Global invasive species database

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  • Zizania latifolia (Photo: National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research (NIWA), New Zealand)
  • Zizania latifolia (Photo: National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research (NIWA), New Zealand)
  • Zizania latifolia (Photo: National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research (NIWA), New Zealand)
  • Zizania latifolia (Photo: National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research (NIWA), New Zealand)
  • Zizania latifolia (Photo: National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research (NIWA), New Zealand)
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Common name
water-bamboo (English), Manchurian zizania (English), Manchurian water-rice (English), Manchurian wild rice (English), Manchurian wildrice (English), kwo-bai (English), Wasserbambus (English), makomo (English), coba (English), kuw-sun (English), wild rice stem (English), makomo dake (English), jiao-bai (English), ricegrass (English)
Synonym
Zizania caduciflora , (Trin.) Hand.-Mazz.
Hydropyrum latifolium , Griseb
Similar species
Typha orientalis
Summary
Zizania latifolia is a perennial aquatic grass. In places where it has been introduced, its dense growth can exclude almost any native species of plant, fish, or animal. It blocks drainage systems and if not controlled can easily overgrow pasture and farmland converting productive farmland into swamp.
Species Description
Zizania latifolia is a perennial aquatic grass, which grows up to 4m tall, with spreading rhizomes. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs). Z. latifolia is tall and upright with 2-3cm wide leaves up to 2.5m long and a stout midrib. The flower head is 40-60cm long, and is purplish or red brown in colour (Environment Waikato, 2002); National Pest Plant Accord, 2001; Plants for a Future, 2000).
Notes
Zizania latifolia grows symbiotically with the fungus Ustilago esculenta which causes the stem to enlarge (Bruinsa et al. 1998).
Uses
Plants for a Future (2000) state that \"The swollen stem bases, infected with the smut fungus Ustilago esculenta, are eaten as a vegetable by the Chinese. They must be harvested before the fungus starts to produce spores since the flesh deteriorates at this time. They are parboiled then sautéed with other vegetables and have a nutty flavour reminiscent of coconut. The wild forms of this species have developed resistance to the smut, so especially disease-susceptible cultivars are grown. The seed can be cooked. It can be used like rice in sweet or savoury dishes. The seed can also be ground into a flour and used in making cakes, biscuits etc. Young inflorescences can be cooked and used as a vegetable. Young shoots can be eaten either raw or cooked and have a pleasant sweet taste. Leaves can be woven into mats.\" As for medical uses the authors report that, \"The shoots, roots and the seed are diuretic and febrifuge and the leaves are tonic.\"
Habitat Description
Shaw and Allen (2003) report that In New Zealand, \"Zizania latifolia has been recorded from lagoons, river banks, tidal flats, roadside ditches, and damp paddocks.\" Z. Latifolia is a relatively hardy plant that can grow in both fresh and salt water (Environment Waikato, 2002). Yamaguchi (1990) states that, \"Zizania latifolia can be grown in stagnant ponds and in poorly drained soils.\" It does well in sandy, loamy or clayey soils; in acid, neutral or alkaline soils and can grow in full sun or semi-shade (Plants for the future, 2000).
Pathway
It is often cultivated as a food crop in East Asia and is often grown as cover for wild fowl along the sides of lakes in Britain (Plants for a Future, 2000).Cumberland (1966) reported the likely introduction of Z. latifolia in the soil ballast of ships. (Champion and Clayton, 2000).

Principal source: Environment Waikato, 2002. Manchurian Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia)

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Terrestrial and Freshwater Biodiversity Information System (TFBIS) Programme (Copyright statement)

Review: C. Barre Hellquist, Ph.D. Biology Professor, Emeritus Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts USA

Publication date: 2007-02-14

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2017) Species profile: Zizania latifolia. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=866 on 17-12-2017.

General Impacts
The Auckland Regional Council (2002) reports that, Zizania latifolia is a very invasive plant. It can invade pastures causing good land to become waterlogged and form swampy areas. The rhizomes of the plant can also penetrate into and through stopbanks, opening them up and eventually destroying them. It can damage lakes and streamside plant communities by overtopping and suppressing other marginal species. Z. latifolia is difficult to eradicate because any root or rhizome fragments will regrow. Herbicides are the most effective control measure, but use of these is restricted because many chemicals can affect waterways. There are concerns that the spread of Z. latifolia could seriously affect the use of farmland, and freshwater and estuarine ecosystems. (The Auckland Regional Council 2002; Environment Waikato, 2002; The Northland Regional Council, 2002).
Management Info
Chemical: The National Pest Plant Accord (2001) states that, \"Where only a few plants are established they can be carefully dug out and disposed of, or can be treated with herbicide. Larger areas can be sprayed with herbicide, but follow up treatments are usually necessary.\"
Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Zizania latifolia
ALIEN RANGE
NATIVE RANGE
  • china
  • india
  • japan
  • korea, republic of
  • myanmar
  • russian federation
  • taiwan
  • viet nam
Informations on Zizania latifolia has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Zizania latifolia in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
The Auckland Regional Council (2002) reports that, Zizania latifolia is a very invasive plant. It can invade pastures causing good land to become waterlogged and form swampy areas. The rhizomes of the plant can also penetrate into and through stopbanks, opening them up and eventually destroying them. It can damage lakes and streamside plant communities by overtopping and suppressing other marginal species. Z. latifolia is difficult to eradicate because any root or rhizome fragments will regrow. Herbicides are the most effective control measure, but use of these is restricted because many chemicals can affect waterways. There are concerns that the spread of Z. latifolia could seriously affect the use of farmland, and freshwater and estuarine ecosystems. (The Auckland Regional Council 2002; Environment Waikato, 2002; The Northland Regional Council, 2002).
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
NEW ZEALAND
Outcomes
[2] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [1] Habitat degradation
Management information
Chemical: The National Pest Plant Accord (2001) states that, \"Where only a few plants are established they can be carefully dug out and disposed of, or can be treated with herbicide. Larger areas can be sprayed with herbicide, but follow up treatments are usually necessary.\"
Bibliography
25 references found for Zizania latifolia

Managment information
Bruinsa, R. J. F, C. Shumingb, C. Shinianb, and W. J. Mitscha. 1998. Ecological engineering strategies to reduce flooding damage to wetland crops in central China. Ecological Engineering Volume 11, Issues 1-4 , October 1998, Pages 231-259.
Champion, P. Clayton, J. and Rowe, D. 2002. Alien Invaders Lake Managers� Handbook. Ministry for the Environment.
Summary: Available from: http://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/water/lm-alien-invaders-jun02.pdf [Accessed 3 February 2005]
Champion, P.D.; Clayton, J.S. 2000. Border control for potential aquatic weeds. Stage 1. Weed risk model. Science for Conservation 141. .
Summary: This report is the first stage in a three-stage development of a Border Control Programme for aquatic plants that have the potential to become ecological weeds in New Zealand.
Available from: http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/sfc141.pdf [Accessed 13 June 2007]
Champion, P.D.; Clayton, J.S. 2001. Border control for potential aquatic weeds. Stage 2. Weed risk assessment. Science for Conservation 185. 30 p.
Summary: This report is the second stage in the development of a Border Control Programme for aquatic plants that have the potential to become ecological weeds in New Zealand. Importers and traders in aquatic plants were surveyed to identify the plant species known or likely to be present in New Zealand. The Aquatic Plant Weed Risk Assessment Model was used to help assess the level of risk posed by these species. The report presents evidence of the various entry pathways and considers the impact that new invasive aquatic weed species may have on vulnerable native aquatic species and communities.
Available from: http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/SFC185.pdf [Accessed 13 June 2007]
Environment Waikato. 2002. Manchurian Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia).
National Pest Plant Accord, 2001. Biosecurity New Zealand.
Summary: The National Pest Plant Accord is a cooperative agreement between regional councils and government departments with biosecurity responsibilities. Under the accord, regional councils will undertake surveillance to prevent the commercial sale and/or distribution of an agreed list of pest plants.
Available from: http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/pests-diseases/plants/accord.htm [Accessed 11 August 2005]
Northland Regional Council. 2002. Z. latifolia. Environmental Education: Pest Plants.
Summary: Available from: http://www.nrc.govt.nz/environmental.education/school.information.packs/pest_plants.shtml [Accessed 15 March 2005]
Royal New Zealand Institute of Horticulture (RNZIH), 2005. Manchurian wiild rice Zizania latifolia
Summary: Available from: http://www.rnzih.org.nz/pages/nppa_057.pdf [Accessed 1 October 2005]
General information
Berezutsky, M. A., V. M. Vasykov, A.V. Panin, A. P. Sukhorukov, and L. P. Hudyakova. 2002. Floristic findings in Saratov and Pensa Regions. Botanicheskii-Zhurnal-(St.-Petersburg). 2002; 87(3): 149-153.
Freshwater Biodata Information System New Zealand (FBIS), 2005
Summary: The Freshwater Biodata Information System (FBIS) contains fish, algae, aquatic plant and invertebrate data and metadata gathered from New Zealand s freshwater streams, rivers and lakes. FBIS provides different ways to search for biodata: choose a predefined search from a list of common searches; use the map view to draw a box on a map and search for biodata; or create your own search for maximum search flexibility. FBIS is offered as a nationally available resource for the New Zealand public, institutions and companies who need access to a well-maintained long-term data repository.
Available from: https://secure.niwa.co.nz/fbis/validate.do?search=common [Accessed 5 August 2005]
Hattori, A., and S. Mae, 2001. Habitat use and diversity of waterbirds in a coastal lagoon around Lake Biwa, Japan. Ecological Research Volume 16 Issue 3 Page 543 - September 2001.
Hirai, T. 2004. Diet composition of introduced bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, in the Mizorogaike Pond of Kyoto, Japan. Ecological Research. 19 (4): 375-380.
Summary: This paper gives details about the diet of introduced bullfrogs in Mizorogaike Pond, in Kyoto, Japan.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Zizania latifolia.
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=41320 [Accessed 15 March 2005]
Jiang, C. L., G. B. Cui, X. Q. Fan, and Y. B. Zhang. 2004. Purification capacity of ditch wetland to agricultural non-point pollutants. Huanjing Kexue. 2004; 25(2): 125-128
Lee, D. B., K. B. Lee, C. H. Kim, J. G. Kim, and S. Y. Na. 2004. Environmental assessment of water, sediment and plants in the Mankyeong River, ROK. Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 2004; 26(2-3): 135-145.
Page KW. 2000. Zizania latifolia (Poaceae) naturalised in Surrey (v.c. 17). BSBI News no.84. 38-39 (2000) - illus. Geog=1 ( , 200001851).
Pan, J., L. Wenchao, and C. Kaining. 2004. A study on the environmental effect in the zone of restoration of aquatic plants covered at the northeast of Dianchi Lake: I. The effect on the controlling of alga blooming. Hupo Kexue. 2004; 16(2): 141-148.
Park, S., and K. H. Cho. 2003. Nutrient leaching from leaf litter of emergent macrophyte (Zizania latifolia) and the effects of water temperature on the leaching process. Korean Journal of Biological-Sciences. 2003; 7(4): 289-294.
Plants for a Future. 2000. Zizania latifolia.
Summary: Available from: http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Zizania+latifolia&CAN=LATIND [Accessed 15 March 2005]
Shaw, W.B., and R. B. Allen. 2003. Ecological impacts of sea couch and saltwater paspalum in Bay of Plenty estuaries. Department of Conservation, P.O. Box 10-420, Wellington, New Zealand: Doc Science Internal Series 113.
Tsuchiya, T., A. Shinozuka, and I. Ikusima. 1995. Photosynthesis and Transpiration of an Emergent Plant Zizania latifolia. Japanese Journal of Limnology. 1995; 56(1): 33-38.
Yamaguchi, M. 1990. Asian vegetables. p. 387-390. In: J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.), Advances in new crops. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Summary: Available from: http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/proceedings1990/V1-387.html [Accessed 15 March 2005]
You, W. H. 1994. The aquatic vegetation resources and its utilization of Dianshan Lake. Journal of Plant Resources and Environment. 1994; 3(1): 47-51.
Zhang, S., G. Wang, P. Pu., and T. Chigira. 1999. Succession of hydrophytic vegetation and swampy tendency in the East Taihu Lake. Journal of Plant Resources and Environment. 1999; 8(2): 1-6.
Contact
The following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Zizania latifolia
Hellquist,
C. Barre
Organization:
Biology Professor, Emeritus
Address:
Unit 9168 Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts 375 Church Street North Adams, MA 01247-4100
Phone:
413-743-5880
Fax:
413-662-5010