFBNZ, 2008b).There are over 7500 traps used nationwide in this surveillance, and they are “concentrated in populated areas serving as centers for tourism and/or trade, areas of significant horticultural activity and areas specified as being climatically conducive to the establishment of fruit fly” http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/pests/queensland-fruit-fly (MAFBNZ, 2008a).

Integrated management: As with the control of many pest species, a single control method by itself is often not sufficient to eradicate (or even effectively control) the Queensland fruit fly (Q-fly) from an area. The best results are gained from a combination of the methods found in the section below. For example, bait spraying, male annihilation and good hygiene have been used in combination in attempts to eradicate Q-fly in New South Wales, Australia (Gilchrist, pers. Comm. 2008).

Please follow this link for detailed information on the prevention, control and management of the Queensland fruit fly

Locations
PITCAIRN
Management Category
Unknown
Bibliography
48 references found for Bactrocera tryoni

Managment information
Botha, J., Darryl Hardie and Greg Power, 2000. Queensland fruit fly: Exotic threat to Western Australia. Agriculture Western Australia
Summary: Available from: http://www.agric.wa.gov.au/content/PW/INS/PP/HORT/FS04300.PDF [Accessed 26 June 2010]
Collins, S. R., C. W. Weldon, C. Banos & P. W. Taylor, 2008. Effects of irradiation dose rate on quality and sterility of Queensland fruit flies, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt). Journal of Applied Entomology. 132: 398�405
De Lima, C. P. F., Jessup, A. J., Cruickshank, L., Walsh, C. J., Mansfield, E. R., 2007. Cold disinfestation of citrus (Citrus spp.) for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) and Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) (Diptera: Tephritidae). New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science. 35(1): 39-50.
Department of Primary Industries (DPI), 2008. Queensland Fruit Fly. Agriculture, Food and Forestry
Dominiak, B. 2007b. Fruit fly eradication in the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone: questions and answers
Dominiak, B. 2007c. Control of Queensland fruit fly in New South Wales
Dominiak, B. C. 2007. Queensland fruit fly. Online Factsheet for NSW DPI
Summary: Available from: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0014/230612/queensland-fruit-fly.pdf [Accessed 26 June 2010]
Dominiak, B. C., A. E. Westcott & I. M. Barchia, 2003b. Release of sterile Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), at Sydney, Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 43: 519-528.
Dominiak, B. C., H. S. Mavi & H. I. Nicol, 2006. Effect of town microclimate on the Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 46: 1239-1249.
Dominiak, B. C., L. J. McLeod & R. Landon, 2003a. Further development of a low-cost release method for sterile Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Froggatt) in rural New South Wales. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 43: 407-417.
Gilchrist, A. S. & Crisafulli, D. C. A., 2005. Using variation in wing shape to distinguish between wild and mass-reared individuals of Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 119: 175�178.
Harmer, Aaron M.T., Preethi Radhakrishnana, Phillip W. Taylor. 2006. Remating inhibition in female Queensland fruit flies: Effects and correlates of sperm storage. Journal of Insect Physiology 52: 179�186
Heaven, D. 2007. Important information on fruit fly. Government of South Australia, Primary Industries and Resources SA
Summary: Available from: http://www.pir.sa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/43144/Fruit_fly_factsheet.pdf [Accessed 26 June 2010]
Hill, A. R. & Hooper, G. H. S., 1984. Attractiveness of various colours to Australian tephritid fruit flies in the field. Entomological Experimental Application. 35: 119-128.
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Jessup, A. J., I. F Carswell and S. P Dalton, 1998a. Disinfestation of fresh fruits from Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae) with combination mild heat and modified atmosphere packaging. Australian journal of Entomology. 37: 186- I88.
Jessup, A. J., Sloggett, R. F. & Quinn, M., 1998b. Quarantine disinfestation of blueberries against Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae) by Cold Storage. Journal of Economic Entomology. 91(4): 964-967.
Knipling, E. F. 1959. Sterile-Male Method of Population Control. Science, New Series, 130(3380), pp. 902-904.
MacFarlane, J. R., R. W. East, R. A. I. Drew & G . A. Betlinski, 1987. Dispersal of Irradiated Queensland Fruit Flies, Dacus tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera : Tephritidae), in South-Eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 35: 275-81
Maelzer, D. A., P. T. Bailey & N. Perepelicia, 2004. Factors supporting the non-persistence of fruit fly populations in South Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 44: 109-126.
MAF Biosecurity New Zealand (MAFBNZ), 2008a. Queensland fruit fly
Summary: Available from: http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/pests/queensland-fruit-fly [Accessed 26 June 2010]
MAF Biosecurity New Zealand (MAFBNZ), 2008b. Fruit fly alert: Vigilant scout does the right thing
Summary: Available from: http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz:80/publications/biosecurity-magazine/issue-77/fruitfly [Accessed 26 June 2010]
Mankin, R. W., M. Lemon, A. M. T. Harmer, C. S. Evans, & P. W. Taylor, 2008. Time-Pattern and Frequency Analyses of Sounds Produced by Irradiated and Untreated Male Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae) During Mating Behavior. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 101(3): 664-674.
Meats, A. 1973. Rapid acclimatization to low temperature in the Queensland fruit fly, Dacus tryoni. Journal of Insect Physiology, 19: 1903 - 1911.
Meats, A., 1976. Seasonal Trends in Acclimatization to Cold in the Queensland Fruit Fly (Dacus tryoni, Diptera) and Their Prediction by Means of a Physiological Model Fed with Climatological Data. Oecologia 26: 73-87.
Meats, A. & Edgerton, J. E. 2008. Short- and long-range dispersal of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni and its relevance to invasive potential, sterile insect technique and surveillance trapping. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 48: 1237�1245.
Meats, A. W., 2003. Trials on variants of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) for suppression of populations of the Queensland fruit fly in small towns neighbouring a quarantine (exclusion) zone. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 43: 389-395.
Monro, J., 1966. Population Flushing with Sexually Sterile Insects. Science. 151: 1536-1538.
Quarantine Domestic (QD). (n.d). Queensland fruit fly. Traveller�s guide to Australian interstate quarantine
Summary: Available from: http://www.quarantinedomestic.gov.au/queensland-fruit-fly.html [Accessed 26 June 2010]
Raphael, Kathryn A., Steven Whyard, Deborah Shearman, Xin Ana & Marianne Frommer, 2004. Bactrocera tryoni and closely related pest tephritids�molecular analysis and prospects for transgenic control strategies. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 34: 167�176.
Sutherst, Robert W., Ben S. Collyer and Tania Yonow, 2000. The vulnerability of Australian horticulture to the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) tryoni, under climate change. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 51: 467�480.
Vargas, R. I. Luc Leblan, Rudolf Putoa & Avi Eitim, 2007. Impact of Introduction of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Classical Biological Control Releases of Fopius arisanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Economically Important Fruit Flies in French Polynesia.
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
Weems, H. V. & Fasulo, T. R. 2007. Queensland fruit fly. Division of Plant Industry University of Florida
Weldon, C. & Meats, A. 2007. Short-range dispersal of recently emerged males and females of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera:Tephritidae) monitored by sticky sphere traps baited with protein and Lynfield traps baited with cue-lure. Australian Journal of Entomology. 46: 160�166.
Weldon, C. W. 2005. Mass-rearing and sterilisation alter mating behaviour of male Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Australian Journal of Entomology. 44: 158�163.
General information
Bashiruddin, J. B., J. L. Martin, and C. Reinganum, 1988. Queensland fruit fly virus, a probable member of the Pieornaviridae. Archives of Virology. 100:61-74.
Brooke, M. de L. & Trevelyan, R., 2003. Environment Charter - Possible projects for the Pitcairn Islands. Unpublished report to the Foreign & Commonwealth Office. In: Varnham, K. (2005) Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough, United Kingdom
Drew, R. A. I & Hooper, G. A. S., 1983. Population Studies of Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in South-East Queensland. Oecologia. 56:153-159
Gilchrist, A. S., John A Sved and Alan Meats, 2004. Genetic relations between outbreaks of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in Adelaide in 2000 and 2002. Australian Journal of Entomology. 43: 157�163.
Hulthen, A. D. & Clarke, A. R., 2006. The influence of soil type and moisture on pupal survival of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Australian Journal of Entomology. 45: 16�19
Moussa, A.Y. 1978. A new Cytoplasmic Inclusion Virus from Diptera in the Queensland Fruitfly, Dacus tryoni. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 32(1):77-87.
Prokopy, R. J., Drew, R. A. I., Sabine, B. N. E., Lloyd, A. C., and Hamacek, E. 1991. Effect of physiological and experiential state of Bactrocera tryoni flies intra-tree foraging behavior for food (bacteria) and host fruit. Oecologia 87: 394-400.
Raghu, S., Anthony, R. Clark, Richard, A. I. Drew & Kees Hulsman, 2000. Impact of habitat modification on the distribution and abundance of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Southeast Queensland. Population Ecology. 42: 153-160.
Stibick, J. N. L. 2004. Natural Enemies of True Fruit Flies (Tephritidae). United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plant Protection and Quarantine
Summary: Available from: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/plants/manuals/domestic/downloads/natural_enemies_fruit_fly.pdf [Accessed 26 June 2010]
The Fruit Fly Research Laboratory, (n.d). What are fruit flies ? University of Sydney
Summary: Available from: http://www.bio.usyd.edu.au/fruitfly/flies.htm [Accessed 26 June 2010]
Weldon, C. W. 2006. Influence of male aggregation size on female visitation in Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Australian Journal of Entomology. 46: 29�34.
Contact
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