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  • Anredera cordifolia at 4m with blackberry in foreground (Photo: Armadale Gosnells Landcare Group)
  • Anredera cordifolia in gum canopy (Photo: Armadale Gosnells Landcare Group)
  • Anredera cordifolia in gum canopy (Photo: Armadale Gosnells Landcare Group)
  • Anredera cordifolia - showing tubers (Photo: Armadale Gosnells Landcare Group)
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Common name
tapau (English), parra de Madeira (Spanish), 'uala hupe (English), enredadera del mosquito (Spanish), anredera (English), filikafa (English), heartleaf madeiravine (English), mignonette vine (English), Gulf madeiravine (English), lamb's tails (English), Madeira vine (English)
Synonym
Boussingaultia cordifolia
Boussingaultia gracilis
Boussingaultia pseudobasselloides
Similar species
Summary
Anredera cordifolia, commonly known as Madeira vine is a succulent climbing vine. The combination of fleshy leaves and thick aerial tubers makes this a very heavy vine. It smothers trees and other vegetation it grows on and can easily can break branches and bring down entire trees on its own. A. cordifolia is notoriously difficult to control.
Species Description
Anredera cordifolia is an evergreen climber that grow from fleshy rhizomes. It has bright green, heart-shaped, shiny leaves. Wart-like tubers are produced on aerial stems and are a key to identifying the plant. It has masses of fragrant, cream flowers. The plant spreads via the tubers, which detach very easily (The Bay of Plenty Regional Council, UNDATED). \"PEIR (2005) describes A. cordifolia in more detail: Stems are slender and often have a reddish colour to them. The leaves are subsessile and can commonly be found with small irregular tubers in their axils. Lamina are broadly ovate. Racemes can be simple but also show some branching. Pedicels are 2-3mm long; bracts 1.5-1.8mm long. The lower bracteoles can be 0.5-1mm long and are cupulate. The upper bracteoles are around 2-2.5mm long and suborbicular.
Uses
Starr et al. (2003) state that, \"Anredera cordifolia is a fast growing twiner with succulent leaves and fragrant white flowers. It can be trained to twine up trellises, fences, or rock walls for decoration or for screening.\"
Habitat Description
In Australia A. cordifolia has can be found invading riparian vegetation, the edges of rainforest, tall open forests, damp sclerophyll forests. It is also spreading amongst a number of tropical Pacific Islands (PEIR, 2005).
Reproduction
Anredera cordifolia can reproduce through the proliferation of tubers and also from rhizome fragments that may be broken off. Although this species has both male and female flowers they rarely reproduce sexually and produce seed. This species often spreads through its own vegetative growth, but can easily be transported by human activities. If fragments end up in waterways, they are easily transported to new locations in this manner (Starr et al. 2003).
Pathway
Anredera cordifolia is spread by people in landscaping efforts, both intentionally and unintentionally. The vine escapes from cultivation spreading vegetatively and through pieces of rhizome and stem tubers that separate from the parent plant (StarAnredera cordifolia has escaped from cultivation to become a serious pest in many places where it has been planted, including Hawai'i, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and other Pacific Islands (Starr et al. 2003).

Principal source: Starr et al. 2003. Anredera cordifolia

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Terrestrial and Freshwater Biodiversity Information System (TFBIS) Programme (Copyright statement)

Review: Dr Gabrielle Vivian-Smith \ Senior Scientist (Weed Ecology) \ Alan Fletcher Research Station \ Department of Natural Resources, Mines and \ CRC for Australian Weed Management. Australia

Publication date: 2006-04-10

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Anredera cordifolia. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=776 on 23-07-2016.

General Impacts
Harden et al. (2004) report that, \"Anredera cordifolia proliferates readily from small vegetative parts of the plant and as a result is very hard to kill and eradicate from forestland.\" Starr et al. (2003) report that, \"A. cordifolia has several characteristics that contribute to its invasiveness, including a history of weediness in warm, moist climates, aggressive vegetative growth which competes with and replaces other vegetation, and difficulty of control once established. Its aggressive vining nature gives it the potential to smother other desirable plants. Growth rates of stems in warmer and moister regions can exceed 1 metre per week and up to 6 metres in a growing season. According to the Lismore County Council in Australia (LCC 2001) \"With fleshy leaves and aerial tubers, A. Cordifolia is one of the heaviest of problem vines. Its sheer weight is capable of breaking branches off trees, thereby reducing them to poles, potentially causing collapse of the rainforest canopy.\" Control of this species is difficult because both underground and aboveground tubers must all be destroyed or removed.\" Harden et al. reports on some of the problems faced from A. Cordifolia tubers stating that, \"Not only was it the most destructive species but it also proved the most difficult to eradicate owing to the formation of terrestrial, and small and large aerial, tubers (to 25cm diameter) on the stems, often held high in the canopy. Even after 15 years of treatment, aerial tubers of A. Cordifolia were still held high on dead stems caught in the restored forest canopy in only a few isolated areas of the Brush.\"
Management Info
Physical: Starr et al. (2003) state that, \"Physical control of Anredera cordifolia is very difficult. Wildy (2002) suggests placing a plastic sheet below the plant before any manual control is done so that all parts of the plant, especially aerial tubers, can be removed. All parts of the vine must be removed, including underground tubers and vines climbing up trees to prevent them from resprouting.\"

Chemical: Starr et al. (2003) state that, \"The vine is hard to kill with chemicals due to its numerous tubers, suculent waxy leaves, and numerous roots. Haley (1997) recommends that after all tubers are physically removed, use a foliar spray of Escort, Roundup, and Pulse on plants and tubers as soon as green sprouts have two or four leaves on each sprout. Timing of follow spraying is important because if left too long, new underground tubers will form, prolonging successful control. Wildy (2002) suggests trying a foliar spray of Garlon 4 (triclopyr) mixed with water 50 ml/10 l. Australians (LCC 2001) report that scraping stems at staggered intervals then applying 100% Roundup (glyphosate) is the only recommended control method. Aerial stems should be cut at both ends and dipped in Roundup (Bushcare 2001).\"

In Ku-ring-gai (NSW Australia), Pallin (2000) states that efforts have been made to apply annually, \"Herbicide by the stem-scrape method, to kill vines in situ and (particularly in the case of A. cordifolia) to kill existing aerial tubers and prevent the development of more. A. cordifolia tubers were picked from the soil once native seedlings began to regenerate and removed to landfill. A. cordifolia regrowth was spot sprayed with herbicide where there were no native seedlings. Although floods bring more A. cordifolia tubers from upstream sources into the Reserve, this strategy has almost eliminated the production of tubers within the Reserve and thus protects the regenerating areas and bushland downstream in Garigal National Park from this threat.\"

Prior and Armstrong (2001) achieved various levels of control against A. cordifolia using a variety of concentrations of both fluroxypyr and glyphosate, but the authors favoured fluroxypyr treatments because at lower concentrations competitive grass species can also establish and compete with A. cordifolia.

The Bay of Plenty Regional Council (UNDATED) states that, \"Smaller A. cordifolia plants can be grubbed out ensuring that all of the tubers are removed. Larger infestations can be controlled by cutting back top growth and spraying remaining 2 metre stems with Escort® 5 grams per 10 liters of water plus penetrant, or Grazon® at 60mls per 10 litres of water plus penetrant.\"

Cultural: Starr et al. (2003) states that, \"It could be suggested that the public not plant or spread plants to new areas. Tubers and parts of the plant could be double bagged and thrown away in the trash or piled in one location on site. Precaution could be taken to not spread green waste to uninfected areas.\"

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Anredera cordifolia
NATIVE RANGE
  • argentina
  • bolivia
  • brazil
  • colombia
  • ecuador
  • el salvador
  • paraguay
  • uruguay
Informations on Anredera cordifolia has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Anredera cordifolia in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Harden et al. (2004) report that, \"Anredera cordifolia proliferates readily from small vegetative parts of the plant and as a result is very hard to kill and eradicate from forestland.\" Starr et al. (2003) report that, \"A. cordifolia has several characteristics that contribute to its invasiveness, including a history of weediness in warm, moist climates, aggressive vegetative growth which competes with and replaces other vegetation, and difficulty of control once established. Its aggressive vining nature gives it the potential to smother other desirable plants. Growth rates of stems in warmer and moister regions can exceed 1 metre per week and up to 6 metres in a growing season. According to the Lismore County Council in Australia (LCC 2001) \"With fleshy leaves and aerial tubers, A. Cordifolia is one of the heaviest of problem vines. Its sheer weight is capable of breaking branches off trees, thereby reducing them to poles, potentially causing collapse of the rainforest canopy.\" Control of this species is difficult because both underground and aboveground tubers must all be destroyed or removed.\" Harden et al. reports on some of the problems faced from A. Cordifolia tubers stating that, \"Not only was it the most destructive species but it also proved the most difficult to eradicate owing to the formation of terrestrial, and small and large aerial, tubers (to 25cm diameter) on the stems, often held high in the canopy. Even after 15 years of treatment, aerial tubers of A. Cordifolia were still held high on dead stems caught in the restored forest canopy in only a few isolated areas of the Brush.\"
Red List assessed species 0:
Mechanism
[1] Competition
Outcomes
[9] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [4] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [2] Unspecified ecosystem modification
  • [3] Habitat degradation
[1] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Human nuisance 
Management information
Physical: Starr et al. (2003) state that, \"Physical control of Anredera cordifolia is very difficult. Wildy (2002) suggests placing a plastic sheet below the plant before any manual control is done so that all parts of the plant, especially aerial tubers, can be removed. All parts of the vine must be removed, including underground tubers and vines climbing up trees to prevent them from resprouting.\"

Chemical: Starr et al. (2003) state that, \"The vine is hard to kill with chemicals due to its numerous tubers, suculent waxy leaves, and numerous roots. Haley (1997) recommends that after all tubers are physically removed, use a foliar spray of Escort, Roundup, and Pulse on plants and tubers as soon as green sprouts have two or four leaves on each sprout. Timing of follow spraying is important because if left too long, new underground tubers will form, prolonging successful control. Wildy (2002) suggests trying a foliar spray of Garlon 4 (triclopyr) mixed with water 50 ml/10 l. Australians (LCC 2001) report that scraping stems at staggered intervals then applying 100% Roundup (glyphosate) is the only recommended control method. Aerial stems should be cut at both ends and dipped in Roundup (Bushcare 2001).\"

In Ku-ring-gai (NSW Australia), Pallin (2000) states that efforts have been made to apply annually, \"Herbicide by the stem-scrape method, to kill vines in situ and (particularly in the case of A. cordifolia) to kill existing aerial tubers and prevent the development of more. A. cordifolia tubers were picked from the soil once native seedlings began to regenerate and removed to landfill. A. cordifolia regrowth was spot sprayed with herbicide where there were no native seedlings. Although floods bring more A. cordifolia tubers from upstream sources into the Reserve, this strategy has almost eliminated the production of tubers within the Reserve and thus protects the regenerating areas and bushland downstream in Garigal National Park from this threat.\"

Prior and Armstrong (2001) achieved various levels of control against A. cordifolia using a variety of concentrations of both fluroxypyr and glyphosate, but the authors favoured fluroxypyr treatments because at lower concentrations competitive grass species can also establish and compete with A. cordifolia.

The Bay of Plenty Regional Council (UNDATED) states that, \"Smaller A. cordifolia plants can be grubbed out ensuring that all of the tubers are removed. Larger infestations can be controlled by cutting back top growth and spraying remaining 2 metre stems with Escort® 5 grams per 10 liters of water plus penetrant, or Grazon® at 60mls per 10 litres of water plus penetrant.\"

Cultural: Starr et al. (2003) states that, \"It could be suggested that the public not plant or spread plants to new areas. Tubers and parts of the plant could be double bagged and thrown away in the trash or piled in one location on site. Precaution could be taken to not spread green waste to uninfected areas.\"

Bibliography
26 references found for Anredera cordifolia

Managment information
Bay of Plenty Regional Council, UNDATED. Climbing Plants: Plant Pest Control. Fact Sheet PP17/00.
Environment Waikato. 2002. Mignonette Vine (Anredera cordifolia)
Froude, V. A. 2002. Biological control options for invasive weeds of New Zealand protected areas. Science for Conservation 199.
Summary: Available from: http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/sfc199.pdf [Accessed 23 October 2009]
Harden, G. J., M. D. Fox, and B. J. Fox. 2004. Monitoring and assessment of restoration of a rainforest remnant at Wingham Brush, NSW.Austral Ecology 29(5):489.
Summary: This paper discusses the impact of species on a section of rainforest in New South Wales and its effects on restorative progress.
IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4.
Summary: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species provides taxonomic, conservation status and distribution information on taxa that have been globally evaluated using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. This system is designed to determine the relative risk of extinction, and the main purpose of the IUCN Red List is to catalogue and highlight those taxa that are facing a higher risk of global extinction (i.e. those listed as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable). The IUCN Red List also includes information on taxa that are categorized as Extinct or Extinct in the Wild; on taxa that cannot be evaluated because of insufficient information (i.e. are Data Deficient); and on taxa that are either close to meeting the threatened thresholds or that would be threatened were it not for an ongoing taxon-specific conservation programme (i.e. are Near Threatened).
Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/ [Accessed 25 May 2011]
Marlborough District Council (MDC), 2001. Regional Pest Management Strategy for Marlborough.
National Pest Plant Accord, 2001. Biosecurity New Zealand.
Summary: The National Pest Plant Accord is a cooperative agreement between regional councils and government departments with biosecurity responsibilities. Under the accord, regional councils will undertake surveillance to prevent the commercial sale and/or distribution of an agreed list of pest plants.
Available from: http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/pests-diseases/plants/accord.htm [Accessed 11 August 2005]
Pallin, N. 2000. Ku-ring-gai Flying-fox Reserve, Habitat restoration project, 15 years on. Ecological Management and Restoration 1(1):10 April 2000.
Summary: Discusses impacts species has had on a Reserve in Australia. Examines chemical and physical control methods and how control has been reached.
Prior, S. L., and T. R. Armstrong. 2001. A comparison of the effects of foliar applications of glyphosate and fluroxypyr on Madeira vine, Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) van Steenis. Plant-Protection-Quarterly. 2001; 16(1): 33-36.
Summary: Discussion of foliar chemical sprays and their effectiveness controlling Anredera cordifolia.
Royal New Zealand Institute of Horticulture (RNZIH), 2005. Madeira vine Anredera cordifolia
Summary: Available from: http://www.rnzih.org.nz/pages/nppa_056.pdf [Accessed 1 October 2005]
Starr, F., K. Starr, and L. Loope. 2003. Anredera cordifolia. United States Geological Survey Biological Resources Division: Haleakala Field Station, Maui, Hawai i.
Summary: An in-depth fact sheet covering various aspects of general biology, impacts, management options, and distribution records.
Swaziland s Alien Plants Database., Undated. Anredera cordifolia
Summary: A database of Swaziland s alien plant species.
Tasman District Council (TDC) 2001. Tasman-Nelson Regional Pest Management Strategy
General information
Batianoff, G. N., and D. W. Butler. 2003. Impact assessment and analysis of sixty-six priority invasive weeds in south-east Queensland. Plant-Protection-Quarterly. 2003; 18(1): 11-17.
Summary: Discussion of various invasive Australian weeds and their significance.
Carretero, J. L. 1990. Additions to the Spanish exotic flora. Folia-Botanica-Miscellanea. 1990; 7: 55-58.
Groves R. H., J.R. Hosking, G.N. Batianoff, D.A. Cooke, I.D. Cowie, R.W. Johnson, G.J. Keighery, B.J. Lepschi, A.A. Mitchell, M. Moerkerk, R.P. Randall, A.C. Rozefelds, N.G. Walsh and B.M. Waterhouse. 2003. Weed Categories for Natural and Agricultural Ecosystem Management. Australian Natural Heritage Trust. exotic flora. Folia-Botanica-Miscellanea. 1990; 7: 55-58.
Summary: Discussion of various invasive Australian weeds and their significance.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System). 2004. Online Database Anredera cordifolia.
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=181920 [Accessed March 2005]
Lebrun, J. P., M. Doltre, and L. Hebrard. 1993. Three adventive phanerogams new to Senegal. Candollea-. 1993; 48(2): 339-342.
New South Wales (NSW) National Parks and Wildlife Service, 2001. Declaration of critical habitat for Mitchell�s Rainforest Snail (Thersites mitchellae) in Stotts Island Nature Reserve. NPWS, Hurstville, NSW.
PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk). 2005. Anredera cordifolia.
Summary: General information regarding species, including some distributions and impacts.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/anredera_cordifolia.htm [Accessed 15 February 2005]
Swarbrick, J. T. 1999. Seedling production by Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia). Plant-Protection-Quarterly. 1999; 14(1): 38-39.
Summary: Discussion of the first evidence suggesting A. cordifolia is reproducing by seed in Australia.
USDA-NRCS (Natural Resource Conservation Service). 2005. Anredera cordifolia . The PLANTS Database Version 3.5 [Online Database] National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA.
Summary: Available from: http://plants.usda.gov/java/nameSearch?mode=Scientific+Name&keywordquery=Anredera+cordifolia&go.x=7&go.y=12 [Accessed 15 February 2006]
Villasenor, J. L., and F. J. Espinosa-Garcia. 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions, (Diversity Distrib.) 10:113-123.
Contact
The following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Anredera cordifolia
Vivian-Smith,
Gabrielle
Organization:
Senior Scientist (Weed Ecology) Alan Fletcher Research Station
Address:
Department of Natural Resources, Mines and CRC for Australian Weed Management PO Box 36, Sherwood, Qld 4075 Australia
Phone:
07 3375 0737
Fax:
07 3379 6815