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Common name
chandravalli (Sanskrit, India), kamuka (Sanskrit, India), haldavel (Malayalam, India), liane de cerf (French), benghalen-Liane (German), hiptage (English), madhumalati (Malayalam, India), adimurtte (Kanarese, India), kampti (Hindi, India), Madhavi (Kanarese, India), ragotpiti (Gujrati, India), atimukta (Hindi, India), madhalata (Hindi, India), madhavi (Gujrati, India), madmalati (Hindi, India), vasantduti (Kanarese, India), adirganti (Kanarese, India)
Synonym
Banisteria benghalensis , L.
Triopteris jamaicensis , L.
Hiptage madablota , Gaertn.
Banisteria benghalensis , L.
Banisteria tetraptera , Sonnerat
Banisteria unicapsularis , Lam.
Gaertnera indica , J.F.Gmel.
Gaertnera obtusifolia , (DC.) Roxb.
Gaertnera racemosa , Vahl
Hiptage benghalensis , (L.) Kurz forma typica Nied.
Hiptage benghalensis , (L.) Kurz forma macroptera (Merr.) Nied.
Hiptage benghalensis , (L.) Kurz forma latifoliaNied.
Hiptage macroptera , Merr.
Hiptage javanica , Blume
Hiptage madablota , Gaertn.
Hiptage malaiensis , Nied.
Hiptage obtusifolia , DC.
Hiptage pinnata , Elmer
Hiptage teysmannii , Arènes
Molina racemosa , Cav.
Succowia fimbriata , Dennst.
Hieracium floribundum , Wimm. & Grab. (pro sp.) [caespitosum lactucella]
Hiptage benghalensis , (L.) Kurz forma cochinchinensis Pierre
Similar species
Summary
Hiptage benghalensis is a native of India, Southeast Asia and the Philippines. The genus name, Hiptage, is derived from the Greek \"hiptamai\" which means \"to fly\" and refers to its unique three-winged fruit known as \"samara\". Due to the beautiful unique form of its flowers, it is often cultivated as a tropical ornamental in gardens. It has been recorded as being a weed in Australian rainforests and is extremely invasive on Mauritius and Réunion, where it thrives in dry lowland forests, forming impenetrable thickets and smothering native vegetation.
Species Description
H. benghalensis is a high-climbing liana (woody, climbing vine) or large shrub, with white or yellowish hairs; leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, to 20cm (8 in.) long; flowers pink to white, with yellow marks, in 10-30-flowered racemes (Bailey and Bailey 1976, in PIER, 2002). It has scandent branches up to 5m high. Leaves simple, opposite, blade usually elliptic and 6-18cm long (2.5-7 in) with an attenuate tip. The plant flowers intermittently during the year, and produces fragrant flowers borne in compact axillary racemes. The corolla consists of five free, elliptic to round, reflexed petals 1-1.7cm long (3/8-3/4 in), white with one petal yellow in the center, margins fringed. Fruit a samara with three spreading, papery oblanceolate to elliptic wing 2-5cm long (3/4-2 in) (Whistler 2000, in Starr et al. 2003).
Uses
H. benghalensis is widely cultivated in the tropics for its attractive and fragrant flowers; it can be trimmed to form a small tree or shrub or can be trained as a vine (Whistler 2000, in Starr Starr and Loope 2003). It is also occasionally cultivated for medicinal purposes (Starr Starr and Loope 2003). Hiptage holds a reputed position in Indian medicine. The leaves and bark are hot, acrid, bitter, insecticidal, vulnerary and useful in treatment of biliousness, cough, burning sensation, thirst and inflammation; it has the ability to treat skin diseases and leprosy (Agharkar, 1991).
Habitat Description
Habitat variable (Bailey and Bailey, 1976, cited in PIER, 2002). Prefers climates ranging from warm temperate to tropical. Dry and moist areas from sea level to 1000m (3500 ft.) elevation in Hawai‘i (PIER, 2002).
Reproduction
Propagation occurs via seeds or cuttings. The seeds are readily dispersed by wind. (PIER, 2002)
Pathway
Ornamental (GRIN-CA, 2002)

Principal source: Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER), 2002.

Compiler: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Wendy Stahm Ph.D., IUCN Plants Officer.

Publication date: 2006-07-24

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Hiptage benghalensis. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=87 on 28-07-2016.

General Impacts
H. benghalensis is reported as invasive in Florida, Hawaii, La Réunion, Mauritius and Western Australia (Randall 2002, in Starr Starr and Loope 2003). The Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC 2001) lists H. benghalensis as a category II plant, which are species that have shown a potential to disrupt native plant communities (Starr Starr and Loope 2003). Randall (2002) lists this species in the global compendium of weeds for Western Australia (Starr Starr and Loope 2003) and in tropical Australian rainforests it is a pest (Grice and Setter 2002). On Réunion island it spreads widely by its wind-dispersed seeds and it reported to climb over and smother native vegetation (PIER 2002, in Starr Starr and Loope 2003). It is also reported as invasive in Mauritius (PIER 2002, in Starr Starr and Loope 2003). H. benghalensis is reported as invasive in Hawaii (PIER 2002, in Starr Starr and Loope 2003). In addition, this species is listed by Staples et al. (2000) in their checklist of invasive or potentially invasive cultivated plants in Hawaii (Starr Starr and Loope 2003).
Management Info
Education and public awareness are appropriate cultural controls to ensure the weed is not planted as an ornamental near environmentally precious areas. In countries with tropical regions and warm climates such as Palau it is recommended that troublesome species (including H. benghalensis) should be prevented from reaching the country and establishing in native ecosystems such as tropical rainforests. Weed species should receive high priority for exclusion from entry into the country and promptly evaluated for eradication if found to be present. It is essential that plant growers are aware of the species' potential to become invasive in the wild (Starr Starr and Loope 2003).
Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Hiptage benghalensis
ALIEN RANGE
NATIVE RANGE
  • china
  • india
  • indo-china
  • indonesia
  • malaysia
  • myanmar
  • philippines
  • south east asia
  • sri lanka
  • taiwan
  • thailand
Informations on Hiptage benghalensis has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Hiptage benghalensis in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
H. benghalensis is reported as invasive in Florida, Hawaii, La Réunion, Mauritius and Western Australia (Randall 2002, in Starr Starr and Loope 2003). The Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC 2001) lists H. benghalensis as a category II plant, which are species that have shown a potential to disrupt native plant communities (Starr Starr and Loope 2003). Randall (2002) lists this species in the global compendium of weeds for Western Australia (Starr Starr and Loope 2003) and in tropical Australian rainforests it is a pest (Grice and Setter 2002). On Réunion island it spreads widely by its wind-dispersed seeds and it reported to climb over and smother native vegetation (PIER 2002, in Starr Starr and Loope 2003). It is also reported as invasive in Mauritius (PIER 2002, in Starr Starr and Loope 2003). H. benghalensis is reported as invasive in Hawaii (PIER 2002, in Starr Starr and Loope 2003). In addition, this species is listed by Staples et al. (2000) in their checklist of invasive or potentially invasive cultivated plants in Hawaii (Starr Starr and Loope 2003).
Red List assessed species 1: EN = 1;
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Locations
Mechanism
[2] Competition
Outcomes
[2] Environmental Species - Population
  • [2] Reduces/inhibits the growth of other species
Management information
Education and public awareness are appropriate cultural controls to ensure the weed is not planted as an ornamental near environmentally precious areas. In countries with tropical regions and warm climates such as Palau it is recommended that troublesome species (including H. benghalensis) should be prevented from reaching the country and establishing in native ecosystems such as tropical rainforests. Weed species should receive high priority for exclusion from entry into the country and promptly evaluated for eradication if found to be present. It is essential that plant growers are aware of the species' potential to become invasive in the wild (Starr Starr and Loope 2003).
Bibliography
24 references found for Hiptage benghalensis

Managment information
Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC), 2001. List of Invasive Species.
Summary: List of Invasive species in Florida, their category, common names and their general distribution in Florida.
Available from: www.fleppc.org/01list.htm [Accessed 5 February 2003]
Hivert, J. 2003. Plantes exotiques envahissantes - Etat des m�thodes de lutte mise en oeuvre par l Office National des For�ts � La R�union. ONF R�union.
Summary: Synth�se des m�thodes de lutte employ�es par l ONF � la R�union contre une vingtaine de plantes exotiques envahissantes.
Information Ventures, Inc. Triclopyr - Pesticide Fact Sheet.
Summary: Triclopyr herbicide fact sheet prepared for the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Available from: http://infoventures.com/e-hlth/pestcide/triclopy.html [Accessed 5 February 2003]
Kueffer, C. and Mauremootoo, J., 2004. Case Studies on the Status of Invasive Woody Plant Species in the Western Indian Ocean. 3. Mauritius (Islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues). Forest Health & Biosecurity Working Papers FBS/4-3E. Forestry Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk), 2002. Hiptage benghalensis
Summary: Ecology, synonyms, common names, distributions (Pacific as well as global), management and impact information.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/hiptage_benghalensis.htm [Accessed 5 February 2003].
Space, J.C. and Flynn, T. 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on Invasive Plant Species of Environmental Concern. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station:Honolulu. [Accessed 13 February 2006, from: ]
Summary: Cook Island management of invasive plants including yellow ginger.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/cook_islands_report.pdf [Accessed 13 February]
Starr, F. Starr, K. Loope, L. 2003. Plants of Hawaii. United States Geological Survey--Biological Resources Division. Haleakala Field Station, Maui, Hawaii.
Summary: A review of infomation on Hiptage benghalensis.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/starr/hiplants/reports/html/hiptage_benghalensis.htm [Accessed 25 February 2003].
General information
Agharkar, S.P. 1991. Medicinal plants of Bombay presidency. Pbl. Scientific Publishes, Jodhpur, India, p.p. 115-116
Summary: Medicinal Uses of Hiptage benghalensis
Conservatoire Botanique National De Mascarin (BOULLET V. coord.) 2007. - Hiptage benghalensis Index de la flore vasculaire de la R�union (Trach�ophytes) : statuts, menaces et protections. - Version 2007.1 (mise � jour 12 juin 2007).
Summary: Base de donn�es sur la flore de la R�union. De nombreuses informations tr�s utiles.
Available from: http://flore.cbnm.org/index2.php?page=taxon&num=5401acfe633e6817b508b84d23686743 [Accessed 1 April 2008]
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Hiptage benghalensis
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/taxastep?king=every&p_action=containing&taxa=Hiptage+benghalensis&p_format=&p_ifx=plglt&p_lang= [Accessed March 2005]
Kueffer, C. & Lavergne, C. 2004. Case studies on the status of invasive woody plant species in the Western Indian Ocean. R�union. FAO. 36 p
Summary: Available from: http://www.fao.org/forestry/webview/media?mediaId=6842&langId=2 [Accessed 26 March 2008]
MacDonald, I. A. W.,Thebaud, C.,Strahm, W. A.,Strasberg, D. 1991. Effects of alien plant invasions on native vegetation remnants on La Reunion (Mascarenes Islands, Indian Ocean). Environmental Conservation 18 (1):51-61.
Summary: Cet article est le premier � proposer une hi�rarchisation des plantes les plus envahissantes de La R�union. 33 plantes ont �t� ainsi class�es en utilisant une m�thode d�velopp�e en Afrique du Sud. Les bases d une strat�gie de lutte contre les plantes exotiques envahissantes sont �galement formul�es.
Plants Database, 2002. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).
Summary: Comprehensive information concerning taxonomy, distribution, life-history and ecology.
Available from: http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi [Accessed 29 January 2003].
Plants of Hawaii. 2005. Hiptage benghalensis (Hiptage Malpighiaceae).
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/starr/hiplants/images/thumbnails/html/hiptage_benghalensis.htm [Accessed March 10 2006]
Queensland Herbarium, 2002. Invasive Naturalised Plants in Southeast Queensland, ranked list.
Summary: Extracted from: Batianoff, George N. and Butler, Don W. (2002). Assessment of Invasive naturalized plants in south-east Queensland. Appendix. Plant Protection Quarterly 17, 27-34. This site records the top 200 invasive plants in Queensland.
Available from: http://www.env.qld.gov.au/environment/science/herbarium/invasive_rank.pdf [Accessed 5 February 2003]
Strahm, Wendy. 25 February 2003. Ph.D., IUCN Plants Officer.
Summary: Email. (personal communication, 2003)
Tassin, J., Lavergne, C., Muller, S., Blanfort, V., Baret, S., Le Bourgeois, T., Triolo, J., & Rivi�re, J.-N. 2006. Bilan des connaissances sur les cons�quences �cologiques des invasions de plantes � l��le de La R�union (archipel des Mascareignes, oc�an Indien). Revue d�Ecologie (La Terre et la Vie). 61, 35-51.
Summary: Cet article propose un bilan des m�thodes et des r�sultats relatifs aux �tudes traitant de la connaissance des cons�quences �cologiques des invasions de plantes exotiques.
Tassin, J., Rivi�re, J.N., Cazanove, M., Bruzzeses, E. 2006. Ranking of invasive woody plant species for management on r�union Island. Weed research 46, 388-403
Summary: L inventaire de 318 esp�ces de plantes ligneuses introduites � la R�union, permet d en identifier 132 comme naturalis�es dans les �cosyst�mes naturels. 26 de ces esp�ces choisies parmi les plus envahissantes ont �t� class�es en fonction de leur impact biologique sur les �cosyst�mes indig�nes.
USDA, ARS, 2002. Hiptage benghalensis National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland
Summary: The Germplasm Resources Information Network - Canadian Version (GRIN-CA) web server provides germplasm information about plants within the Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC) division of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC). GRIN-CA was created from the United States Department of Agriculture s National Plant Germplasm System (GRIN).
Available from: http://pgrc3.agr.ca/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?19180 [Accessed 25 February 2003]
Verma, D.M. Balakrishnan, M.P. and Dixit, R.D. (1993). Flora of Madhya Pradesh. Vol. I., Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata, India. P. 240.
Summary: Distribution in India.
Wunderlin, R. P. and Hansen, B. F. 2003. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants.
Summary: A comprehensive searchable database of vascular plants in the state of Florida, USA.
Available from: http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/main.asp?plantID=4118 [Accessed 5 February 2003].
Contact
The following 5 contacts offer information an advice on Hiptage benghalensis
Baret,
St�phane
Geographic region: Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Parc national de La R�union, Charg� de mission flore
Address:
112 rue Ste Marie - 97400 St Denis
Phone:
02 62 90 79 06
Fax:
02 62 90 11 39
Lavergne,
Christophe
Geographic region: Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Conservatoire Botanique National de Mascarin
Address:
2 rue du P�re Georges Domaine des Colima�ons 97436 SAINT LEU
Phone:
(33) 02 62 24 92 27
Fax:
Le Bourgeois,
Thomas
Geographic region: Africa; Indian Ocean; Southest Asia
Ecosystem: Terrestrial, Freshwater
Organization:
Centre de coop�ration internationale en recherche agronomique pour le d�veloppement
Address:
Cirad UMR AMAP, TA A51/PS2, Boulevard de la Lironde, F34398 Montpellier C�dex 5, France
Phone:
33 (0)4 67 61 59 10
Fax:
Meyer,
Jean-Yves
Geographic region: Pacific, Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Expert in the botany of French Polynesia and the Pacific Islands, and has worked on ecology and biological control of Miconia calvescens in French Polynesia.
Organization:
D�l�gation � la Recherche
Address:
D�l�gation � la Recherche, Gouvernement de Polyn�sie fran�aise. B.P. 20981, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, Polyn�sie fran�aise
Phone:
689 47 25 60
Fax:
Strahm,
Dr. Wendy
IUCN Plants Officer
Organization:
Address:

Phone:
Fax: