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  • Herpestes javanicus (Photo: Sugoto Roy, School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, UK)
  • Herpestes javanicus (Photo: Sugoto Roy, School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, UK)
  • Herpestes javanicus (Photo: Alessio Marrucci. File from the Wikimedia Commons, 2006)
  • Herpestes javanicus (Photo: WikiMedia Commons)
  • Herpestes javanicus (Photo: WikiMedia Commons)
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Common name
newla (Hindi, India), small Indian mongoose (English), Kleiner Mungo (German), mangouste (French), mangus (Hindi), mweyba (Burmese), beji (Bengali)
Synonym
Similar species
Summary
The small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) has been introduced to many islands worldwide for control of rats and snakes, mainly in tropical areas, but also to islands in the Adriatic Sea. Moreover, it has been introduced successfully in two continental areas: the northeast coast of South America and a Croatian peninsula. Mongooses are diurnal generalist carnivores that thrive in human-altered habitats. Predation by mongoose has had severe impacts on native biodiversity leading to the decline and extirpation of native mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. At least seven species of native vertebrates, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians, have almost disappeared on Amami-oshima Island since the introduction of the mongoose in 1979. In addition, mongoose carries human and animal diseases, including rabies and human Leptospira bacterium.
Species Description
The small Indian mongoose has a slender body is with short legs. The head is elongated with a pointed muzzle. The tail is robustly muscular at the base and tapers gradually throughout its length. Length of head and body is 509 to 671mm. Ears are short and project only slightly beyond the fur. Feet have five toes with long sharp non-retractile claws. Hair is short. Both sexes have an extensible anal pad with ducted glands lateral to the anus. Fur is soft, pale to dark brown flecked with golden spots. Underside is paler than rest of body. Eyes are amber/brown but are blue green in young animals. There is distinct sexual dimorphism. Females range in length from 509 to 578mm with a mean of 540mm. Body mass at sexual maturity ranges from 305 to 662 g with a mean of 434g. Males have a wider head and more robust body ranging in length from 544 to 671mm with a mean of 591mm (Nellis, 1989).
Notes
\"The genus Herpestes contains 10 species (Nowak 1999) and is considered the oldest genus within the order Carnivora, dating back approximately 30 million years (Hinton & Dunn 1967). The native distribution of the small Indian mongoose [Herpestes auropunctatus (Hodgson 1836)] stretches from Iraq in the west to Myanmar in the east, and from northern Pakistan southwards throughout the Indian subcontinent. East of Myanmar (near the Salween River), the small Indian mongoose is replaced by the Javan mongoose, Herpestes javanicus (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1818), which recently has been recognized as\r\na separate species (G. Veron, personal communication). The small Indian mongoose (but not the Javan mongoose) has been introduced to many islands worldwide for control of rats and snakes, mainly in tropical areas, but also to islands in the Adriatic Sea. Moreover, it has been introduced successfully in two continental areas: the northeast coast of South America (Husson 1960) and a Croatian peninsula (Tvrtkovic & Krystufek 1990; Krystufek & Tvrtkovic 1992). Almost all introduced populations arose from very small numbers of founding individuals, and the introduction history is often well documented\" (from Thulin et al 2006)
Lifecycle Stages
Gestation 42-50 days, weaning 5 weeks, sexual maturity 10 months, total life expectancy in wild animals 3-4 years.
Uses
The small Indian mongoose was introduced as a biocontrol agent to control rats in cane fields but not particularly effective and the enormous cost to native species far outweighed any benefit.
Habitat Description
The small Indian mongoose is reported to prefer dry habitats and this is supported by the observation that trap success falls to zero in rainy weather in most cases. Habitat preferences in the native range have not been investigated but it seems the species prefers grassland and secondary growth to dense forest. Mongooses are also found around human habitation. Studies on Caribbean islands have shown a clear preference for dry natural areas are preferred over rainy areas. Mongooses reach dense population on Hawai’I and in this case they begin to exploit wet areas (Hays and Conant, 2007). In Mauritius tended to be found in rocky areas, riparian habitats and mature forest over scrub, long grass (sugar cane plantations), short grass and paths (Roy et al. 2002). In Puerto Rico male mongooses from the rain forest areas were larger than those in dry forests (Vilella, 1998).
Reproduction
Placental, sexual. Breeds two or three times a year, no real season, though there are breeding peaks.
Two litters of three youngs per female per year. Females can breed from the age of 10 months.
Nutrition
Small Indian mongoose are generalist carnivores that thrive in human-altered habitats. Diet has not been investigated in the native range but a large number of studies have investigated diet in areas where the species has been introduced. Small Indian mongoose diet normally consists of mammals, birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates and plant material. Proportions of these dietary items vary according to availability and location of the study. Some populations are largely insectivorous; others may eat a diet largely consisting of fruit for part of the year (Hays and Conant, 2007). This high level of dietary flexibility has contributed to the small Indian mongoose’s success as an invasive species.
Pathway
Introduced for biological control of rats and snakes in agricultural habitats, from which the animals spread throughout local areas within decades.

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group
Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review: Dr. Sugoto Roy (Coordinator); Hebridean Mink Project. Central Science Laboratory Sand Hutton, York UK

Publication date: 2011-05-25

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Herpestes javanicus. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=86 on 31-08-2016.

General Impacts
The small Indian mongoose has had a major impact on native species in the areas where it has been introduced. In most cases the native wildlife in these areas evolved in the absence of predatory mammals so they are particularly threatened by mongoose predation. Species considered to have been driven extinct through mongoose predation are the barred-wing rail (see Nesoclopeus poecilopterus in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) in Fiji (Hays and Conant, 2007). The Critically Endangered (CR)' and 'Possibly Extinct' Jamaica petrel (see Pterodroma caribbaea in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) suffered drastic decline in numbers in the 19th century presumably due to predation by mongoose (capable of taking incubating adults) and rats (BirdLife International 2004). Mongooses have also been implicated in the decline of many other bird, reptile and mammal species. Mongooses also eat invertebrates but the impact of this predation on invertebrate populations has not been studied.

\r\nIn the Caribbean, mongooses prey on the 'Critically Endangered (CR)' hawksbill turtle (see Eretmochelys imbricata in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) eggs in fragmented beach habitat (Leighton et al 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011) . Trapping around vulnerable beaches led to much greater breeding success for the turtles (Coblentz and Coblentz, 1985).
Mongooses on Mauritius have been blamed for the extirpation of introduced game birds and the decline of endemic species such as the 'Endangered (EN)' pink pigeon (see Nesoenas mayeri in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) (Roy et al. 2002).
At least seven species of native vertebrates, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians, have almost disappeared on Amami-oshima Island since the introduction of the mongoose in 1979. The mongoose has been shown to have a strong negative effect on the 'Endangered (EN)' Amami rabbit (see Pentalagus furnessi in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) (Watari et al. 2008).

In addition, mongoose are carriers of human and animal diseases, including rabies and human Leptospira bacterium.

Management Info
Physical: Trapping is commonly used to remove small Indian mongooses from sensitive areas. It is often very successful at removing animals in the short term. Unfortunately, trapping programmes need to be run almost constantly as mongooses re-colonise trapped areas very quickly (Roy et al. 2003; Hays and Conant, 2007). Fencing has been proposed as a possible control method in Mauritius but predator proof fences are expensive and inflexible should the area that needs to be protected change (Roy et al. 2002).

Chemical: Diphacinone anticoagulant poison has been used to control mongooses in Hawai’I (Hays et al. 2007). The use of this toxin has been considered in Mauritius but poisoning methods would have to be adapted to prevent poisoning of non-target species (Roy et al. 2002).

Integrated management: There is concern in Mauritius that removing mongooses without also removing cats and rats will be disastrous for native species because it may lead to increased rat and cat populations (Roy et al. 2002).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Herpestes javanicus
NATIVE RANGE
  • afghanistan
  • bangladesh
  • cambodia
  • china
  • india
  • iran, islamic republic of
  • iraq
  • lao people's democratic republic
  • malaysia
  • myanmar
  • nepal
  • pakistan
  • singapore
  • thailand
  • viet nam
Informations on Herpestes javanicus has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Herpestes javanicus in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
The small Indian mongoose has had a major impact on native species in the areas where it has been introduced. In most cases the native wildlife in these areas evolved in the absence of predatory mammals so they are particularly threatened by mongoose predation. Species considered to have been driven extinct through mongoose predation are the barred-wing rail (see Nesoclopeus poecilopterus in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) in Fiji (Hays and Conant, 2007). The Critically Endangered (CR)' and 'Possibly Extinct' Jamaica petrel (see Pterodroma caribbaea in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) suffered drastic decline in numbers in the 19th century presumably due to predation by mongoose (capable of taking incubating adults) and rats (BirdLife International 2004). Mongooses have also been implicated in the decline of many other bird, reptile and mammal species. Mongooses also eat invertebrates but the impact of this predation on invertebrate populations has not been studied.

\r\nIn the Caribbean, mongooses prey on the 'Critically Endangered (CR)' hawksbill turtle (see Eretmochelys imbricata in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) eggs in fragmented beach habitat (Leighton et al 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011) . Trapping around vulnerable beaches led to much greater breeding success for the turtles (Coblentz and Coblentz, 1985).
Mongooses on Mauritius have been blamed for the extirpation of introduced game birds and the decline of endemic species such as the 'Endangered (EN)' pink pigeon (see Nesoenas mayeri in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) (Roy et al. 2002).
At least seven species of native vertebrates, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians, have almost disappeared on Amami-oshima Island since the introduction of the mongoose in 1979. The mongoose has been shown to have a strong negative effect on the 'Endangered (EN)' Amami rabbit (see Pentalagus furnessi in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) (Watari et al. 2008).

In addition, mongoose are carriers of human and animal diseases, including rabies and human Leptospira bacterium.

Locations
FIJI
GRENADA
GUADELOUPE
HAITI
HONDURAS
JAMAICA
JAPAN
MARTINIQUE
UNITED STATES
VIRGIN ISLANDS, BRITISH
VIRGIN ISLANDS, U.S.
Mechanism
[14] Predation
[2] Disease transmission
Outcomes
[14] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [14] Reduction in native biodiversity
[7] Environmental Species - Population
  • [7] Population size decline
[4] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Damage to agriculture
  • [1] Reduce/damage livestock and products
  • [2] Human health
Management information
Physical: Trapping is commonly used to remove small Indian mongooses from sensitive areas. It is often very successful at removing animals in the short term. Unfortunately, trapping programmes need to be run almost constantly as mongooses re-colonise trapped areas very quickly (Roy et al. 2003; Hays and Conant, 2007). Fencing has been proposed as a possible control method in Mauritius but predator proof fences are expensive and inflexible should the area that needs to be protected change (Roy et al. 2002).

Chemical: Diphacinone anticoagulant poison has been used to control mongooses in Hawai’I (Hays et al. 2007). The use of this toxin has been considered in Mauritius but poisoning methods would have to be adapted to prevent poisoning of non-target species (Roy et al. 2002).

Integrated management: There is concern in Mauritius that removing mongooses without also removing cats and rats will be disastrous for native species because it may lead to increased rat and cat populations (Roy et al. 2002).

Locations
GUADELOUPE
JAPAN
MAURITIUS
UNITED STATES
VIRGIN ISLANDS, U.S.
Management Category
Eradication
Control
Unknown
Bibliography
129 references found for Herpestes javanicus

Managment information
Algar, D. and Burrows, N.D. 2004. Feral cat control research: Western Shield review, February 2003. Conservation Science Western Australia 5:131�163.
Algar, D.; Angus, G.J.; Brazell, R.I.; Gilbert, C. and Withnell, G.B. 2001. Farewell felines of Faure. Report to Australian Wildlife Conservancy. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Wanneroo, Western Australia. 12 pp.
Atkinson, I. A. E. and Atkinson, T. J. 2000. Land vertebrates as invasive species on islands served by the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. In: Invasive Species in the Pacific: A Technical Review and Draft Regional Strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa: 19-84.
Summary: This report reviews available information on the adverse effects of 14 alien vertebrates considered to be �significant invasive species on islands of the South Pacific and Hawaii, supplementing the authors� experience with that of other workers.
Barun, A.; Budinski, I. and Simberloff, D. 2008. A ticking time-bomb? The small Indian mongoose in Europe. Aliens 26:14-16.
Barun, A., Simberloff, D., Tvrtkovic, N. & Pascal, M., 2011. Impact of the introduced small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) on abundance and activity time of the introduced ship rat (Rattus rattus) and the small mammal community on Adriatic islands, Croatia. NeoBiota 11 (2011) : 51-61 doi: 10.3897/neobiota.11.1819
Summary: Available from: http://www.pensoft.net/journals/neobiota/article/1819/abstract/impact-of-the-introduced-small-indian-mongoose-herpestes-auropunctatus-on-abundance-and-activity-time-of-the-introduced- [Accessed December 1 2011]
Bomford, M., 2003. Risk Assessment for the Import and Keeping of Exotic Vertebrates in Australia. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra.
Summary: Available from: http://www.feral.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/PC12803.pdf [Accessed August 19 2010]
Campbell, K.J.; Harper, G.; Algar, D.; Hanson, C.C.; Keitt, B.S. and Robinson, S. 2011. Review of feral cat eradications on islands. In: Veitch, C.R.; Clout, M.N. and Towns, D.R. (eds.). Island invasives: Eradication and Management, IUCN, (International Union for Conservation of Nature), Gland, Switzerland, pp. XX.
Coblentz, B. E. and Coblentz, B. A 1985. Control of the Indian mongoose Herpestes auropunctatus on St John, US Virgin Islands. Biological Conservation 33: 281� 288.
Creekmore, T. E., Linhart, S. B., Corn, J. L., Whitney, M. D., Snyder, B. D. and Nettles, V. F. 1994. Field-evaluation of baits and baiting strategies for delivering oral vaccine to mongooses in Antigua, West Indies. Journal Of Wildlife Diseases 30: 497-505.
Daltry J.C., 2006. Reintroduction of the critically endangered Antiguan racer Alsophis antiguae to Green Island, Antigua. Conservation Evidence, 2006. 3, 36-38. www.ConservationEvidence.com
Daltry J.C., 2006. Reintroduction of the critically endangered Antiguan Racer Alsophis antiguae to Rabbit Island, Antigua. Conservation Evidence, 2006 3, 33-35 www.ConservationEvidence.com.
Fisher, P. and O�Connor C. 2007. Oral toxicity of paminopropiophenone to ferrets. Wildlife Research 34:19-24.
Funakoshi, K.; Kubo, S.; Nakumo, S.; Shioya, K.; Okada, S., 2007. The distribution of invasive small Indian mongooses, Herpestes javanicus, on Amami-Ohshima Island based on the use of tracking-tunnels. Japanese Journal of Conservation Ecology [Jap. J. Conserv. Ecol.]. Vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 156-162. Nov 2007.
Genovesi, P. 2007. Limits and potentialities of eradication as a tool for addressing biological invasions. In: Nentwig, W. (ed.). Biological Invasions, Ecological Studies 193, Springer, pp 385-400.
Gorman, M. L. 1976a. A mechanism for individual recogniton by odour in Herpestes auropunctatus (Carnivora: Viverridae). Animal Behavior. 24:141�146.
Gorman, M. L. 1976b. Seasonal changes in the reproductive pattern of feral Herpestes auropunctatus (Carnivora: Viveridae), in the Fijian islands. Journal of Zoology 178:237�246.
Hanson, C. C. 2007. Restoring the Goat Islands for creating a suitable environment for reintroducing Jamaican iguanas: goat, cat, and mongoose eradication plan - 2007-DRAFT-03. Unpublished Report, Island Conservation, Santa Cruz, CA.
Hays, W.S.T. and Conant, S. 2003. Male social activity in the small Indian mongoose Herpestes javanicus. Acta Theriologica 48:485-494.
Henderson, R.W. and Berg, C.S. 2006. The herpetofauna of Grenada and the Grenada Grenadines: Conservation concerns. Applied Herpetology 3:197-213.
Howald, G.; Donlan, C.; Galvan J.; Russel, J.; Parkes, J.; Samaniego, A.; Wang, Y.; Veitch, D.; Genovesi, P.; Pascal, M.; Saunders, A. and Tershy B. 2007. Invasive rodent eradication on islands. Conservation Biology 21:1258-1268.
Ishii, N. 2003. Controlling mongooses introduced to Amami-Oshima Island: a population estimate and program evaluation. Japanese Journal of Conservation Ecology 8:73-82. (in Japanese)
IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4.
Summary: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species provides taxonomic, conservation status and distribution information on taxa that have been globally evaluated using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. This system is designed to determine the relative risk of extinction, and the main purpose of the IUCN Red List is to catalogue and highlight those taxa that are facing a higher risk of global extinction (i.e. those listed as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable). The IUCN Red List also includes information on taxa that are categorized as Extinct or Extinct in the Wild; on taxa that cannot be evaluated because of insufficient information (i.e. are Data Deficient); and on taxa that are either close to meeting the threatened thresholds or that would be threatened were it not for an ongoing taxon-specific conservation programme (i.e. are Near Threatened).
Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/ [Accessed 25 May 2011]
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Johnston, M.; Algar, D.; O�Donoghue, M. and Morris, J. 2011. Field efficacy of the Curiosity feral cat bait on three Australian islands. In: Veitch, C.R.; Clout, M.N. and Towns, D.R. (eds.). Island invasives: Eradication and Management, IUCN, (International Union for Conservation of Nature), Gland, Switzerland, pp. XX.
Kotaka, Nobuhiko; Kudaka, Masakazu; Takehara, Kenji; Sato, Hiroki, 2009. Ground use pattern by forest animals and vulnerability toward invasion by Herpestes javanicus into Yambaru, northern Okinawa Island, southern Japan. Japanese Journal of Ornithology. 58(1). APR 2009. 28-45.
Kusuda, Satoshi; Hoson, Osamu; Nakaya, Yumiko; Ogura, Go; Oshiro, Seikou; Takara, Junji; Matsuda, Ayano; Doi, Osamu; Nagamine, Takashi; Murata, Koichi, 2010. Induced estrus in female small Asian mongooses (Herpestes javanicus) for the purpose of controlling invasive alien species in Okinawa Island Mammal Study. 35(3). SEP 2010. 217-219.
Leighton, P. A.; Horrocks, J. A.; Kramer, D. L., 2011. Predicting nest survival in sea turtles: when and where are eggs most vulnerable to predation? Animal Conservation. 14(2). APR 2011. 186-195.
Leighton, Patrick A.; Horrocks, Julia A.; Kramer, Donald L., 2009. How depth alters detection and capture of buried prey: exploitation of sea turtle eggs by mongooses. Behavioral Ecology. 20(6). NOV-DEC 2009. 1299-1306.
Leighton, Patrick A.; Horrocks, Julia A.; Kramer, Donald L., 2010. Conservation and the scarecrow effect: Can human activity benefit threatened species by displacing predators? Biological Conservation. 143(9). SEP 2010. 2156-2163.
Leighton, Patrick A.; Horrocks, Julia A.; Krueger, Barry H.; Beggs, Jennifer A.; Kramer, Donald L., 2008. Predicting species interactions from edge responses: mongoose predation on hawksbill sea turtle nests in fragmented beach habitat. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences Series B. 275(1650). NOV 7 2008. 2465-2472.
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Summary: French language. Information about impacts, eradication methodology, results and discussion in French.
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Marks, C.A.; Johnston, M.J.; Fisher, P.M.; Pontin, K. and Shaw, M.J. 2006. Differential particle size ingestion: promoting target-specific baiting of feral cats. Journal of Wildlife Management 70:1119-1124.
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Morley, C.G. 2004. Has the invasive mongoose Herpestes javanicus yet reached the island of Taveuni, Fiji? Oryx 38:457�460.
Morrison, C.Morrison, C.; Naikatini, A.Naikatini, A.; Thomas, N.Thomas, N.; Rounds, I.Rounds, I.; Thaman, B.Thaman, B.; Niukula, J.Niukula, J., 2004. Rediscovery of an endangered frog Platymantis vitianus, on mainland Fiji: implications for conservation and management. Pacific Conservation Biology. 10(4). 2004. 237-240.
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Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
Walsh, M.T. 2007. Island subsistence: hunting trapping and translocation of wildlife in the Western Indian Ocean. Azania 42:83-113.
Watari, Yuya; Junco Nagata & Kimitake Funakoshi, 2011. New detection of a 30-year-old population of introduced mongoose Herpestes auropunctatus on Kyushu Island, Japan. Biol Invasions (2011) 13:269�276
Wegmann, A.; Buckelew, S.; Howald, G.; Helm, J.; and Swinnerton, K. 2011. Rodent eradication campaigns on tropical islands: novel challenges and possible solutions. In: Veitch, C.R.; Clout, M.N. and Towns, D.R. (eds.). Island Invasives: Eradication and Management, IUCN, (International Union for Conservation of Nature), Gland, Switzerland, pp. XX.
General information
Abe, S.; Takatsuki, Y.; Handa, Y. and Nigi, H. 1991. Establishment in the wild of the mongoose (Herpestes sp.) on Amami-Oshima Island. Honyurui Kagaku. 31:23-36. (in Japanese with English summary)
Amarasekare, Priyanga, 1994. Ecology of Introduced Small Mammals On Western Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Journey of Mammalogy 75(1):24-38, 1994
Baldwin, P., Schwartz, C. W. and Schwartz, E. R. 1952. Life history and economic status of the mongoose in Hawaii. Journal of Mammalogy 33: 335-356.
Barun, A., Budinski, I. & Simberloff, D. 2008. A ticking time-bomb? The small Indian mongoose in Europe. Aliens 26, 14�16.
Barun, A.; Simberloff, D. and Budinski, I. 2010. Impact of the small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) on native amphibians and reptiles of the Adriatic islands, Croatia. Animal Conservation. 13:549-555.
BirdLife International 2004. Pterodroma caribbaea. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Summary: Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/144861/0 [Accessed 12 March 2010]
Borroto-Pa�z, R. 2011. Los mam�feros invasores o introducidos. In: R. Borroto-Pa�z and C.A. Manina (eds.), Mam�feros en Cuba. UPC Print, Vasa, Finland.
Borroto-P�ez, R. 2009. Invasive mammals in Cuba: an overview. Biological Invasions 11:2279-2290.
Bryan, E.H. Jr. 1938. The much maligned mongoose. Paradise of the Pacific 50 (4):32�34.
Case, T.J. and Bolger, D.T. 1991. The role of introduced species in shaping the distribution and abundance of island reptiles. Evolutionary Ecology 5:272-290.
Cirovic, D.; Rakovic, M.; Milenkovic, M. and Paunovic M. 2010. Small Indian Mongoose Herpestes auropunctatus (Herpestidae, Carnivora): an invasive species in Montenegro.�[Quick Edit] Biological Invasions 13:393-399.
Corn, Joseph L.; Berger, Patrick; Mertins, James W., 2009. Surveys for Ectoparasites on Wildlife Associated With Amblyomma variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae)-Infested Livestock in St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. Journal of Medical Entomology. 46(6). NOV 2009. 1483-1489.
Daltry, Jennifer C., 2007. An introduction to the herpetofauna of Antigua, Barbuda and Redonda, with some conservation recommendations. Applied Herpetology, Volume 4, Number 2, 2007 , pp. 97-130(34)
Dickinson, H.C.; Fa, J.E. and Lenton, S.M. 2001. Microhabitat use by a translocated population of St Lucia whiptail lizards (Cnemidophorus vanzoi). Animal Conservation 4:143-156.
Espeut, W. B. 1882. On the acclimatization of the Indian mongoose in Jamaica. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1882: 712-714.
Everard, C. O. R. and Everard, J. D. 1985. Mongoose Rabies in Grenada. In Bacon, P. J. (ed.) Population Dynamics of Rabies in Wildlife, Academic Press Inc., London, UK: 43-69.
Gorman, M. L. 1975. The diet of feral Herpestes auropunctatus. (Carnivora:Viverridae) in the Fijian Islands. Journal of Zoology, London 175: 273�278.
Hays, W.S.T. and Conant, S. 2007. Biology and impacts of Pacific Island invasive species. 1. A Worldwide review of effects of the small Indian mongoose, Herpestes javanicus (Carnivora: Herpestidae). Pacific Science, 61: 3-16.
Summary: Comprehensive review of worldwide effects of the small Indian mongoose in it s introduced range
Heinz, Heather M.; Maley, Abigail J.; Savit, Aaron Z.; Henderson, Robert W.; Powell, Robert, 2004. Behaviour and time allotment in the West Indian snake Alsophis rufiventris (Colubridae) Herpetological Bulletin.(89). FAL 04. 22-25.
Henderson, R.W. 1992. Consequences of predator introductions and habitat destruction on amphibians and reptiles in the post-Columbus West Indies. Caribbean Journal of Science 28:1-10.
Hinton, H.E. and Dunn, A.M.S. 1967. Mongooses: their Natural History and Behaviour. Oliver and Boyd Ltd., London, UK.
Hoagland, D. B., Horst, G. R. and Kilpatrick, C. W. 1989. Biogeography and population ecology of the mongoose in the West Indies. Biogeography of West Indies 1989: 6111-6134.
Hoagland, Donald B.; Kilpatrick, C. William, 1999. Genetic variation and differentiation among insular populations of the small Indian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus). Journal of Mammalogy. 80(1). Feb., 1999. 169-179.
Hodgson, B.H. 1836. Mangusta Auropunctata. Journal of Asiatic Society Bengal 5:235-236.
Horst, G.R.; Hoagland, D.B. and Kilpatrick, C.W. 2001. The mongoose in the West Indies - the biogeography of an introduced species. In: Woods, C.A. and Sergile, F.E. (eds.). Biogeography of West Indies: new patterns and perspectives, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 407-422.
Huber, R., Vincent, G., MacFarland, C. and Meganck, R. Plan and Policy for a System of National Parks and Protected Areas. Department of Regional Development, Grenada.
Summary: Inventory and status of the natural and cultural resource base, including the impact of invasive species on Grenada.
Husson, A.M. 1960. Het voorkomen van de mungo in Suriname. Lutra 2:12-13.
Husson, A.M. 1978. The mammals of Suriname. Zo�logische Monographie�n van het Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie. Brill, Leiden, Netherlands.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Herpestes javanicus
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/taxastep?king=every&p_action=containing&taxa=Herpestes+javanicus&p_format=&p_ifx=plglt&p_lang= [Accessed March 2005]
Kishida, K. 1931. Professor Watase and the import of mongooses. Zoological Science 43:70-78. (in Japanese)
Kiyoaki Ozaki, Yoshihiro Yamamoto and Satoshi Yamagishi, 2010. Genetic diversity and phylogeny of the endangered Okinawa Rail, Gallirallus okinawae. Genes & Genetic Systems. Vol. 85 (2010) , No. 1 p.55-63.
Lorvelec, O., Delloue, X., Pascal, M., & Mege, S. 2004. Impact des mammif�res allochtones sur quelques esp�ces autochtones de l �let Fajou (R�serve Naturelle du Grand Cul-de-Sac-Marin, Guadeloupe), �tablis � l issue d une tentative d �radication. Revue d Ecologie (La Terre et la Vie), 59, 293-307.
Lorvelec, O., Pascal, M., Delloue, X., Chapuis, J.L. 2007. Les mammif�res terrestres non volants des Antilles fran�aises et l�introduction r�cente d�un �cureil. Rev.Ecol. (Terre Vie), 62, 295-314
Summary: Bilan des introductions des mamif�res terrestres dans les Antilles fran�aises et analyse de leurs impacts.
Lorvelec, O., Pascal, M., & Pavis, C. 2001. Inventaire et statut des Mammif�res des Antilles fran�aises (hors Chiropt�res et C�tac�s). In Rapport n� 27 de l Association pour l Etude et la Protection des Vert�br�s et V�g�taux des Petites Antilles, Petit-Bourg, Guadeloupe.
Summary: Article de synth�se sur les mammif�res (hors chiropt�res et c�tac�s) des Antilles fran�aises. L origine des esp�ces introduites et leurs impacts av�r�s ou potentiels sont discut�s.
Available from: http://www.fnh.org/francais/fnh/uicn/pdf/biodiv_mammiferes_antilles.pdf [Accessed 9 April 2008]
Macmillan, A. 1914. Mauritius Illustrated. W.H. & L. Collingridge, London, UK.
Morley, Craig G.; McLenachan, Patricia A.; Lockhart, Peter J., 2007. Evidence for the presence of a second species of mongoose in the Fiji Islands. Pacific Conservation Biology. 13(1). MAR 2007. 29-34.
Nagayama, Yasuhiko; Ogura, Go; Kawashima, Yoshitsugu, 2001. Morphometry of skulls and statistical verification of mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) on Okinawa and Amami Ohshima Islands. Honyurui Kagaku. 41(2). December, 2001. 159-169.
Nakama, H. and Komizo, K. 2009. On the mongoose in Kiire-sesekushi-cho Kagoshima city, Kagoshima prefecture. Bulletin of the Kagoshima Prefectural Museum. 28:103-104. (in Japanese)
Nellis, D.W. 1982. Mongoose influence on the ecology of islands.� Transactions of the International Congress of Game Biologists. 14:311-314.
Nellis, D.W. 1989. Herpestes auropunctatus. Mammalian Species 442: 1-6
Nellis, D. W. and Everard, C. O. R. 1983. The biology of the mongoose in the Caribbean. Studies on the fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands 64: 1�162.
Nellis, D. W. and Small, V. 1983. Mongoose predation on sea turtle eggs and nests. Biotropica 15: 159-160.
Nellis, D.W.; Eichholz, N.F.; Regan, T.W. and Feinstein, C. 1978. Mongoose in Florida. Wildlife Society Bulletin 6:249-250.
Ogura, Go; Sakashita, Mitsuhiro; Kawashima, Yoshitsugu, 1998. External morphology and classification of mongoose on Okinawa Island. Honyurui Kagaku. 38(2). 1998. 259-270.
Ogura, Go; Sasaki, Takeshi; Toyama, Masanao; Takehara, Kenji; Nakachi, Manabu; Ishibashi, Osamu; Kawashima, Yoshitsugu; Oda, Sen-ichi, 2002. Food habits of the feral small Asian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) and impacts on native species in the northern part of Okinawa Island. Honyurui Kagaku. 42(1). June, 2002. 53-62.
Ozaki, Kiyoaki; Baba, Takao; Komeda, Shigemoto; Kinjyo, Michio; Toguchi, Yutaka; Harato, Tetsujiro, 2002. The declining distribution of the Okinawa Rail Gallirallus okinawae. Journal of the Yamashina Institute for Ornithology. 34(1). 25 October, 2002. 136-144.
Pascal, M.; Barr�, N.; Feldmann, P.; Lorvelec, O. and Pavis, C. 1996. Faisabilit� �cologique d�un programme de pi�geage de la Mangouste dans la R�serve Naturelle de la Caravelle (Martinique). Rapport AEVA 12:1�14.
Patou, M.L.; Mclenachan, P.A.; Morley, C.G.; Couloux , A.; Cruaud, C.; Jennings, A.P. and Veron, G. 2009. Molecular phylogeny of the Herpestidae (Mammalia, Carnivora) with a special emphasis on the Asian Herpestes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53:69�80
Pearson, O. and Baldwin, P. 1953. Reproduction and age structure of a mongoose population in Hawaii. Journal of Mammalogy 34:436-447.
Pearson, O. P. and Baldwin, P. H. 1953. Reproduction and age structure in a mongoose population in Hawaii. Journal of Mammalogy 34: 436-447.
Pimentel, D. 1955a. Biology of the Indian mongoose in Puerto Rico. Journal of Mammalogy 36:62-68.
Powell, Robert, 2006. Conservation of the herpetofauna on the Dutch Windward Islands: St. Eustatius, Saba, and St. Maarten. Applied Herpetology 3: 293-306
Savit, Aaron Z.; Maley, Abigail J.; Heinz, Heather M.; Henderson, Robert W.; Powel, Robert, 2005. Distribution and activity periods of Alsophis rufiventris (Colubridae) on The Quill, St. Eustatius, Netherlands Antilles. Amphibia-Reptilia. 26(3). SEP 2005. 418-421.
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Simberloff, D., Dayan, T., Jones, C. and Ogura, G. 2000. Character displacement and release in the small Indian mongoose, Herpestes javanicus. Ecology 81: 2086-2099.
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Townsend, Jason, 2006. Predation of a Golden swallow (Tachycineta euchrysea) nest by the Indian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) in the Sierta De Bahoruco, Dominican Republic. J. Carib. Ornithol. 19:108-109, 2006.
Tvrtkovic, N. and Kry�tufek, B. 1990. Small Indian mongoose, Herpestes auropunctatus (Hodgson 1836) on the Adriatic islands of Yugoslavia. Bonner Zoologische Beitrage 41:3-8.
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Veron, Geraldine; Patou, Marie-Lilith; Pothet, Geraldine; Simberloff, Daniel; Jennings, Andrew P., 2007. Systematic status and biogeography of the Javan and small Indian mongooses (Herpestidae, Carnivora) Zoologica Scripta. 36(1). JAN 2007. 1-10.
Veron, G.; Patou, M.L.; Pothet, G.; Simberloff, D. and Jennings, A.P. 2007. Systematic status and biogeography of the Javan and small Indian mongooses (Herpestidae, Carnivora). Zoologica Scripta 36:1-10.
Vilella, Francisco J. , 1998. Biology of the mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) in a rain forest of Puerto Rico. Biotropica. 30(1). March, 1998. 120-125.
Watari, Y., Takatsuki, S., Miyachita, T. 2008. Effects of exotic mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) on the native fauna of Amamai-Oshima Island, southern Japan, estimated by distribution patterns along the historical gradient of mongoose invasion. Biological Invasions 18: 7-17.
Williams C.B. 1918. Food of the mongoose in Trinidad. Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture, Trinidad 17:167-186.
Windsor Research Centre, undated. Non-native invasive species.
Summary: A summary of the impact of invasive species on Jamaica.
Contact
The following 5 contacts offer information an advice on Herpestes javanicus
Hayes,
Warren
Herpestes javanicus
Organization:
Hawaii Pacific University
Email:
Address:
Hawaii Pacific University, Honolulu HI 96815, USA.
Phone:
+1 808 2365842
Fax:
Lorvelec,
Olivier
Geographic region: Caribbean, Europe, Pacific
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique
Address:
Equipe �cologie des Invasions Biologiques - UMR (INRA/Agrocampus Rennes) �cologie et Sant� des �cosyst�mes - INRA - Campus de Beaulieu - B�timent 16 - 35 000 Rennes
Phone:
Fax:
Morley,
Craig
Organization:
The University of the South Pacific
Address:
Department of Biology, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, PO Box 1168, Suva, Fiji
Phone:
Fax:
Pascal,
Michel
Geographic region: sub-Antarctic; North Africa; Pacific; Caribbean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique
Address:
INRA - SCRIBE - Campus de Beaulieu - F35 042 Rennes
Phone:
(33) (0)2 23 48 53 79
Fax:
Roy,
Sugoto
Herpestes javanicus
Organization:
Coordinator Hebridean Mink Project
Address:
Central Science Laboratory,Sand Hutton,York YO41 1LZ
Phone:
+44(0)1904-462000
Fax: