Global invasive species database

  • General
  • Distribution
  • Impact
  • Management
  • Bibliography
  • Contact
Common name
Senegal teaplant (English), temple plant (English)
Synonym
Alomia spilanthoides , D. Don ex Hook. & Arn.
Similar species
Alternanthera philoxeroides
Summary
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides is a freshwater or marsh-growing emergent perennial herb. It has been introduced through the aquarium trade. It grows very quickly and can rapidly cover water bodies with a floating mat that excludes many animals and plants from native vegetation. Localized flooding increases because G. spilanthoides blocks drainage channels. Recreational activities, irrigation and navigation may also be affected. And if large-scale die-offs of this species occur, water quality may decline.
Species Description
PIER (2005) describes Gymnocoronis spilanthoides as a freshwater or marsh-growing emergent perennial herb which can form rounded bushes up to 1 metre tall or scrambling mats of tangled stems along the edges of waterways. Young stems are 5 to 10mm in diameter, mature stems 20mm in diameter. Larger stems are hollow between the nodes (the joints between segments of stem) and float on water, reaching lengths of 1.5 metre. The leaves are dark green, 50 to 200mm long and arranged in opposite pairs along the stem. The edges of the spearhead-shaped leaves are serrated. The numerous, white, ball-shaped flowers, 15 to 20mm in diameter, occur at the ends of stems (The Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2003). The ribbed seeds are yellow-brown and 0.8-1.2mm in length (Vivian-Smith et al., 2005). Thin, fibrous roots can develop from leaf veins or from any node in contact with moist soil or water.
Lifecycle Stages
Australian region: Flowering in G. spilanthoides commences in late spring or early summer and continues until the cooler weather of late autumn. Seed formation occurs about one month after flowering. Plants become dormant during winter and new growth reshoots from the crown and nodes during the following spring. Most seeds germinate in spring, although some germination may continue into summer. Seedling growth is rapid, and plants quickly reach the surface if submerged in shallow water. G. spilanthoides is a perennial that lives for at least several years (The Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2003).
Uses
This species is used in the aquarium trade.
Habitat Description
PIER (2005) states that, \"Gymnocoronis spilanthoides grows over the surface of slow-moving or stationary water bodies. It can form dense floating mats and is usually rooted in damp soil.\" The Department of the Environment and Heritage (2003) states that, \"G. spilanthoides grows in wetlands, particularly degraded waterways. It can flourish in still or slow-moving fresh water, rooted in the bank and floating out into the waterway. It survives and continues growing even when completely inundated. It also grows on wet marshy soils near water.\"
Reproduction
The Department of the Environment and Heritage (2003) states that, \"G. spilanthoides can reproduce by seeds and vegetation. The seeds can be spread by flowing water. Seeds are approximately 0.20 mg (air dried) (Vivian-Smith et al. 2005). They are small and quite light and germinate readily under light conditions. Vivian-Smith et al. (2005) reported 83% germination. Seeds can also be spread in mud attached to animals or machinery. Vegetative spread occurs when any part of the stem that includes a node breaks away from the main plant, e.g. in fast flowing water. When the stem fragment settles on the streambed it sends out fine roots from the node, and can grow into an entire new plant. This new plant can spread quickly and create a colony by producing roots where nodes come in contact with moist soil. Stem fragments can also be accidentally spread by transport of machinery (e.g. boats, trailers, lawnmowers) or in animals' hooves.\" G. spilanthoides stem fragments can enabling the plant to regrow when broken up and dislodged by floodwater or other disturbance (PIER, 2005).

Principal source: Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2003 Senegal tea plant Gymnocoronis spilanthoides

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Terrestrial and Freshwater Biodiversity Information System (TFBIS) Programme (Copyright statement)

Review: Dr Gabrielle Vivian-Smith Senior Scientist (Weed Ecology) Alan Fletcher Research Station Department of Natural Resources, Mines and CRC for Australian Weed Management. Australia

Publication date: 2006-11-28

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2018) Species profile: Gymnocoronis spilanthoides. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=863 on 19-04-2018.

General Impacts
G. spilanthoides grows very quickly, and is known to rapidly cover water bodies with a floating mat, excluding other plants and the animals that rely on them. The effects of flooding are made much worse because infestations block drainage channels. Recreational activities, irrigation and navigation may also be affected. Water quality may decline if large amounts of G. spilanthoides die off and rot under water.\" The authors also report that, \"G. spilanthoides poses a significant risk to the health of wetland ecosystems. It can quickly take over wetlands and detract from their environmental value, natural beauty and recreational potential. It is also very difficult to control because it can spread by both seed and vegetative reproduction. Even tiny pieces of vegetation can give rise to new colonies. Because it is found mainly in water, the potential impacts of herbicides on nontarget plants and animals must also be carefully managed (The Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2003). Land Protection (2004) reports that, \"G. spilanthoides will invade and degrade natural wetlands, competing strongly with slower growing native plants and affecting wetland birds and other animals dependent upon them.\"
Management Info
Mechanical: Gymnocoronis spilanthoides is very hard to kill and herbicides effective on similar plants kill only the upper parts of the plant. Any material that is below the water line is not killed, and can regrow. Hand pulling often results in regeneration and further spread. Mechanical removal has been used in conjunction with de-silting operations. First, herbicide was applied, then, 7 to 10 days later, all silt and plant material to a 1 metre depth was removed by machinery, taken away and spread out and dried. Weed material should always be dried out and treated like this, and, if possible, burnt. Alternatively it could be placed in a sealed plastic bag, left in the sunlight to rot and decompose and then disposed of at an approved land fill tip (Land Protection 2004).

Cultural: As with all weed management, prevention is better and more cost effective than control. In Australia it is illegal to cultivate G. spilanthoides in most states and territories as it is a declared noxious weed. However, Senegal tea has been cultivated as both an aquarium plant and as a garden/ornanmental pond plant that attracts butterfly species. Vendor , state or territory weed control contacts should be contacted if G. spilanthoides is found to be for sale. Early detection and eradication are also important to prevent the spread G. spilanthoides. Small infestations can be eradicated if they are detected early but an ongoing commitment is needed to ensure new infestations do not establish (The Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2003). One should avoid buying seeds on the internet or from mail order catalogues to ensure they are free of weeds like G. spilanthoides (The Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2003). A statement of uses should also be included in here. In Australia, Senegal tea has been cultivated as both an aquarium plant and as a garden/ornamental pond plant that attracts butterfly species. Senegal tea is a resilient ornamental plant, it is also eaten by stock and has been noted as providing winter grazing in wet areas.

Chemical: Long-term experience with glyphosate has shown it is not an effective eradication tool in south east Queensland. Some of the problems arise from the problem that it is non-selective and also kills native species such as swamp grasses and sedges. It also has no residual effect which means it creates a gap which is flooded by light, an ideal seedbed for senegal tea to re-grown. In addition, the plant fragments after toxin application, resulting in leaf abscission and propagule formation.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Gymnocoronis spilanthoides
ALIEN RANGE
NATIVE RANGE
  • argentina
  • bolivia
  • brazil
  • mexico
  • paraguay
  • peru
  • uruguay
Informations on Gymnocoronis spilanthoides has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Gymnocoronis spilanthoides in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
G. spilanthoides grows very quickly, and is known to rapidly cover water bodies with a floating mat, excluding other plants and the animals that rely on them. The effects of flooding are made much worse because infestations block drainage channels. Recreational activities, irrigation and navigation may also be affected. Water quality may decline if large amounts of G. spilanthoides die off and rot under water.\" The authors also report that, \"G. spilanthoides poses a significant risk to the health of wetland ecosystems. It can quickly take over wetlands and detract from their environmental value, natural beauty and recreational potential. It is also very difficult to control because it can spread by both seed and vegetative reproduction. Even tiny pieces of vegetation can give rise to new colonies. Because it is found mainly in water, the potential impacts of herbicides on nontarget plants and animals must also be carefully managed (The Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2003). Land Protection (2004) reports that, \"G. spilanthoides will invade and degrade natural wetlands, competing strongly with slower growing native plants and affecting wetland birds and other animals dependent upon them.\"
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
NEW ZEALAND
Mechanism
[1] Competition
Outcomes
[3] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Modification of hydrology/water regulation, purification and quality /soil moisture
  • [1] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [1] Habitat degradation
[2] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Damage to infrastructures
  • [1] Alteration of recreational use and tourism
Management information
Mechanical: Gymnocoronis spilanthoides is very hard to kill and herbicides effective on similar plants kill only the upper parts of the plant. Any material that is below the water line is not killed, and can regrow. Hand pulling often results in regeneration and further spread. Mechanical removal has been used in conjunction with de-silting operations. First, herbicide was applied, then, 7 to 10 days later, all silt and plant material to a 1 metre depth was removed by machinery, taken away and spread out and dried. Weed material should always be dried out and treated like this, and, if possible, burnt. Alternatively it could be placed in a sealed plastic bag, left in the sunlight to rot and decompose and then disposed of at an approved land fill tip (Land Protection 2004).

Cultural: As with all weed management, prevention is better and more cost effective than control. In Australia it is illegal to cultivate G. spilanthoides in most states and territories as it is a declared noxious weed. However, Senegal tea has been cultivated as both an aquarium plant and as a garden/ornanmental pond plant that attracts butterfly species. Vendor , state or territory weed control contacts should be contacted if G. spilanthoides is found to be for sale. Early detection and eradication are also important to prevent the spread G. spilanthoides. Small infestations can be eradicated if they are detected early but an ongoing commitment is needed to ensure new infestations do not establish (The Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2003). One should avoid buying seeds on the internet or from mail order catalogues to ensure they are free of weeds like G. spilanthoides (The Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2003). A statement of uses should also be included in here. In Australia, Senegal tea has been cultivated as both an aquarium plant and as a garden/ornamental pond plant that attracts butterfly species. Senegal tea is a resilient ornamental plant, it is also eaten by stock and has been noted as providing winter grazing in wet areas.

Chemical: Long-term experience with glyphosate has shown it is not an effective eradication tool in south east Queensland. Some of the problems arise from the problem that it is non-selective and also kills native species such as swamp grasses and sedges. It also has no residual effect which means it creates a gap which is flooded by light, an ideal seedbed for senegal tea to re-grown. In addition, the plant fragments after toxin application, resulting in leaf abscission and propagule formation.

Bibliography
17 references found for Gymnocoronis spilanthoides

Managment information
Champion, P. Clayton, J. and Rowe, D. 2002. Alien Invaders Lake Managers´┐Ż Handbook. Ministry for the Environment.
Summary: Available from: http://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/water/lm-alien-invaders-jun02.pdf [Accessed 3 February 2005]
Champion, P.D.; Clayton, J.S. 2000. Border control for potential aquatic weeds. Stage 1. Weed risk model. Science for Conservation 141. .
Summary: This report is the first stage in a three-stage development of a Border Control Programme for aquatic plants that have the potential to become ecological weeds in New Zealand.
Available from: http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/sfc141.pdf [Accessed 13 June 2007]
Champion, P.D.; Clayton, J.S. 2001. Border control for potential aquatic weeds. Stage 2. Weed risk assessment. Science for Conservation 185. 30 p.
Summary: This report is the second stage in the development of a Border Control Programme for aquatic plants that have the potential to become ecological weeds in New Zealand. Importers and traders in aquatic plants were surveyed to identify the plant species known or likely to be present in New Zealand. The Aquatic Plant Weed Risk Assessment Model was used to help assess the level of risk posed by these species. The report presents evidence of the various entry pathways and considers the impact that new invasive aquatic weed species may have on vulnerable native aquatic species and communities.
Available from: http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/SFC185.pdf [Accessed 13 June 2007]
Department of the Environment and Heritage. 2003. Senegal tea plant (Gymnocoronis spilanthoides). Alert List for Environmental Weeds: Weed Management Guide.
Summary: Available from: http://www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/publications/g-spilanthoides.html [Accessed 28 February, 2005]
Environment Waikato. 2002. Senegal Tea (Gymnocoronis spilanthoides).
Land Protection. 2004. Senegal tea Gymnocoronis spilanthoides. Queensland Government: Natural Resources and Mines.
National Pest Plant Accord, 2001. Biosecurity New Zealand.
Summary: The National Pest Plant Accord is a cooperative agreement between regional councils and government departments with biosecurity responsibilities. Under the accord, regional councils will undertake surveillance to prevent the commercial sale and/or distribution of an agreed list of pest plants.
Available from: http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/pests-diseases/plants/accord.htm [Accessed 11 August 2005]
PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk). 2005. Gymnocoronis spilanthoides.
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/gymnocoronis_spilanthoides.htm [Accessed 28 February, 2005]
Royal New Zealand Institute of Horticulture (RNZIH), 2005. Senegal tea Gymnocoronis spilanthoides
Summary: Available from: http://www.rnzih.org.nz/pages/nppa_081.pdf [Accessed 1 October 2005]
Tasman District Council (TDC) 2001. Tasman-Nelson Regional Pest Management Strategy
Waikato Regional Council. 2005. Senegal Tea (Gymnocoronis spilanthoides). Regional Pest Management Strategy 2002-2007.
Summary: Available from: http://www.ew.govt.nz/policyandplans/rpmsintro/rpms2002/operative5.2.11.htm [Accessed 28 February, 2005]
General information
Dos-Reis, I. J. M., and A. A. G. Ferreira, 1981. Pollen grains of Eupatorieae compositae from Rio-Grande-Do-Sul Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Biologia. 1981; 41(4): 739-752.
Freshwater Biodata Information System New Zealand (FBIS), 2005
Summary: The Freshwater Biodata Information System (FBIS) contains fish, algae, aquatic plant and invertebrate data and metadata gathered from New Zealand s freshwater streams, rivers and lakes. FBIS provides different ways to search for biodata: choose a predefined search from a list of common searches; use the map view to draw a box on a map and search for biodata; or create your own search for maximum search flexibility. FBIS is offered as a nationally available resource for the New Zealand public, institutions and companies who need access to a well-maintained long-term data repository.
Available from: https://secure.niwa.co.nz/fbis/validate.do?search=common [Accessed 5 August 2005]
Natural History Museum. 2004. Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Hook. & Arn.) DC. The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, SW7 5BD, UK.
Torok, K., Z. Duckat, I. Dancza, I. Nemeth, J. Kiss, B. Mihaly, and D. Magyar. 2003. Invasion gateways and corridors in the Carpathian Basin: biological invasions in Hungary. Biological Invasions 5: 349-356, 2003.
USDA-GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network). 2005. Gymnocoronis spilanthoides. National Genetic Resources Program [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Summary: Available from: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl?Gymnocoronis+spilanthoides [Accessed 28 February, 2005]
W3TROPICOS. 2005. Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (D. Don ex Hook. & Arn.) DC. Missouri Botanical Garden: Nomenclatural Data Base
Contact
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Gymnocoronis spilanthoides