Global invasive species database

  • General
  • Distribution
  • Impact
  • Management
  • Bibliography
  • Contact
prev
  • Foliage (Photo: Jack Ranney, University of Tennessee)
  • Inflorescence close-up (Photo: Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut)
  • Roadside Incursion (Photo: Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut)
  • Infestation (Photo: Jack Ranney, University of Tennessee)
  • Infestation  (Photo: Chris Evans, The University of Georgia)
  • Japanese knotweed (Photo: Jil M. Swearingen, USDI National Park Service)
  • Japanese knotweed with fruit (Photo: Jil M. Swearingen, USDI National Park Service)
  • Japanese knotweed fruit (Photo: Jil M. Swearingen, USDI National Park Service)
  • Plants (Photo: Leslie Seiger, San Diego Mesa College)
  • Fallopia japonica (Photo: Riccardo Scalera)
next
Common name
huzhang (Chinese), sally rhubarb (English), German sausage (English), peashooter plant (English), donkey rhubarb (English), Japanese bamboo (English), crimson beauty (English), reynoutria fleece flower (English), Japanese knotweed (English), Japanese fleece flower (English), Mexican-bamboo (English), Japanese polygonum (English), kontiki bamboo (English), itadori (Japanese), renouée du Japon (French, France)
Synonym
Fallopia japonica , (Houtt.) Dcne.
Pleuropterus cuspidatus , (Sieb. & Zucc.) Moldenke
Pleuropterus zuccarinii , (Small) Small
Polygonum cuspidatum , Sieb. & Zucc. var. compactum (Hook f.) Bailey
Polygonum zuccarinii , Small
Reynoutria japonica , Houtt.
Polygonum cuspidatum , Sieb. & Zucc.
Similar species
Summary
Polygonum cuspidatum is an herbaceous perennial native to Japan. It has been introduced to Europe and North America as an ornamental and is also used to stabilise soil, especially in coastal areas. It requires full sun and is found primarily in moist habitats but also grows in waste places, along roadways and other disturbed areas. Once established, P. cuspidatum forms dense stands that shade and crowd out all other vegetation, displacing native flora and fauna, and the overwintering canes and leaves are slow to decompose.
Species Description
Polygonum cuspidatum is an upright, shrub-like, herbaceous perennial that can rapidly grow to over 3m in height (Remaley, 1997). Red to purple shoots appear early in spring but as the canes grow, the leaves unfurl and the plant turns green. The mature canes are hollow and have a characteristic pattern of purple speckles. Flowering occurs in late summer/autumn and consists of creamy white flowers.

The base of the stem above each joint is surrounded by a membranous sheath. Leaf size is usually about 15cm long by 8 -10cm wide, broadly oval to somewhat triangular and pointed at the tip. Seeds are about 2.5mm long, and are triangular and shiny. The rhizome may extend as deep as 3m and up to 7m away from the parent plant, and is knotty and leathery brown. Its rhizome snaps like a carrot and usually possesses a dark orange central core with an orange to yellow outer ring. Both male and female flowers possess vestigial organs of the other sex.

Notes
Taxonomists continue to debate the classification and nomenclature of P. cuspidatum, with most European researchers splitting Polygonum and using Fallopia japonica, while their North American colleagues use P. cuspidatum. Morphological evidence suggests that Polygonum in the broad sense should be split into several genera, with Fallopia (including Reynoutria) having three sections: (i) erect rhizomatous perennials (including Fallopia japonica), (ii) climbing perennials, and (iii) climbing annuals. Recent molecular evidence has placed P. cuspidatum in a monophyletic group with all other sampled Polygonum taxa within Polygonaceae, but was unable to resolve whether Fallopia should be segregated as a distinct genus (Barney et al, 2006). The currently accepted name by Integrated Taxonomic Information System is Polygonum cuspidatum (IT IS, 2009)
Lifecycle Stages
Rhizomes can regenerate when buried up to 1 metre deep and have been observed growing through 5cm of asphalt (Locandro 1978, Pridham and Bing 1975, in Seiger, 1991). The ability of rhizomes to generate shoots was affected by the source of rhizome fragments as well as fragment size and depth planted, the optimal depth being just below the surface (Locandro 1973, in Seiger, 1991). Adult plants die back at the first frost, leaving the root material to overwinter and provide the stock for the coming year.
Habitat Description
Polygonum cuspidatum can tolerate a wide range of conditions, including full shade, high temperatures, high salinity and drought. It is found near water sources, such as along river banks, low-lying and disturbed areas. It can colonize coastal shores and islands. In its native range, it grows on volcanic soils with a pH less than 4 (Conolly, 1977, in Seiger, 1991). In the U.S.A., it grows in a variety of soil types, such as silt, loam, and sand, with pH ranging from 4.5 to 7.4. Its distribution appears to be limited by light, and it is found primarily in open sites such as roadsides or riparian zones (Sieger, 1991; Beerling, 1990).
Reproduction
The primary mode of reproduction of Polygonum cuspidatum in Europe and North America appears to be through extensive rhizomes (Seiger, 1991). Stem material can grow after cutting. Plants can reliably regenerate from less than 5 g of root material and the rhizomes beneath a square meter stand of knotweed can produce 238 new shoots. The rhizomes form pinkish nodules in early spring from which shoots develop in April. The exact timing of emergence depends on soil temperature and other climate factors. Some clumps of P. cuspidatum will have originated from a single rhizome and will have only one type of flower. Although previously thought to reproduce clonally, sexual reproduction and seed production was, in fact, found to occur in the United States. Results showed that wild P. cuspidatum produce large quantities of seed that typically have high germinability. Its flowers are insect pollinated. Its seeds are viable whether sown immediately after collection or subjected to various conditions during the winter season and germinated the following spring. Cultivars of knotweed also produce viable seed and can thus contribute to the invasiveness of this species. In addition, wild P. cuspidatum seedlings were observed at several field sites, with several of these seedlings surviving the winter and resprouting the following spring. That sexual reproduction and seedling survival occur in the wild has strong implications for the development of management strategies for this species (Bend & Turner, 2006; Forman & Kesseli, 2003).
Pathway
Polygonum cuspidatum was introduced from Japan to the United Kingdom as an ornamental in 1825 (Conolly 1977, Patterson 1976, Pridham and Bing 1975, in Seiger, 1991).Polygonum cuspidatum was introduced from United Kingdom to North America in the late nineteenth century as an ornamental (Conolly 1977, Patterson 1976, Pridham and Bing 1975, in Seiger, 1991).Bee keepers have planted it for its abundant nectar secretion (Locandro 1978, in Doll and Doll, 1998).Remaley (1997) states that Polygonum cuspidatum was first introduced as an ornamental and has also been used for erosion control and for landscape screening.Imported infested topsoil

Principal source:

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review:

Publication date: 2010-10-04

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc. (=Fallopia japonica (Houtt. Dcne.). Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=91 on 30-09-2016.

General Impacts
Polygonum cuspidatum threatens open and riparian areas where it spreads rapidly and forms dense near monoculture stands, which compete with and displace native vegetation and prohibiting their regeneration. It dramatically reduces species diversity and alters habitat for wildlife. A study found that plots adjacent to P. cuspidatum stands had 1.6-10 times as many species. A total of 63 species were found outside knotweed stands, of which 78% were native. Only 13 species, 58% of which were native, were found within stands. Invasion by P. cuspidatum can also reduce invertebrate biodiversity by half or more and reduce the quality of ecosystems for amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals whose diets are largely composed of arthropods. For example, the Green frog (Rana clamitans) was found to experience decreased foraging in knotweed stands. In raparian habitats P. cusidatum may also increase the risk of flooding and river bank erosion as it establishes monospecific stand that die back in the winter leaving banks exposed. Its tough shoots can break through gravel, tarmac, and even concrete. Prolific rhizome and shoot growth can damage foundations, walls, pavements, drainage works, and flood prevention structures. Its dead stems and leaf litter decompose very slowly and form a deep organic layer, which prevents native seeds from germinating and alters natural succession. The UK Governments Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs has estimated a cost of £1.5 billion to control this invasive in United Kingdom alone. In Germany, annual costs for knotweed control and subsequent restoration of waterways and watercourses have been put at almost €30 million; yearly control along only 1% of the total railway system has been calculated at €2.4 million (Aguilera et al, 2009; Gerber et al, 2008; Kurose et al, 2009a; Maerz et al, 2005; Pysek, 2006; ANHP, 2006).
Management Info
Preventative measures: The U.K. Wildlife and Countryside Act states that it is illegal to cause Polygonum cuspidatum to grow in the wild. Polygonum cuspidatum is subject to control legislation in some US states.

Physical: Mechanical control methods such as cutting, mowing and pulling can be effective over a long time scale but needs to be consistent, and the disposal of material must be done with care. It is effective for small, initial populations or environmentally sensitive areas where herbicides cannot be used (Remaley, 1997). Control by cutting alone is ineffective and may increase stem density and the lateral spread of clumps (Beerling et al., 1994). Regrowth is very rapid. Pulling or digging out the weed has some effect if repeated regularly but all waste plant material must be burned. Burning the plant in situ has not proved effective. Cutting or mowing every 4 weeks will reduce rhizome growth but will not eliminate the plant (Weber, 2003). Two cuts, the first in May-June, the second in late summer and repeated annually until no new shoots appear is said to work eventually. Mowing every 2 weeks effectively eliminated the weed in 2 years (Baker, 1988; Child et al., 1993). Pulling by hand in July when plants were well grown took 3 years to eliminate just a small patch of the weed. In larger patches the weed had not been eliminated after 10 years of annual pulling (Bond & Turner, 2006).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc. (=Fallopia japonica (Houtt. Dcne.)
Informations on Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc. (=Fallopia japonica (Houtt. Dcne.) has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc. (=Fallopia japonica (Houtt. Dcne.) in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Polygonum cuspidatum threatens open and riparian areas where it spreads rapidly and forms dense near monoculture stands, which compete with and displace native vegetation and prohibiting their regeneration. It dramatically reduces species diversity and alters habitat for wildlife. A study found that plots adjacent to P. cuspidatum stands had 1.6-10 times as many species. A total of 63 species were found outside knotweed stands, of which 78% were native. Only 13 species, 58% of which were native, were found within stands. Invasion by P. cuspidatum can also reduce invertebrate biodiversity by half or more and reduce the quality of ecosystems for amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals whose diets are largely composed of arthropods. For example, the Green frog (Rana clamitans) was found to experience decreased foraging in knotweed stands. In raparian habitats P. cusidatum may also increase the risk of flooding and river bank erosion as it establishes monospecific stand that die back in the winter leaving banks exposed. Its tough shoots can break through gravel, tarmac, and even concrete. Prolific rhizome and shoot growth can damage foundations, walls, pavements, drainage works, and flood prevention structures. Its dead stems and leaf litter decompose very slowly and form a deep organic layer, which prevents native seeds from germinating and alters natural succession. The UK Governments Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs has estimated a cost of £1.5 billion to control this invasive in United Kingdom alone. In Germany, annual costs for knotweed control and subsequent restoration of waterways and watercourses have been put at almost €30 million; yearly control along only 1% of the total railway system has been calculated at €2.4 million (Aguilera et al, 2009; Gerber et al, 2008; Kurose et al, 2009a; Maerz et al, 2005; Pysek, 2006; ANHP, 2006).
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
FRANCE
UNITED STATES
Mechanism
[1] Competition
[1] Interaction with other invasive species
Outcomes
[6] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Modification of hydrology/water regulation, purification and quality /soil moisture
  • [1] Modification of nutrient pool and fluxes
  • [1] Habitat degradation
  • [2] Modification of successional patterns
  • [1] Soil or sediment modification: erosion
[1] Environmental Species - Population
  • [1] Reduces/inhibits the growth of other species
[1] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Damage to agriculture
Management information
Preventative measures: The U.K. Wildlife and Countryside Act states that it is illegal to cause Polygonum cuspidatum to grow in the wild. Polygonum cuspidatum is subject to control legislation in some US states.

Physical: Mechanical control methods such as cutting, mowing and pulling can be effective over a long time scale but needs to be consistent, and the disposal of material must be done with care. It is effective for small, initial populations or environmentally sensitive areas where herbicides cannot be used (Remaley, 1997). Control by cutting alone is ineffective and may increase stem density and the lateral spread of clumps (Beerling et al., 1994). Regrowth is very rapid. Pulling or digging out the weed has some effect if repeated regularly but all waste plant material must be burned. Burning the plant in situ has not proved effective. Cutting or mowing every 4 weeks will reduce rhizome growth but will not eliminate the plant (Weber, 2003). Two cuts, the first in May-June, the second in late summer and repeated annually until no new shoots appear is said to work eventually. Mowing every 2 weeks effectively eliminated the weed in 2 years (Baker, 1988; Child et al., 1993). Pulling by hand in July when plants were well grown took 3 years to eliminate just a small patch of the weed. In larger patches the weed had not been eliminated after 10 years of annual pulling (Bond & Turner, 2006).

Locations
Management Category
Prevention
Control
Unknown
Bibliography
65 references found for Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc. (=Fallopia japonica (Houtt. Dcne.)

Managment information
Alien Plants in Ireland, 2007. Fallopia japonica
Summary: The database of alien plants in Ireland contains detailed information on 715 alien plant taxa currently occurring in (semi-) natural habitats in Ireland (both the Republic and Northern-Ireland). This database was developed in 2006 at the School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, as part of the BioChange project, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Ireland.
Available from: http://www.biochange.ie/alienplants/index.php [Accessed April 26 2007]
This page available from: http://www.biochange.ie/alienplants/result_species.php?species=164&volg=i&lang=latin&p=i [Accessed 26 April 2007]
AME, 2004 Agence M�diterran�enne de l Environnement. Plantes Envahissantes de la Region Mediterraneenne. Reynoutria japonica
Barney, Jacob N., Tharayil, Nishanth, DiTommaso, Antonio, Bhowmik, Prasanta C. 2006. The. biology of invasive alien plants in Canada. 5. Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc. [= Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decr.]. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 86(3). JUL 2006. 887-905.
Barney, Jacob N., Whitlow, Thomas H., Lembo, Arthur J. Jr. 2008. Revealing Historic Invasion Patterns and Potential Invasion Sites for Two Non-Native Plant Species. PLoS One. 3(2). FEB 20 2008. Article No.: e1635.
Beerling, D.J. 1991. The effect of Riparian land use on the occurrence and abundance of Japanese knotweed Reynoutria japonica on selected rivers in South Wales. Biological Conservation Volume 55, Issue 3, 1991, Pages 329-337.
Bond, W. and Turner, R. 2006. The biology and non-chemical control of Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica (Houtt)). HDRA, Ryton Organic Gardens, Coventry, CV8, 3LG, UK.
Bond, W; G Davies, R Turner., 2006. The biology and non-chemical control of Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica (Houtt)). HDRA, Ryton Organic Gardens, Coventry, CV8, 3LG, UK
Child, L. and Wade, M. 2000. The Japanese Knotweed Manual. 123 pp.
Summary: This manual provides essential information on Japanese knotweed and its control and is useful for students and land managers alike. It also concentrates on preventing an outbreak and deals with issues through case studies.
Conservationevidence.com, Case study 33. Cut and inject herbicide control of Japanese knotweed Fallopia japonica, in Cornwall, England
Summary: The objective in creating this website is to provide the means of collating information on conservation management, sources including published papers, reports and the evidence of practitioners.
Case study 33 is available from: http://www.conservationevidence.com/ViewEntry.asp?ID=33 [Accessed 4 June 2005]
The database can be searched at: http://www.conservationevidence.com/search.asp
Dassonville, Nicolas, Vanderhoeven, Sonia, Gruber, Wolf, Meerts, Pierre. 2007. Invasion by Fallopia japonica increases topsoil mineral nutrient concentrations. Ecoscience. 14(2). 2007. 230-240.
Davenport, Roberta., 2006. Control of Knotweed and other invasive species and experiences restoring native species in the Pacific Northwest US. Native Plants Journal 7.1 (2006) 20-26
Environment Waikato, 2008. Regional Pest Management Strategy 2008-2013 > 5.2.6 Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica) and Giant knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis)
Summary: Available from: http://www.ew.govt.nz/policy-and-plans/Regional-Pest-Management-Strategy/Regional-Pest-Management-Strategy-2008-2013/Part-2/5-Pest-plants/52-Eradication-pest-plants/526-Japanese-knotweed-Fallopia-japonica-and-Giant-knotweed-Fallopia-sachalinensis/ [Accessed 6 November 2009]
European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO), 2005. Reporting Service 2005, No. 9.
Summary: The EPPO Reporting Service is a monthly information report on events of phytosanitary concern. It focuses on new geographical records, new host plants, new pests (including invasive alien plants), pests to be added to the EPPO Alert List, detection and identification methods etc. The EPPO Reporting Service is published in English and French.
Available from: http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOReporting/2005/Rse-0509.pdf [Accessed 28 November 2005]
Ford, S., 2004. Cut and inject herbicide control of Japanese Knotweed Fallopia japonica at Rocky Valley, Cornwall, England. Conservation Evidence (2004) 1, 1-2
Summary: Available from: http://www.conservationevidence.com/Attachments/PDF12.pdf [Accessed 17 November 2009]
Gerber, E., Krebs, C., Murrell, C., Schaffner, U. 2004. Assessing the ecological and economic impact of the invasive plant species Japanese knotweed, Fallopia japonica. CABI Bioscience Switzerland Centre, Switzerland.
Gillespie, P & Faithfull, I., 2004. Knotweed: State Prohibited Weed. State of Victoria, Department of Primary Industries, Frankston, Victoria.
Summary: Available from: http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/nreninf.nsf/LinkView/643CD116260B0928CA256E9000824464663C5274163D2336CA256E8D001EFC6C
http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/nreninf.nsf/93a98744f6ec41bd4a256c8e00013aa9/0dd6be586820470aca256e9100003bc3/$FILE/LC0377.pdf Factsheet available from: http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/nreninf.nsf/93a98744f6ec41bd4a256c8e00013aa9/0dd6be586820470aca256e9100003bc3/$FILE/LC0377.pdf
Invasiveness Assessment available from: http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/vro/vrosite.nsf/pages/invasive_japanese_knotweed
Hollingsworth, Michelle L. and Bailey, John P. 2000. Evidence for massive clonal growth in the invasive weed Fallopia japonica (Japanese Knotweed). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 133(4). August, 2000. 463-472.
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Kurose, Daisuke, Evans, Harry C., Djeddour, Djamila H., Cannon, Paul F., Furuya, Naruto, Tsuchiya, Kenichi. 2009a. Systematics of Mycosphaerella species associated with the invasive weed Fallopia japonica, including the potential biological control agent M-polygoni-cuspidati. Mycoscience. 50(3). MAY 2009. 179-189.
Kurose, D., Furuya, N, Matsumoto, M, Djeddour, D.H, Evans, H.C, Tsuchiya, K. 2009b. Evaluation of a Puccinia rust as a potential biological control agent of Fallopia japonica. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University Volume 54, Issue 1, February 2009, Pages 59-64 .
Kurose, D., Renals, Shaw, R., Furuya, N, Takagi, M, Evans, H. 2006. Fallopia japonica, an increasingly intractable weed problem in the UK: Can fungi help cut through this Gordian knot?. Mycologist Volume 20, Issue 4, November 2006, Pages 126-129.
Lecerf, Antoine, Patfield, Denise, Boiche, Anatole, Riipinen, Miira P., Chauvet, Eric, Dobson, Michael. 2007. Stream ecosystems respond to riparian invasion by Japanese knotweed ( Fallopia japonica). Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences. 64(9). SEP 2007. 1273-1283.
Pysek, Petr. 2006. Fallopia japonica. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe (DAISIE)
Summary: Available from: http://www.europe-aliens.org/pdf/Fallopia_japonica.pdf [Accessed 23 August 2009]
Rebbeck, Joanne., Todd F. Hutchinson and Robert P. Long., 2005. Invasive plants Affecting the Management of Ohio s Forests. Proceedings, 16th U.S. Department of Agriculture interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species 2005 GTR-NE-337
Remaley T., 1997 Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc.. National Park Service, Plant Conservation Alliance, Alien Plant Working Group.
Summary: Detailed report on description, distribution, habitat, reproduction methods and management.
Available from http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/pocu1.htm [Accessed 22 May 2003]
Richards, Christina L., Walls, Ramona L., Bailey, John P., Parameswaran, Radha, George, Tara, Pigliucci, Massimo. 2008. Plasticity in salt tolerance traits allows for invasion of novel habitat by Japanese knotweed s. l. (Fallopia japonica and F-bohemica, Polygonaceae). American Journal of Botany. 95(8). AUG 2008. 931-942.
Seiger L. (1991) Element Stewardship Abstract for Polygonum cuspidatum. The Nature Conservancy.
Summary: An Element Stewardship Abstract containing detail report on description, distribution, dispersal methods, impacts, habitats and control.
Available from http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/polycus.html [Accessed 22 May 2003]
Seiger, L.A. and Merchant, H.C. 1997. Mechanical control of Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica [Houtt.] Ronse Decraene): Effects of cutting regime on rhizomatous reserves. Natural Areas Journal 17 (4), pp. 341-345.
Shaw, R. 2000. The Japanese Knotweed Alliance.
Summary: The Japanese Knotweed Alliance was established in November 1999 to highlight the problems posed by this invasive weed and to promote its natural control with biological predators in Europe where such control is poorly understood. It provides valuable information about the plant, its problems and the potential for biological control as well as links to other sites.
Tiebre, Marie-Solange, Saad, Layla, Mahy, Gregory. 2008. Landscape dynamics and habitat selection by the alien invasive Fallopia (Polygonaceae) in Belgium. Biodiversity & Conservation. 17(10). SEP 2008. 2357-2370.
Tu, M., Hurd, C., and Randall, J.M. 2001. Weed Control Methods Handbook, The Nature Conservancy, Version: April 2001.
Summary: This Handbook is divided into eight chapters, covering a range of different control methods. Successful weed control requires the combination or sequential use of several methods (called integrated weed management). Consider all available control options: manual, mechanical, promoting competition from native plants, grazing, biocontrol, herbicides, prescribed fire, solarization, flooding, and other, more novel, techniques. Each has advantages and disadvantages in terms of its effects against the target weed(s), impacts to untargeted plants and animals, risks to human health and safety, and costs. The chapters discuss the advantages and disadvantages for each method and provide examples of their successful (and in some cases unsuccessful) use in natural areas.
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
Wang, Yi, Ding, Jianqing, Zhang, Guoan. 2008. Gallerucida bifasciata (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae), a potential biological control agent for Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica). Biocontrol Science & Technology. 18(1). 2008. 59-74.
Zika, Peter F. and Jacobson, Arthur L. 2003. An overlooked hybrid Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum X sachalinense; Polygonaceae) in North America. Rhodora. 105(922). Spring 2003. 143-152.
Summary: A new combination is provided for the hybrid between Polygonum cuspidatum and P. sachalinense. The hybrid, Polygonum X bohemicum (J. Chrtek & A. Chrtkova) P. F. Zika & A. L. Jacobson, comb. nov., is widespread and invasive across North America. We illustrate the parents and hybrid, and supply a key to distinguish the three taxa.
General information
Aguilera, A.G., Alpert, P., Dukes, J.S. , Harrington, R. 2009. Impacts of the invasive plant Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) on plant communities and ecosystem processes. Biological Invasions 2009, Pages 1-10.
Alberternst, B. & B�hmer, H.J. 2006. NOBANIS � Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheet � Fallopia japonica.
Summary: Available from: http://www.nobanis.org/files/factsheets/Fallopia_japonica.pdf [Accessed 10 August 2009]
Bailey, John P., Bimova, Katerina, Mandak, Bohumil. 2007. The potential role of polyploidy and hybridisation in the further evolution of the highly invasive Fallopia taxa in Europe. Ecological Research. 22(6). NOV 2007. 920-928.
Bailey, J. P. 1990. Breeding behavior and seed production in Alien Giant Knotweed in the British Isles. In: The Biology and Control of Invasive Plants. Conference organized by the Industrial Ecology Group of the British Ecological Society at the University of Wales College of Cardiff, September 20-21, 1990
Bailey, J. P. and Conolly, A. P. 2000. Prize-winners to pariahs - A history of Japanese Knotweed s.l. (Polygonaceae) in the British Isles. Watsonia. 23(1). February, 2000. 93-110.
Beerling, David J. and Dawah, Hassan A. 1993. Abundance and diversity of invertebrates associated with Fallopia japonica (Houtt. Ronse Decraene) and Impatiens glandulifera (Royle): Two alien plant species in the British Isles. Entomologist. 112(2). 1993. 127-139.
Beerling, D.J., Bailey, J.P. and Conolly, A.P. 1994. Biological Flora of the British Isles - Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decraene (Reynoutria japonica Houtt.; Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc.). J. Ecol.. 82: 959-979.
B�mov�, K., Mand�k, B., Ka�parov�, I. 2004. How does Reynoutria invasion fit the various theories of invasibility? Journal of Vegetation Science Volume 15, Issue 4, August 2004, Pages 495-504.
Braatne, J.H, Sullivan, S.M.P, Chamberlain, E. 2007. Leaf decomposition and stream macroinvertebrate colonisation of Japanese knotweed, an invasive plant species. International Review of Hydrobiology Volume 92, Issue 6, 2007, Pages 656-665.
Dassonville, N, Vanderhoeven, S, Vanparys, V, Hayez, M., Gruber, W., Meerts, P. 2008. Impacts of alien invasive plants on soil nutrients are correlated with initial site conditions in NW Europe. Oecologia Volume 157, Issue 1, August 2008, Pages 131-140
Esther Gerbera, Christine Krebsa, Craig Murrella, Marco Morettib, Remy Rocklinc, and Urs Schaffner. 2008. Exotic invasive knotweeds (Fallopia spp.) negatively affect native plant and invertebrate assemblages in European riparian habitats. Biological Conservation Volume 141, Issue 3, March 2008, Pages 646-654.
Forman, Jennifer and Kesseli, Richard V. 2003. Sexual reproduction in the invasive species Fallopia japonica (Polygonaceae). American Journal of Botany. 90(4). April 2003. 586-592.
Fremstad, E. and Elven, R. 1997. Alien plants in Norway. The large Fallopia species. Blyttia. 55(1). 1997. 3-14.
Gammon, Melinda A., Grimsby, Jonna L., Tsfrelson, Dina, Kesseli, Rick. 2007. Molecular and morphological evidence reveals introgression in swarms of the invasive Taxa Fallopia japonica, F. sachalinensis, and F. x bohemica (Polygonaceae) in the United States. American Journal of Botany. 94(6). JUN 2007. 948-956.
Horn, P. and Prach, K. 1994. Aerial biomass of Reynoutria japonica and its comparison with that of native species. Preslia Volume 66, Issue 4, 1994, Pages 345-348.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Fallopia japonica
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/taxastep?king=every&p_action=containing&taxa=Fallopia+japonica&p_format=&p_ifx=plglt&p_lang= [Accessed March 2005]
Maerz, John C., Blossey, Bernd, Nuzzo, Victoria. 2005. Green frogs show reduced foraging success in habitats invaded by Japanese knotweed. Biodiversity & Conservation. 14(12). NOV 2005. 2901-2911.
Muller, S. 2006. Conservation de la biodiversit� � Saint Pierre et Miquelon. Rapport de mission dans l�archipel. Minist�re de l�Ecologie et du D�veloppement Durable. Universit� Paul Verlaine-Metz. 33 p
Summary: Ce rapport �tablit un diagnostic de la biodiversit� de l archipel et formule des propositions relatives � sa conservation.
Mummigatti, K. 2008. The effects of Japanese Knotweed (Reynoutria japonica) on riparian lands in Otsego County, New York. Unknown.
Price, Elizabeth A. C., Gamble, Rebecca, Williams, Gareth G., Marshall, Christopher. 2002. Seasonal patterns of partitioning and remobilization of 14C in the invasive rhizomatous perennial Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decraene). Evolutionary Ecology. 15(4-6). 2001(2002). 347-362.
Schnitzler, A. and Muller, S. 1998. Ecology and biogeography of plants which invade Europa: The annoying knotweed from Japan (Fallopia japonica and F. sachalinensis). Revue d Ecologie (La Terre et la Vie) Volume 53, Issue 1, 1998, Pages 3-39.
Talmage, E. and Kiviat, E. 2004. Japanese Knotweed and Water Quality on the Batavia Kill in Greene County, New York: Background Information and Literature Review. Greene County Soil and Water Conservation District and New York City Department of Environmental Protection, USA.
The North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species (NOBANIS), 2009. Fallopia japonica
Summary: Available from: http://www.nobanis.org/speciesInfo.asp?taxaID=2782 [Accessed 10 August 2009]
Ti�br�, M.-S., Vanderhoeven, S., Saad, L., Mahy, G. 2007. Hybridization and sexual reproduction in the invasive alien Fallopia (Polygonaceae) complex in Belgium. Annals of Botany Volume 99, Issue 1, January 2007, Pages 193-203.
Trinajstic Vvo, Josip Franjic, Kajba, Davorin. 1994. Contribution to the knowledge of the spreading of the taxon Reynoutria japonica Houtt. (Polygonaceae) in Croatia. Acta Botanica Croatica. 53(0). 1994. 145-149.
Urgenson, Lauren and Reichard, Sarah H. 2007. The ecological consequences of giant knotweed invasion into riparian forests. U S Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station General Technical Report PNW-GTR.(694). JUN 2007. 63-64.
USDA-ARS (United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service) National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Summary: Information on common names, synonyms, distributional range of species.
Available from http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?312862 [Accessed 22 May 2003]
USDA-NRCS (United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service). 2002. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. Baton Rouge, Louisiana: National Plant Data Center.
Summary: Brief report on distribution, taxonomy and links to information about the invasive.
Available from http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi [Accessed 22 May 2003]
Weston, Leslie A., Barney, Jacob N., DiTommaso, Antonio. 2005. A review of the biology and ecology of three invasive perennials in New York State: Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum), mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) and pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum). Plant & Soil. 277(1-2). DEC 2005. 53-69.
Contact
The following 2 contacts offer information an advice on Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc. (=Fallopia japonica (Houtt. Dcne.)
Booy,
Olaf
Heracleum mantegazzianum (Fallopia japonica, Rhododendron ponticum, Impatiens glandulifera)
Organization:
RPS Ecology / University of Hertfordshire
Address:
RPS Ecology, Willow Mere House, Compass Point Business Park, Stocks Bridge Way, St Ives. PE27 5JL UNITED KINGDOM
Phone:
+44 (0) 1480 466 335
Fax:
+44 (0) 1480 466 911
Shaw,
Dick
Fallopia japonica
Organization:
CABI Bioscience
Address:
Silwood Park, Buckhurst Lane, Ascot, Berkshire, England SL5 7TA.
Phone:
+44 134 4872999
Fax:
+44 134 4872123