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  • Orthotomicus erosus galleries (Photo: William M. Ciesla, Forest Health Management International, www.forestryimages.org)
  • Orthotomicus erosus galleries (Photo: William M. Ciesla, Forest Health Management International, www.forestryimages.org)
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Common name
European bark beetle (English), Mediterranean pine engraver beetle (English)
Synonym
Similar species
Ips latidens, Ips pini, Orthotomicus caelatus
Summary
Orthotomicus erosus is an engraver beetle of the family Scolytidae. It is being introduced around the world, often due to the wood packaging material used in the shipment of textiles and other products. Orthotomicus erosus is a carrier for pathogenic fungi and is known to carry Sphaeropsis sapinea, which causes extensive mortality of many Pinus spp.
Species Description
Cavey et al. (2004) reports that the length of Orthotomicus erosus is generally between 2.7 and 3.5mm. It is reddish brown in colour. The anterior portion of the pronotum (the region of an insects body immediately behind the head) on this species is asperate (rough with points or projections). The elytral declivity (downward slope of the modified forewings of beetles serving as protective coverings for the hindwings) is also moderately concave with lateral spines or teeth on it. Please see Cavey et al. 1994 for aid in identification.
Habitat Description
Campbell (2004) states that, \"O. erosus primarily attack pine species (Pinus) but can also occur on Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), spruce (Picea), fir (Abies), and cedar species (Cedrus). The beetle infests recently fallen trees, slash, and stressed living trees.\"
Reproduction
Campbell (2004) states that, \"While beetles inhabit non Pinus species, beetle reproduction is limited to infestations in pine species.\"
Pathway
Orthotomicus erosus hast most commonly entered the United States from other countries through various crated exports such as, crating tiles, marble, and granite (Haack, 2001).

Principal source: Campbell (2004) states that, \"While beetles inhabit non Pinus species, beetle reproduction is limited to infestations in pine species.\"

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Prof. Dr. Maria Rosa Paiva DCEA, Faculdade de Ci�ncias e Tecnologia Universidade Nova de Lisboa Portugal

Publication date: 2005-08-29

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Orthotomicus erosus. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=787 on 10-12-2016.

General Impacts
Campbell (2004) states that, \"As with other bark beetles, one of the major dangers from O. erosus is the transmission of pathogenic fungi, including blue stain fungi such as Ophiostoma minus.\" Wylie (2000) states that, \"The fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea has caused extensive mortality of Pinus spp. following hail damage in South Africa, and Zwolinski et al. (1990) have estimated that losses of US$ 3.2 million per year have been incurred. Damage due to Sphaeropsis dieback is often exacerbated through infestation of trees by the weevil Pissodes nemorensis and Orthotomicus erosus.\"
Management Info
Integrated management: Henin and Paiva (2004) state that, \"Management of bark beetle populations, such as O. erosus can only be achieved by adopting an integrated approach. Among preventive measures, this approach must combine ''prophylactic'' silviculture practices with an enhancement of their natural enemies, some of which have been shown to exert a significant impact upon bark beetle populations.\"

Chemical: In field experiments, Klimetzek and Vite (1986) were able to lure O. erosus into traps baited with a combination of the beetle produced compounds 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and ipsdienol. The authors state that, \"When offered along with 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, an up to 1000-fold increase in concentration of racemic ipsdienol led to a continual increase in catch of O. erosus and Ips sexdentatus, accompanied by a steady increase of .female..female.-%. It is assumed that 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol influences landing behaviour of O. erosus, while ipsdienol acts as a long distance signal\".

Mechanical: In South Africa, Wylie (2000) reports that, \"Sanitation felling and removal of Rhizina-infected older trees is necessary to prevent build-up of O. erosus.

Biologcial: Tribe and Kfir (2001) have been studying Dendrosoter caenopachoides, which was introduced into South Africa for the biological control of O. erosus.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Orthotomicus erosus
ALIEN RANGE
NATIVE RANGE
  • china
  • france
  • israel
  • italy
  • northern africa
  • norway
  • portugal
  • russian federation
  • slovenia
  • spain
  • turkey
Informations on Orthotomicus erosus has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Orthotomicus erosus in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Campbell (2004) states that, \"As with other bark beetles, one of the major dangers from O. erosus is the transmission of pathogenic fungi, including blue stain fungi such as Ophiostoma minus.\" Wylie (2000) states that, \"The fungus Sphaeropsis sapinea has caused extensive mortality of Pinus spp. following hail damage in South Africa, and Zwolinski et al. (1990) have estimated that losses of US$ 3.2 million per year have been incurred. Damage due to Sphaeropsis dieback is often exacerbated through infestation of trees by the weevil Pissodes nemorensis and Orthotomicus erosus.\"
Red List assessed species 0:
Management information
Integrated management: Henin and Paiva (2004) state that, \"Management of bark beetle populations, such as O. erosus can only be achieved by adopting an integrated approach. Among preventive measures, this approach must combine ''prophylactic'' silviculture practices with an enhancement of their natural enemies, some of which have been shown to exert a significant impact upon bark beetle populations.\"

Chemical: In field experiments, Klimetzek and Vite (1986) were able to lure O. erosus into traps baited with a combination of the beetle produced compounds 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and ipsdienol. The authors state that, \"When offered along with 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, an up to 1000-fold increase in concentration of racemic ipsdienol led to a continual increase in catch of O. erosus and Ips sexdentatus, accompanied by a steady increase of .female..female.-%. It is assumed that 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol influences landing behaviour of O. erosus, while ipsdienol acts as a long distance signal\".

Mechanical: In South Africa, Wylie (2000) reports that, \"Sanitation felling and removal of Rhizina-infected older trees is necessary to prevent build-up of O. erosus.

Biologcial: Tribe and Kfir (2001) have been studying Dendrosoter caenopachoides, which was introduced into South Africa for the biological control of O. erosus.

Bibliography
31 references found for Orthotomicus erosus

Managment information
Delabie, J. H. C., Jahyny, B., Cardoso do Nascimento, I., Mariano, C. S. F., Lacau, S., Campiolo, S., Philpott, S. M. & Leponce, M. (2007). Contribution of cocoa plantations to the conservation of native ants (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with a special emphasis on the Atlantic Forest fauna of southern Bahia, Brazil. Biodiversity and Conservation 16: 2359�2384.
Henin, J. M., and M. R. Paiva. 2004. Interactions between Orthotomicus erosus (Woll.) (Col., Scolytidae) and the Argentine ant Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hym., Formicidae). Journal-of-Pest-Science. 2004; 77(2): 113-117.
Klimetzek, D., and J. P. Vite. 1986. The role of insect produced attractants on the aggregation behavior of the Mediterranean Pine Engraver Beetle Orthotomicus erosus Journal of Applied Entomology. 1986; 101(3): 239-243.
Mendel, Z., O. Boneh, and J. Riov. 1992. Some foundations for the application of aggregation pheromone to control pine bark beetles in Israel. Journal of Applied Entomology. 1992; 114(3): 217-227.
Tribe, G. D., and R. Kfir. 2001. The establishment of Dendrosoter caenopachoides (Hymneoptera:Braconidae) introduced into South Africa for the biological control of Orthotomicus erosus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), with additional notes on D. sp nr. labdacus Afr. Entomol. 9: 195-198.
General information
Amezaga, I., and M. A. Rodriguez. 1998. Resource partitioning of four sympatric bark beetles depending on swarming dates and tree species. Forest Ecology and Management. 1998; 10(1-3): 127-135.
Boer, P. & Vierbergen, B. (2008). Exotic ants in The Netherlands (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomologische Berichten 68(4): 121-129
Bright, D. E. 1989. Additions to the Scolytidae fauna of the Azores North Atlantic Ocean Coleoptera. Bocagiana (Funchal). 1989; (129): 1-2.
Choe, H. C., Lim, J. O., & Lee, S. (2009). Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius), a new exotic pest in Korea. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 12: 67�69.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2004. Online Database Orthotomicus spp.
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=654066 [Accessed December 31 2004]
Iziko Museums of Cape Town. 2004. Orthotomicus erosus (European Bark Beetle). Biodiversity Explorer.
Summary: Available from: http://www.museums.org.za/bio/insects/beetles/scolytidae/orthotomicus_erosus.htm [Accessed 4 January 2005]
Jurc, M. UNDATED. Bark Beetles (Scolytidae, Coleoptera) in Slovenia with Special Regard to Species in Burnt Pine Forests. University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Forestry and Renewable Forest Resources.
Kadyrov, A. K. 1988. On the bark beetle fauna Coleoptera Scolytidae of tree species in the Southwestern Tadzhik SSR USSR. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie. 1988; 67(1): 42-47.
Kirkendall, L. R.. 1989. Within-Harem Competition among Ips females an overlooked component of density-dependent larval mortality. Holarctic Ecology. 1989; 12(4): 477-487.
Mendel, Z. 1983. Season history of Orthotomicus erosus Coleoptera Scolytidae in Israel. Phytoparasitica 1983; 11(1): 13-24.
Mendel, Z., and J. Halperin. 1982. The biology and behavior of Orthotomicus erosus in Israel. Phytoparasitica. 1982; 10(3): 169-182.
Mendel, Z., Z. Madar, and Y. Golan. 1985. Comparison of the seasonal occurrence and behavior of 7 Pine Bark Beetles Coleoptera Scolytidae in Israel. Phytoparasitica 1985; 13(1): 21-32.
Neville, P. J., O Dowd, D. J. & Yen, A. L. (2008). Issues and implications for research on disturbed oceanic islands illustrated through an ant survey of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. Jounral of Insect Conservation 12: 313-323.
Ramsden, M., J. McDonald, and F. R. Wylie. 2002. Forest pests in the South Pacific region: A review of the major causal agents of tree disorders. Department of Primary Industries, Agency for Food and Fibre Sciences, Forestry Research, Queensland, Australia.
Schvester, D. 1986. Forest Entomology Problems in the Mediterranean zone of France. Bulletin OEPP. 1986; 16(4): 603-612.
Texas A&M University. (2008). Ghost Ant, Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius). Accessed 26 June, 2009 from
Summary: Available from: http://urbanentomology.tamu.edu/ants/ghost.cfm [Accessed 25 June 2009]
Tribe, G. D. 1991. Phenology of three exotic pine bark beetle species Coleoptera Scolytidae colonising Pinus radiata logs in the south-western Cape Province. South African Forestry Journal. 1991; (157): 27-31.
Wetterer, J.K. (2002). Ants of Tonga. Pacific Science 56(2):125�135.
Wingfield, M. J., B. Slippers, J. Roux, and B. D. Wingfield. 2001. Worldwide Movement of Exotic Forest Fungi, Especially in the Tropics and the Southern Hemisphere. Bioscience 51(2): 134-141.
Wylie, R. 2000. Integrated Pest Management in Tropical Forestry. Proceedings of the International Conference on Timber Plantation Development.
Summary: Available from: http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/005/ac781e/AC781E07.htm [Accessed 4 January 2005]
Zhou, X., W. De-Beer, B. D. Wingfield, and M. J. Wingfield. 2002. Infection sequence and pathogenicity of Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium serpens and L. lundbergii to pines in South Africa. Fungal Diversity. 2002; 10: 229-240.
Zwolinski, J. B., W. J. Swart, and M. J. Wingfield, 1995. Association of Sphaeropsis sapinea with insect infestation following hail damage of Pinus radiata. Forest-Ecology-and-Management. 1995; 72(2-3): 293-298.
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=648901 [Accessed 18 March 2008]
Contact
The following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Orthotomicus erosus
Paiva,
Prof. Dr. Maria Rosa
Organization:
DCEA, Faculdade de Ci�ncias e Tecnologia
Address:
Universidade Nova de Lisboa 2829-516 Campus de Caparica
Phone:
00351-21-2948300 Ext.10108
Fax:
00351-21-2948554