Global invasive species database

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  • Euglandina rosea shell (Photo credit: T.A. Burch and R.H. Cowie)
  • Euglandina rosea, Oahu, Hawaii (Photo: Ron Heu, Hawaii Department of Agriculture)
  • Euglandina rosea, Oahu, Hawaii (Photo: Ron Heu, Hawaii Department of Agriculture)
  • Euglandina rosea, Oahu, Hawaii (Photo: Ron Heu, Hawaii Department of Agriculture)
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Common name
Rosige Wolfsschnecke (German), rosy wolf snail (English), cannibal snail (English)
Synonym
Similar species
Summary
The carnivorous rosy wolfsnail Euglandina rosea was introduced to Indian and Pacific Ocean Islands from the 1950s onwards as a biological control agent for the giant African snail (Achatina fulica). E. rosea is not host specific meaning that native molluscs species are at risk of expatriatioin or even extinction if this mollusc-eating snail is introduced. Partulid tree snails of the French Polynesian Islands were particularly affected; having evolved separately from each other in isolated valleys, many Partulid tree snails have been lost and today almost all the survivors exist only in zoos.
Species Description
The shell is large (up to 76 mm in height, 27.5 mm in diameter), thick and has prominent growth lines (University of Florida 2009). The shape of the shell is fusiform with a narrow ovate-lunate aperture and a truncated columella; typically, the shell color is brownish-pink (University of Florida 2009). Adult Euglandina grow from about seven to 10 cm long (Clifford et al. 2003).
Habitat Description
Euglandina rosea is usually found singly in hardwood forests, roadsides and urban gardens in its native range in Florida (Hubricht 1985, University of Florida 2009).
Reproduction
Euglandina rosea is a cross-fertilising egg-laying hermaphrodite. Chiu and Chou (1962, in Univeristy of Florida 2009) gave details of the biology of Euglandina in Taiwan. Individuals live up to 24 months. 25 to 35 eggs are laid in a shallow pocket in the soil. These hatch after 30 to 40 days.
Nutrition
Euglandina rosea feeds on other snails and slugs, which they track down by following the slime trails left by their prey (Clifford et al. 2003). It appears to prefer smaller individuals, which it swallows whole, but will attack large snails by entering through the shell aperture.

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group
Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review: Review of updates under progress
Dr. Robert H. Cowie, Center for Conservation Research and Training, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii

Publication date: 2010-02-17

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Euglandina rosea. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=92 on 09-12-2016.

General Impacts
Molluscs are the group most affected by extinction according to the 2007 International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List (Regnier 2009). The Pacific region has a wide diversity of mollusc species, most of them unique to the region, and the majority endemic to single islands or archipelagos (Cowie 1996 1997a, in Cowie and Cook 2001). More and more, these unique species are becoming replaced with a homogenous group of tropical tramp snail and slug species that are increasingly widespread (Cowie 1998a, R.H. Cowie, unpub., in Cowie and Cook 2001). Of the 400 extinct species we listed from oceanic islands, 234 lived on islands to which Euglandina rosea had been introduced, and it is highly probable that of these 234 extinctions, 134 (>50%) of them were ultimately caused by the introduction of E. rosea (Regnier et al. 2009).\r\n

E. rosea contributed to the extinctions of endemic Partula tree snails in French Polynesia; the snails are widely distributed on most of the high islands of the tropical Pacific, except for the Hawaiian Islands (Murray et al. 1989, Cowie 1992, Hopper and Smith 1992, in Cowie and Cook 2001). E. rosea also contributed to the marked decline of endemic land snail fauna in Hawaii and Mauritius (Murry et al. 1988; Clarke et al. 1984; Hadfield 1986, Murray et al. 1988, Griffiths et al. 1993, Wells 1995, in Satoshi 2003). The best documented cases are those of the achatinelline tree snails, which are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands (Hadfield 1986, Hadfield et al. 1993). The native species mentioned seem especially vulnerable to heightened levels of predation because of their extremely slow rate of reproduction (Cowie 1992; Hadfield et al. 1993, in Cowie and Cook 2001).\r\n

The carnivorous snail was introduced to control numbers of the giant African land snail (Achatina fulica) (Nishida and Napompeth 1975, in Cowie 2000). However, no rigorous scientific evidence exists that E. rosea controls A. fulica (Christensen 1984, in Cowie 2000) and, as a consequence, the World Conservation Union (IUCN) has formally condemned the deliberate introduction of E. rosea and other carnivorous snails. Most governments and other authorities appear to be aware of the potential threat posed to native fauna by E. rosea, however, under pressure to do something about A. fulica, they may misguidedly consider the introduction of E. rosea (and other species such as the flatworm Platydemus manokwari).

Disease transmission: E. rosea was found experimentally to be able to serve as both an intermediate and a paratenic host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

Management Info
For a detailed account of the environmental impacts of Euglandina rosea please read: Euglandina rosea (Rosy Wolfsnail) Management Information. The information in this document is summarised below.

The future for some of French Polynesia’s partulids may not be as bleak as once thought; according to recent studies relatively high genetic diversity is represented among living taxa and it may still be possible to preserve a representative sub-sampling of Raiatea and Tahiti’s tree snail diversity (Lee et al. 2009; Ó Foighil 2009).

Physical Control: The ultimate objective of captive breeding programs is the reintroduction of viable populations of endangered species into their natural habitats (Coote et al. 2004). Small exclosures have been built in Hawai‘I and on Moorea (French Polynesia) to protect native tree snails from attack by Euglandina rosea.

Legislation: It is almost impossible to prevent the within-island spread of Euglandina in French Polynesia (Coote et al. 1999). Between-island spread of Euglandina should be prevented by legislation. The Marqueses Islands, the Southern Cooks and the Australs provide refuges for some of the remaining partulid species (Lee et al. 2007a) and should be kept Euglandina-free. E. rosea is now legally considered to be a noxious species in French Polynesia; the introduction of live specimens and their transport from one island to another is forbidden (Meyer 1998).

Other: Since 1986 partulid snails have been the subject of an international breeding programme; the International Partula Conservation Programme manages a breeding programme for 25 species in 15 zoos worldwide. Introducing Society Island partulids to the Austral Islands that are free of the predator might ensure their long-term survival in the wild (Ó Foighil 2009). Coote & Loeve (2003) concluded that E. rosea was extinct in the wild on Huahine, strongly suggesting that the successful re-introduction of partulids into the wild on Huahine might be possible.
Conservation actions in the wild may be limited to identifying and protecting populations of partulid snails that offer some possibility of persistence in the presence of Euglandina (Ó Foighil 2009). Based on laboratory behavioral studies of the effect of temperature on E. rosea movement, Gerlach (1994, in Ó Foighil 2009) hypothesised that an altitudinal refuge above 600 to 700 m would exist for Society Island partulids.

Research and Knowledge: Further research into the biology of E. rosea, and particularly its population dynamics, needs to be carried out. There are no known natural predators, so a species-specific toxin in snail bait, as tested in Hawaii (M. G. Hadfield pers. comm., in Coote et al, 1999), could be a promising approach. A good relationship between the Pacific Island Land Snail Group (PILSG) and the French Polynesian government authorities has developed, and joint initiatives for conservation and research are being planned (Coote et al. 1999).

Education and Knowledge: Despite the lack of evidence supporting Euglandina as a successful biological control agent and despite the abundant evidence of their negative predatory impact on native snail fauna, carnivorous snail introductions continue (Cowrie 1992). Clearly public education about the French Polynesia’s precious natural fauna and the dangers posed to such fauna by carnivorous biological control agents could help to reduce the likelihood of Euglandina being purposefully translocated to new islands. Local willingness and experience are already in place to conserve French Polynesia’s partulid snails (Coote & Loeve 2003).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Euglandina rosea
Informations on Euglandina rosea has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Euglandina rosea in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Molluscs are the group most affected by extinction according to the 2007 International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List (Regnier 2009). The Pacific region has a wide diversity of mollusc species, most of them unique to the region, and the majority endemic to single islands or archipelagos (Cowie 1996 1997a, in Cowie and Cook 2001). More and more, these unique species are becoming replaced with a homogenous group of tropical tramp snail and slug species that are increasingly widespread (Cowie 1998a, R.H. Cowie, unpub., in Cowie and Cook 2001). Of the 400 extinct species we listed from oceanic islands, 234 lived on islands to which Euglandina rosea had been introduced, and it is highly probable that of these 234 extinctions, 134 (>50%) of them were ultimately caused by the introduction of E. rosea (Regnier et al. 2009).\r\n

E. rosea contributed to the extinctions of endemic Partula tree snails in French Polynesia; the snails are widely distributed on most of the high islands of the tropical Pacific, except for the Hawaiian Islands (Murray et al. 1989, Cowie 1992, Hopper and Smith 1992, in Cowie and Cook 2001). E. rosea also contributed to the marked decline of endemic land snail fauna in Hawaii and Mauritius (Murry et al. 1988; Clarke et al. 1984; Hadfield 1986, Murray et al. 1988, Griffiths et al. 1993, Wells 1995, in Satoshi 2003). The best documented cases are those of the achatinelline tree snails, which are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands (Hadfield 1986, Hadfield et al. 1993). The native species mentioned seem especially vulnerable to heightened levels of predation because of their extremely slow rate of reproduction (Cowie 1992; Hadfield et al. 1993, in Cowie and Cook 2001).\r\n

The carnivorous snail was introduced to control numbers of the giant African land snail (Achatina fulica) (Nishida and Napompeth 1975, in Cowie 2000). However, no rigorous scientific evidence exists that E. rosea controls A. fulica (Christensen 1984, in Cowie 2000) and, as a consequence, the World Conservation Union (IUCN) has formally condemned the deliberate introduction of E. rosea and other carnivorous snails. Most governments and other authorities appear to be aware of the potential threat posed to native fauna by E. rosea, however, under pressure to do something about A. fulica, they may misguidedly consider the introduction of E. rosea (and other species such as the flatworm Platydemus manokwari).

Disease transmission: E. rosea was found experimentally to be able to serve as both an intermediate and a paratenic host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

Red List assessed species 72: EX = 43; EW = 10; CR = 12; EN = 1; VU = 2; DD = 4;
Outcomes
[12] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [12] Reduction in native biodiversity
[1] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Impact on trade/international relations
Management information
For a detailed account of the environmental impacts of Euglandina rosea please read: Euglandina rosea (Rosy Wolfsnail) Management Information. The information in this document is summarised below.

The future for some of French Polynesia’s partulids may not be as bleak as once thought; according to recent studies relatively high genetic diversity is represented among living taxa and it may still be possible to preserve a representative sub-sampling of Raiatea and Tahiti’s tree snail diversity (Lee et al. 2009; Ó Foighil 2009).

Physical Control: The ultimate objective of captive breeding programs is the reintroduction of viable populations of endangered species into their natural habitats (Coote et al. 2004). Small exclosures have been built in Hawai‘I and on Moorea (French Polynesia) to protect native tree snails from attack by Euglandina rosea.

Legislation: It is almost impossible to prevent the within-island spread of Euglandina in French Polynesia (Coote et al. 1999). Between-island spread of Euglandina should be prevented by legislation. The Marqueses Islands, the Southern Cooks and the Australs provide refuges for some of the remaining partulid species (Lee et al. 2007a) and should be kept Euglandina-free. E. rosea is now legally considered to be a noxious species in French Polynesia; the introduction of live specimens and their transport from one island to another is forbidden (Meyer 1998).

Other: Since 1986 partulid snails have been the subject of an international breeding programme; the International Partula Conservation Programme manages a breeding programme for 25 species in 15 zoos worldwide. Introducing Society Island partulids to the Austral Islands that are free of the predator might ensure their long-term survival in the wild (Ó Foighil 2009). Coote & Loeve (2003) concluded that E. rosea was extinct in the wild on Huahine, strongly suggesting that the successful re-introduction of partulids into the wild on Huahine might be possible.
Conservation actions in the wild may be limited to identifying and protecting populations of partulid snails that offer some possibility of persistence in the presence of Euglandina (Ó Foighil 2009). Based on laboratory behavioral studies of the effect of temperature on E. rosea movement, Gerlach (1994, in Ó Foighil 2009) hypothesised that an altitudinal refuge above 600 to 700 m would exist for Society Island partulids.

Research and Knowledge: Further research into the biology of E. rosea, and particularly its population dynamics, needs to be carried out. There are no known natural predators, so a species-specific toxin in snail bait, as tested in Hawaii (M. G. Hadfield pers. comm., in Coote et al, 1999), could be a promising approach. A good relationship between the Pacific Island Land Snail Group (PILSG) and the French Polynesian government authorities has developed, and joint initiatives for conservation and research are being planned (Coote et al. 1999).

Education and Knowledge: Despite the lack of evidence supporting Euglandina as a successful biological control agent and despite the abundant evidence of their negative predatory impact on native snail fauna, carnivorous snail introductions continue (Cowrie 1992). Clearly public education about the French Polynesia’s precious natural fauna and the dangers posed to such fauna by carnivorous biological control agents could help to reduce the likelihood of Euglandina being purposefully translocated to new islands. Local willingness and experience are already in place to conserve French Polynesia’s partulid snails (Coote & Loeve 2003).

Management Category
None
Unknown
Monitoring
Bibliography
30 references found for Euglandina rosea

Managment information
Carlton, J.T. & G.M. Ruiz. 2003. Invasive species: vectors and management strategies. Island Press.
Civeyrel, L. and Simberloff, D. 1996. A tale of two snails: is the cure worse than the disease? Biodiversity and Conservation 5: 1231-1252.
Summary: A discussion of the introduction of predatory snails (notably Euglandina rosea), in putative attempts to control A. fulica. The devastating consequences on native land snail diversity, especially in the islands of the Pacific.
Clifford, K.T., L. Gross, K. Johnson, K.J. Martin, N. Shaheen & M.A. Harrington. 2003. Slime-Trail Tracking in the Predatory Snail, Euglandina rosea, Behavioral Neuroscience 117(5): 1086-1095.
Coote, T., D. Clarke, C.S. Hickman, J. Murray & P. Pearce-Kelly. 2004. Experimental Release of Endemic Partula Species, Extinct in the Wild, into a Protected Area of Natural Habitat on Moorea, Pacific Science 58(3): 429-434.
Cowie, R. H. 2000. Non-indigenous land and freshwater molluscs in the islands of the Pacific: conservation impacts and threats. In G. Sherley (ed.) Invasive species in the Pacific: a technical review and regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa: 143-172.
Summary: Discusses the conservation related impacts of the introduction of alien land and freshwater snails and slugs to the islands of the Pacific. Provides details of the main alien species of concern, identifies islands most at risk and islands on which to focus conservation efforts. Lists distribution details for all alien snails and slugs in the Pacific.
Gargominy, O. 2008. Beyond the alien invasion: a recently discovered radiation of Nesopupinae (Gastropods: Pulmonata: Vertiginidae) from the summits of Tahiti (Society Islands, French Polynesia), Journal of Conchology 39(5).
Hadfield, M. G., Miller, S. E. and Carwile, A. H. 1993. The decimation of endemic Hawai�ian tree snails by alien predators. American Zoologist 33: 610-622.
Summary: Discusses the impacts of alien rats and Euglandina rosea on native Hawaiian tree snails.
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Mead, A. R. 1961. The giant African snail: a problem in economic malacology. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.
Summary: Major treatise on the worldwide spread of A. fulica, its impacts, and management.
Murray, J., Murray, E., Johnson, M. S. and Clarke, B. 1988. The extinction of Partula on Moorea. Pacific Science 42: 150-153.
Summary: Reports the final demise of all seven Partula species of Moorea in the face of the spread of E. rosea and the imminent threat to Partula on Tahiti.
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
General information
Campbell, B.G. and Little, M.D. 1988. The finding of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats in New Orleans, Am J Trop Med Hyg. 38(3):
Coote, T. and Loeve, E. 2003. From 61 species to five: endemic tree snails of the Society Islands fall prey to an ill-judged biological control programme, Oryx 37(1): abstract.
Coote, Trevor, Zoological Society of London. Field Report 2000/2001 unpub.
Cowie, R.H. and Cook, R.P. 2001. Extinction or survival: partulid tree snails in American Samoa, Biodiversity and Conservation 10(2).
Gargominy, O. (Ed.). 2003. Biodiversit� et conservation dans les collectivit�s fran�aises d outre-mer. Comit� fran�ais pour l UICN, Paris.
Summary: Synth�se sur la biodiversit� des �les fran�aises d outre-mer et les enjeux de conservation.
Available from: http://www.uicn.fr/Biodiversite-outre-mer-2003.html [Accessed 26 March 2008]
Griffiths, O., Cook, A. and Wells, S. M. 1993. The diet of the carnivorous snail Euglandina rosea in Mauritius and its implications for threatened island gastropod faunas. Journal of Zoology 229: 79-89.
Summary: Assesses the feeding prefernces of E. rosea, showing that it preferes snails other than A. fulica, and preferes small over large snails. Lists the regions into which it has been introduced and the impacts in those regions.
Griffiths, O. Cook, A. and Wells, S.M. 1993. The diet of the introduced carnivorous snail Euglandina rosea in Mauritius and its implications for threatened island gastropod faunas, Journal of Zoology 229(1): abstract.
Griffiths, O. Florens, V. 2006. A field guide to the non-marine molluscs of the Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Rodrigues and R�union) and the Northern Dependencies of Mauritius. Bioculture Press, Mauritius
Hopper, D.R. and Smith, B.D. 1992. Status of tree snails (Gastropoda: Partulidae) on Guam, with a resurvey of sites studied by H.E. Crampton in 1920, Pacific Science 46(1): abstract.
Howarth, F.G. 1991. Environmental Impacts of Classical Biological Control, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 36.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Euglandina rosea
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/taxastep?king=every&p_action=containing&taxa=Euglandina+rosea&p_format=&p_ifx=plglt&p_lang= [Accessed March 2005]
Kinzie, R.A. 1992. Predation by the introduced carnivorous snail Euglandina rosea (Ferussac) on endemic aquatic lymnaeid snails in Hawaii, Biological Conservation 60(3): abstract.
Lee, T., J-Y. Meyer, J.B. Burch, P. Pearce-Kelly & D. O� Foighil. 2008. Not completely lost: two partulid tree snail species persist on the highest peak of Raiatea, French Polynesia, Fauna & Flora International, Oryx, 42(4): 615-619.
Mus�um national d Histoire naturelle [Ed]. 2003-2006 . Euglandina rosea (F�russac, 1821) Inventaire national du Patrimoine naturel
Summary: Base de donn�es en ligne sur le patrimoine naturel fran�ais.
Available from: http://inpn.mnhn.fr/isb/servlet/ISBServlet?action=Espece&typeAction=10&pageReturn=ficheEspeceDescription.jsp&numero_taxon=433018 [Accessed 1 April 2008]
Ohbayashi, T., I. Okochi, H. Sato, T. Ono & S. Chiba. 2007. Rapid decline of endemic snails in the Ogasawara Islands, Western Pacific Ocean, Appl. Entomol. Zool. 42(3): 479-485.
Regnier, C., B. Fontaine & P. Bouchet. 2009. Not Knowing, Not Recording, Not Listing: Numerous Unnoticed Mollusk Extinctions, Conservation Biology 23(5): 1214 - 1221.
Satoshi, C. 2003. Species Diversity and Conservation of Mandarina, an Endemic Land Snail of the Ogasawara Islands.
Summary: Available from: http://www.airies.or.jp/publication/ger/pdf/07-01-04.pdf [Accessed 4 March 2006]
Contact
The following 6 contacts offer information an advice on Euglandina rosea
Barthelat,
Fabien
Organization:
Assistant Technique Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature Initiative Cara�bes
Address:
C/O Parc National de Guadeloupe Habitation Beausoleil, Mont�ran 97120 Saint-Claude, Guadeloupe
Phone:
(+590) (0)590 80 86 00
Fax:
(+590) (0)590 80 05 46
Cowie,
Dr. Robert H.
Pacific biodiversity and nonmarine snails (land and freshwater).
Webpage
Organization:
University of Hawaii
Address:
Center for Conservation Research and Training,
University of Hawaii,
3050 Maile Way, Gilmore 409, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA
Phone:
+1 808 9564909
Fax:
(808) 956 2647/9608
Gargominy,
Olivier
Geographic region: Pacific, French Overseas Territories
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Mus�um National d Histoire Naturelle
Email:
Address:
Service du Patrimoine naturel, Mus�um National d Histoire Naturelle, Paris
Phone:
Fax:
Hadfield,
Michael G.
Biology and control of Euglandina rosea
Organization:
Kewalo Marine Laboratory
Address:
Kewalo Marine Laboratory, University of Hawaii, 41 Ahui St., Honolulu, Hawaii 96813, USA
Phone:
+1 808 5397319
Fax:
+1 808 5994817
Meyer,
Jean-Yves
Geographic region: Pacific, Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Expert in the botany of French Polynesia and the Pacific Islands, and has worked on ecology and biological control of Miconia calvescens in French Polynesia.
Organization:
D�l�gation � la Recherche
Address:
D�l�gation � la Recherche, Gouvernement de Polyn�sie fran�aise. B.P. 20981, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, Polyn�sie fran�aise
Phone:
689 47 25 60
Fax:
Murray,
Jim
Studies of Partula, including Achatina and Euglandina
Organization:
Department of Biology, University of Virginia
Address:
Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
+1 434-982-5771
Fax: