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Common name
red-eared slider (English), punakorvakilpikonna (Finnish), red-eared slider terrapin (English, Bahamas), sarkanausu brunurupucis (Latvian), Rotwangen-Schmuckschildkroete (German), Krasnoukhaya cherepakha (Russian), Rotwangen-Schmuckschildkr�te (German), punakõrv-ilukilpkonn (Estonian), raudonausis vežlys (Lithuanian), rödörad vattensköldpadda (Swedish), rødøreterrapin (Norwegian), rødøret terrapin (Danish), zólw czerwonolicy (Polish), zólw czerwonouchy (Polish), zólw ozdobny (Polish), Nordamerikansk terrapin (Danish), slider (English), Buchstaben-Schmuckschildkröte (German), raudonskruostis vežlys (Lithuanian)
Synonym
Emys elegans , Wied 1839
Emys holbrooki , Gray 1844
Emys sanguinolenta , Gray1855
Trachemys lineata , Gray 1873
Chrysemys scripta , var. elegans Boulenger 1889
Pseudemys scripta elegans , Stebbins 1985
Chrysemys scripta , (Boulenger 1889)
Pseudemys scripta , (Jordan 1899)
Testudo scripta , Schoepff, 1792
Similar species
Summary
The red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) has been the most popular turtle in the pet trade with more than 52 million individuals exported from the United States to foreign markets between 1989 and 1997. Despite the vast worldwide occurrence of the sliders little is known of their impact on indigenous ecosystems, clearly research and education on the dangers of releasing pet turtles into the wild are needed. Their omnivorous diet and ability to adapt to various habitats, gives them great potential for impacting indigenous habitats.
Species Description
Adult: The red-eared slider is a medium (carapace length: 125 to 289 mm; Somma & Fuller 2009; 150 - 350 mm; Obst 1983) freshwater turtle characterised by prominent yellow to red patches on each side of the head, typically red on T. scripta elegans (Scalera 2006). Carapace and skin are olive to brown with yellow stripes or spots; males are usually smaller than females and have a long, thick tail (Scalera 2006).\n
Eggs: The eggs are ovoid in shape, 31 to 43 millimeters long, 19 to 26 millimeters wide and weigh 6.1 to 15.4 grams (Bringsøe 2006).
Notes
Previously the red-eared slider was considered a widely distributed New World species consisting of 13 to 19 subspecies, however, today the Latin American taxa are included in other species and T. scripta only consists of the three North American subspecies, i.e. T. s. scripta, T. s. elegans and T. s. troostii (Bringsøe 2001a, Seidel 2002, in Bringsøe 2006). \n

Besides its distinctive red flashes the red-eared slider (like all turtles exotic to Australia) can also be identified by the way it retracts its head straight back into the shell; in comparison, all native Australian turtles wrap their heads around to the side of their shell (NRM&W).

Lifecycle Stages
Red-eared sliders can live for about 40 years (Scalera 2006). Therefore even if reproduction does not occur, they can survive in the wild for many years.
Habitat Description
Within its natural range Trachemys scripta lives in a wide variety of freshwater habitats including rivers, ditches, swamps, lakes and ponds (Bringsøe 2006). T. scripta prefers large quiet water bodies with soft bottoms, an abundance of aquatic plants and suitable basking sites (Carr 1952, Ernst et al. 1994, Bringsøe 2001b, in Bringsøe 2006). Although they prefer quiet waters, red-eared sliders are highly adaptable and can tolerate anything from brackish waters, to manmade canals, and city park ponds (Ernst et al. 1994, Cox et al. 1998, Salzberg 2000, in Somma & Fuller 2009). Small turtles usually limit their activity to areas of heavy floating vegetation. It is thought that the terrapins do not feed or grow beyond temperature range of 10°C to 37°C (Ramsay et al. 2007).\n

In Europe, T. scripta elegans are generally released in freshwater areas which are frequented by humans such as public ponds which are considered of low biological value (e.g. Kordges 1990, Thiesmeier & Kordges 1990 1991, in Bringsøe 2006). Natural habitats close to urban areas are also used for releases (Bringsøe 2006). Natural reproduction of the red-eared slider in Europe under Mediterranean climate conditions has been reported (Luiselli et al. 1997, Martinez-Silvestre et al. 1997, Cadi et al. 2003, in Cadi & Joly 2003). The occurrence of the red-eared slider in a tropical urban polluted river in Brazil supports evidence of its capacity to use anthropogenic environments. Polluted rivers can offer a high amount of organic residues and food items, which can represent an advantage for such a generalist freshwater turtle species (Moll 1980, Lindeman 1996, Souza & Abe 2000, in Ferronato et al. 2009).\n

Reproduction
Sexual maturity is reached in the third to fourth year (Obst 1983, Pupins Unpub. Data, in Pupins 2007). T. scripta exhibits complex courtship behaviour in the water. The female usually excavates a nest on the shore of a freshwater body or on beaches in places such as Costa Rica (Bringsøe 2006; Scalera 2006). Females may move as far as 1.6 kilometers to find a suitable nest site; the jug-shaped nest is generally up to 12 centimeters deep (Bringsøe 2006). Depending on body size and other factors up to six clutches a year containing up to 30 eggs may be laid; mean values of natural populations is around 6 to 11 eggs per clutch (Bringsøe 2006; Scalera 2006). Mean annual fecundity for T s. elegans in Illinois and Louisiana is close to the 30 eggs per year (estimated by Cagle 1950 and Thomhill 1982, in Tucker 2001). Mean annual fecundity estimates for the T. scripta scripta from South Carolina seem exceedingly low in comparison (Tucker 2001). Incubation takes 59 to 112 days (Scalera 2006). Hatching times are weather dependent: temperatures between 22°C to 30°C for 55 to 80 days are preferred (Pendlebury 2006, in Pupins 2007). Hatching of eggs requires 50 to 60 days at 26 °C. Longevity is approximately 20 years in the wild and 40 years in captivity.\n\n

In its introduced range in Europe egg deposition has been observed in Spain (de Roa and Roig, 1997; Martinez-Silvestre, 1997; Bertolero and Canicio, 2000; Capalleras and Carretero, 2000, in Cadi et al. 2004), and near Paris, France (Moran Pers. Comm., in Cadi et al. 2004). However, sex determination of the Trachemys embryos is temperature-dependent, with cooler incubation temperatures producing only males, and warmer incubation temperatures only females (Ewert et al. 199, in Cadi et al. 2004). Therefore, incubation temperature could be a limiting factor for the invasion of this species in parts of Europe, if hatchlings of only one sex are produced in the wild (Cadi et al. 2004). A strong bias towards female red-eared sliders has been detected in capture sampling in France. This may reflect a potential strong female bias of imported juveniles; the incubation at high temperature leads to rapid hatching, but produces females in this species with temperature dependent sex determination (Godfrey et al. 2003, in Prévot-Julliard et al. 2007).

Nutrition
The red-eared slider is an opportunistic omnivore subsisting on a wide variety of plants and animals (Ernst et al. 1994, in Bringsøe 2006) including filamentous algae, macrophites, snails, Diptera (larvae and pupae), terrestrial insects, crustaceans and small vertebrates (Chen & Lue 1998, Prévot-Julliard et al. 2007, in Ferronato et al. 2009). Juveniles are mainly carnivorous and as they grow older they become more herbivorous (Bringsøe 2006). Prévot-Julliard et al. (2007) found a decrease of invertebrate consumption with age of the turtle. Carr (2008) observed specimens of red-eared slider consuming grass blades (southern watergrass and teal lovegrass). Adult turtles will still opportunistically eat aquatic invertebrates (especially insects and molluscs), fish, frog eggs, tadpoles and aquatic snakes (Ernst et al. 1994, Brown et al. 1995, in Somma & Fuller 2009). T. scripta elegans in seminatural basins in Milan (northern Italy) selected insects (40%) over most other food items (Agosta & Parolini 1999).\n

In northern Taiwan all feral T. scripta elegans sampled were found to have ingested animal materials (mostly snails, fish, adult and larval flies and unidentifiable terrestrial insects) and 76.5% were found to have ingested plant materials (Chen & Lue 1998, in Outerbridge 2008). Conversely Outerbridge (2008) found that only 77.8% of feral red-eared sliders examined in Bermuda had ingested animal materials whereas 86.1% had ingested plant materials. Most of the vegetative matter consisted of leaves, stalks, roots, seeds and flowers; however, filamentous and blue-green algae were also occasionally ingested. Nearly half of the animal material ingested comprised aquatic and terrestrial insects. Small fish, freshwater snails and bird remains occurred less frequently in the samples (Outerbridge 2008). \n

Prévot-Julliard et al. (2007) found fish remains in the stomachs of turtles. The size of fish scales found, some up to 12 mm in diameter, would have belonged to 20 cm fish (J.Y. Sire, Pers. Comm., in Prévot-Julliard et al. 2007). As it is unlikely that a slider turtle would be rapid enough to catch a 20 cm fish, perhaps the turtle acted as a necrophagous species, as other species of freshwater turtles do (Spencer et al. 1998, in Prévot-Julliard et al. 2007).\n

Prévot-Julliard et al. (2007) found four individuals which had ingested terrestrial ants, and one stomach was full of them. Although terrestrial activity is known for this species (Bennett et al. 1970, Gibbons 1970, in Prévot-Julliard et al. 2007), only few report are available for terrestrial foraging (Cagle 1944, Chen & Lue 1998, in Prévot-Julliard et al. 2007). The terrestrial activity of slider turtles is a key component for the colonisation of new habitat (Parker 1990, in Prévot-Julliard et al. 2007) making further investigation into this aspect of the turtle’s behavior warrented.

Pathway
Since the 1970s, massive numbers of young slider turtles have been generated on turtle farms in the USA for the pet trade. The most commonly exported species is the red-eared slider T. scripta elegans, with more than 52 million individuals being pr

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group
Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review: Paul Pendelbury, REPTRANS UK

Publication date: 2010-05-26

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Trachemys scripta elegans. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=71 on 28-07-2016.

General Impacts
For a detailed account of the environmental impacts of T. scripta elegans please read: Trachemys scripta elegans (red-eared slider) Impacts Information. The information in this document is summarised below.\nTrachemys scripta elegans has been the most popular turtle in the pet trade with more than 52 million individuals exported from the United States between 1989 and 1997 (Telecky 2001, in Bunnell 2005). Slider turtles became very popular because of their small size, their simple husbandry requirements and their reasonably low price (Teillac-Deschamps et al. 2008). Unsuspecting turtle owners were rarely prepared to maintain large adults (up to 30 cm carapace length) for a significant length of time (up to 50 years) in captivity (Teillac-Deschamps et al. 2008). Larger adult turtles were released by their owners to ponds in many places and because of this, red-eared sliders now occur in freshwater ecosystems in many developed countries with high densities in urban wetlands (de Roa & Roig 1997, Luiselli et al. 1997, Arvy & Servan 1998, Chen & Lue 1998, Lever 2003, Martinez-Silvestre et al. 2003, in Teillac-Deschamps et al. 2008).\n

Competition: The competitive advantages of the slider may include lower age at maturity, higher fecundity, and larger adult body size (Arvy & Servan 1998, in Cadi & Joly 2003). Turtles may compete for food, egg-laying sites, or basking places (Bury & Wolfheim 1973, Bury et al. 1979, Rovero et al. 1999, Lindeman 1999, in Cadi & Joly 2003). In a study by Cadi and Joly (2003), Emys were shown to shift their basking activity toward places considered to be of lower quality, while the dominant Trachemys occupied the better basking sites. Other studies have also shown red-eared sliders to compete with indigenous species for food and basking sites (Frank & McCoy 1995, Williams 1999, Salzberg 2000, in Somma & Fuller 2009). The red-eared slider has also been considered occasionally aggressive towards other individuals (Cadi & Joly 2003).\n

Threat to Endangered Species: Competitive interactions between T. scripta elegans and the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) are of particular interest, as the latter is registered as an endangered species (Appendix II of the Bern Convention, Corbett 1989, Luiselli et al. 1997, Martinez-Silvestre et al. 1997, in Cadi & Joly 2003, see Competition).\n

In Washington (USA) they are a potential threat to the Pacific pond turtle (Clemmys marmorata) a declining species endemic to the Pacific states (Brown et al. 1995, Williams 1999, in Somma & Fuller 2009). \n

Disease Transmission: Continuous releasing of exotic pet turtles in natural ecosystems increases the risk of parasite transmission to native species, and highlights the impending need for regulation of pet turtle trade in Europe (Hidalgo-Vila et al. 2008); the red-eared slider is known to carry nematodes (Hidalgo-Vila et al. 2008).\n

Predation: Turtles introduced near Paris were revealed to have consumed aquatic plants and animals (mostly arthropods and molluscs, Prévot-Julliard et al. 2007, in Teillac-Deschamps et al. 2008).\n

Human Health: Reptiles, including turtles, are well-recognised reservoirs for Salmonella, and are a source of human salmonellosis (Nagano et al. 2006). \n

Ecosystem Change: The impacts of T. scripta on natural habitats and ecosystems are unknown; should the red-eared slider be released in natural habitats with high ecological value, it would be relevant to monitor any consequences on native fauna and flora, typically invertebrates, amphibians, native turtles and nesting birds (Bringsøe 2006).

Management Info
For a detailed account of the environmental impacts of the red-eared slider please read: Trachemys scripta elegans (red-eared slider) Management Information. The information in this document is summarised below.

Preventative measures: With effect from 22 December 1997 the EU banned the import of the subspecies T. scripta elegans via the Protection of Species of Wild Fauna and Flora by Regulating Trade (Bringsøe 1998, 2001b, Bringsøe 2006). While it is no longer allowed to import the red-eared slider within the EU it is still legal to keep and distribute them within many EU countries.

After this legislation was passed the red-eared slider was semi-replaced in the market by other North American turtles which fetch higher prices and are imported in lower quantities (Adrados et al. 2002, in Bringsøe 2006). This may change if American turtle farmers manage to improve breeding success of these species in turtle farms. Unfortunately some of the species replacing the red-eared slider in the market are substantially better adapted to cold climates (such as Nova Scotia and Siberia, respectively) and probably represent a higher ecological risk; they are cryptic species and are significantly more carnivorous than the red-eared slider (P.P. van Dijk Pers. Comm. 2006).

Risk Assessment models for assessing the risk that exotic vertebrates could establish in Australia have been further explored by the Western Australia Department of Agriculture & Food (DAFWA) to confirm that they reasonably predict public safety, establishment and pest risks across a full range of exotic species and risk levels.
The Risk assessment for the Pond Slider (Trachemys scripta), has been assigned a VPC Threat Category of EXTREME.
Mammals and birds were assessed for the pest risk they pose if introduced to Australia, by calculating Vertebrate Pests Committee (VPC) Threat Categories. These categories incorporate risk of establishing populations in the wild, risk of causing public harm, and risk of becoming a pest (eg causing agricultural damage, competing with native fauna, etc). The 7-factor Australian Bird and Mammal Model was used for these assessments.

\r\nPhysical: Sliders can be captured by hand or through various trapping devices. Please visit Fyke Net for Turtles for information about turtle nets. Floating boards used by sliders as basking sites seem very effective when equipped with baited cages on top (Scalera 2006). Sniffer dogs can be used to detect and remove both turtles and their eggs; eggs can also be found and removed by following females at nesting areas (Scalera 2006).

In parts of Asia animals are released into the wild as a part of traditional Buddhist mercy ceremony to increase good karma, honour Buddha and repent for ones sins. The Ministry of the Environment (Republic of Korea ) advised that people should consider taking care of injured birds and animals and then set them free for a more environmentally-friendly symbolic act.

Knowledge and Research: The ecological effects of introductions of T. scripta elegans have been poorly documented (Platt & Fontenot 1992, in Ramsay et al. 2007). Competition of T. scripta elegans with the 'Lower Risk/Near Threatened (NT)' indigenous European pond turtle (see Emys orbicularis in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) has been studied in France (see Cadi & Joly 2003). A French management project for the red-eared slider was initiated by the laboratory “Ecologie, Systématique and Evolution” (CNRS-University Paris-Sud) (Cadi et al. 2008).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Trachemys scripta elegans
Informations on Trachemys scripta elegans has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Trachemys scripta elegans in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
For a detailed account of the environmental impacts of T. scripta elegans please read: Trachemys scripta elegans (red-eared slider) Impacts Information. The information in this document is summarised below.\nTrachemys scripta elegans has been the most popular turtle in the pet trade with more than 52 million individuals exported from the United States between 1989 and 1997 (Telecky 2001, in Bunnell 2005). Slider turtles became very popular because of their small size, their simple husbandry requirements and their reasonably low price (Teillac-Deschamps et al. 2008). Unsuspecting turtle owners were rarely prepared to maintain large adults (up to 30 cm carapace length) for a significant length of time (up to 50 years) in captivity (Teillac-Deschamps et al. 2008). Larger adult turtles were released by their owners to ponds in many places and because of this, red-eared sliders now occur in freshwater ecosystems in many developed countries with high densities in urban wetlands (de Roa & Roig 1997, Luiselli et al. 1997, Arvy & Servan 1998, Chen & Lue 1998, Lever 2003, Martinez-Silvestre et al. 2003, in Teillac-Deschamps et al. 2008).\n

Competition: The competitive advantages of the slider may include lower age at maturity, higher fecundity, and larger adult body size (Arvy & Servan 1998, in Cadi & Joly 2003). Turtles may compete for food, egg-laying sites, or basking places (Bury & Wolfheim 1973, Bury et al. 1979, Rovero et al. 1999, Lindeman 1999, in Cadi & Joly 2003). In a study by Cadi and Joly (2003), Emys were shown to shift their basking activity toward places considered to be of lower quality, while the dominant Trachemys occupied the better basking sites. Other studies have also shown red-eared sliders to compete with indigenous species for food and basking sites (Frank & McCoy 1995, Williams 1999, Salzberg 2000, in Somma & Fuller 2009). The red-eared slider has also been considered occasionally aggressive towards other individuals (Cadi & Joly 2003).\n

Threat to Endangered Species: Competitive interactions between T. scripta elegans and the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) are of particular interest, as the latter is registered as an endangered species (Appendix II of the Bern Convention, Corbett 1989, Luiselli et al. 1997, Martinez-Silvestre et al. 1997, in Cadi & Joly 2003, see Competition).\n

In Washington (USA) they are a potential threat to the Pacific pond turtle (Clemmys marmorata) a declining species endemic to the Pacific states (Brown et al. 1995, Williams 1999, in Somma & Fuller 2009). \n

Disease Transmission: Continuous releasing of exotic pet turtles in natural ecosystems increases the risk of parasite transmission to native species, and highlights the impending need for regulation of pet turtle trade in Europe (Hidalgo-Vila et al. 2008); the red-eared slider is known to carry nematodes (Hidalgo-Vila et al. 2008).\n

Predation: Turtles introduced near Paris were revealed to have consumed aquatic plants and animals (mostly arthropods and molluscs, Prévot-Julliard et al. 2007, in Teillac-Deschamps et al. 2008).\n

Human Health: Reptiles, including turtles, are well-recognised reservoirs for Salmonella, and are a source of human salmonellosis (Nagano et al. 2006). \n

Ecosystem Change: The impacts of T. scripta on natural habitats and ecosystems are unknown; should the red-eared slider be released in natural habitats with high ecological value, it would be relevant to monitor any consequences on native fauna and flora, typically invertebrates, amphibians, native turtles and nesting birds (Bringsøe 2006).

Red List assessed species 4: CR = 1; VU = 1; NT = 1; LC = 1;
Mechanism
[25] Competition
[7] Predation
[2] Hybridisation
[9] Disease transmission
[1] Grazing/Herbivory/Browsing
Outcomes
[21] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [21] Reduction in native biodiversity
[6] Environmental Species - Population
  • [1] Species range change (i.e. contraction, shift)
  • [2] Alteration of genetic resources
  • [3] Plant/animal health
[7] Socio-Economic
  • [6] Human health
  • [1] Other livelihoods
Management information
For a detailed account of the environmental impacts of the red-eared slider please read: Trachemys scripta elegans (red-eared slider) Management Information. The information in this document is summarised below.

Preventative measures: With effect from 22 December 1997 the EU banned the import of the subspecies T. scripta elegans via the Protection of Species of Wild Fauna and Flora by Regulating Trade (Bringsøe 1998, 2001b, Bringsøe 2006). While it is no longer allowed to import the red-eared slider within the EU it is still legal to keep and distribute them within many EU countries.

After this legislation was passed the red-eared slider was semi-replaced in the market by other North American turtles which fetch higher prices and are imported in lower quantities (Adrados et al. 2002, in Bringsøe 2006). This may change if American turtle farmers manage to improve breeding success of these species in turtle farms. Unfortunately some of the species replacing the red-eared slider in the market are substantially better adapted to cold climates (such as Nova Scotia and Siberia, respectively) and probably represent a higher ecological risk; they are cryptic species and are significantly more carnivorous than the red-eared slider (P.P. van Dijk Pers. Comm. 2006).

Risk Assessment models for assessing the risk that exotic vertebrates could establish in Australia have been further explored by the Western Australia Department of Agriculture & Food (DAFWA) to confirm that they reasonably predict public safety, establishment and pest risks across a full range of exotic species and risk levels.
The Risk assessment for the Pond Slider (Trachemys scripta), has been assigned a VPC Threat Category of EXTREME.
Mammals and birds were assessed for the pest risk they pose if introduced to Australia, by calculating Vertebrate Pests Committee (VPC) Threat Categories. These categories incorporate risk of establishing populations in the wild, risk of causing public harm, and risk of becoming a pest (eg causing agricultural damage, competing with native fauna, etc). The 7-factor Australian Bird and Mammal Model was used for these assessments.

\r\nPhysical: Sliders can be captured by hand or through various trapping devices. Please visit Fyke Net for Turtles for information about turtle nets. Floating boards used by sliders as basking sites seem very effective when equipped with baited cages on top (Scalera 2006). Sniffer dogs can be used to detect and remove both turtles and their eggs; eggs can also be found and removed by following females at nesting areas (Scalera 2006).

In parts of Asia animals are released into the wild as a part of traditional Buddhist mercy ceremony to increase good karma, honour Buddha and repent for ones sins. The Ministry of the Environment (Republic of Korea ) advised that people should consider taking care of injured birds and animals and then set them free for a more environmentally-friendly symbolic act.

Knowledge and Research: The ecological effects of introductions of T. scripta elegans have been poorly documented (Platt & Fontenot 1992, in Ramsay et al. 2007). Competition of T. scripta elegans with the 'Lower Risk/Near Threatened (NT)' indigenous European pond turtle (see Emys orbicularis in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) has been studied in France (see Cadi & Joly 2003). A French management project for the red-eared slider was initiated by the laboratory “Ecologie, Systématique and Evolution” (CNRS-University Paris-Sud) (Cadi et al. 2008).

Management Category
Prevention
Control
None
Unknown
Monitoring
Bibliography
121 references found for Trachemys scripta elegans

Managment information
Acuna-Mesen and Rafael Arturo, 1992. Potential exploitation of captive Slider Turtles (Trachemys scripta) in Costa Rica: A preliminary study. Brenesia. 0(38).157-158.
Summary: Report from Costa Rica.
Agosta et al., 1999. Autoecology and synecological relationships in populations of Trachemys scripta elegans introduced in Lombardy. Preliminary data. Rivista di Idrobiologia. 38(1-3). Gennaio-Dicembre, 1999. 421-430.
Summary: Reports of Trachemys scripta elegans in Italy.
Aliens 19 & 20, Double issue. 2004. Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. ISSG, Auckland, New Zealand.
Summary: Available from: http://www.issg.org/pdf/aliens_newsletters/A19-20.pdf [Accessed 12 March 2003]
Aliens 19 & 20, Double issue. 2004. Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. ISSG, Auckland, New Zealand.
Summary: Interesting and timely information on invasive species and associated issues. Focuses on conservation issues and includes news of upcoming conferences, publications, and reports.
Bomford, M., 2003. Risk Assessment for the Import and Keeping of Exotic Vertebrates in Australia. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra.
Summary: Available from: http://www.feral.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/PC12803.pdf [Accessed August 19 2010]
Brett, B.D Gartrell and E.J. Ted Kirk., 2005. Euthanasia of Reptiles in New Zealand: Current Issues and Methods. Kokako 12 (1) 12-15, 2005
Summary: Available from: http://www.victoria.ac.nz/srarnz/files/Gatrell_Kirk_Euthanasia_Reptiles.pdf [Accessed 28 December 2009]
Brings�e, H. 2006. NOBANIS � Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheet � Trachemys scripta
Summary: The North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species (NOBANIS) is a gateway to information on alien and invasive species in North and Central Europe. The participating countries are Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Faroe Islands, Germany, Greenland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, European part of Russia, Sweden. The NOBANIS project will provide fact sheets on 60 of the most invasive alien species of the region, covering both animals and plant as well as microorganisms. We intend to upload 60 fact sheets - so please visit this page regularly.
NOBANIS is available from: www.nobanis.org, this page is available from: http://www.nobanis.org/files/factsheets/Trachemys_scripta.pdf [Accessed 31 October 2006]
Chen and Lue, 1998. Ecological notes on feral populations of Trachemys scripta elegans in northern Taiwan. Chelonian Conservation & Biology. 3(1). Aug., 1998. 87-90.
Summary: Report from Taiwan.
DAISIE (Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe) 2009. Species Factsheet Trachemys scripta (Schoepff, 1792)
Summary: Available from: http://www.europe-aliens.org/speciesFactsheet.do?speciesId=50003 [Accessed 28 December 2009]
da Silva Eduardo and Manual Blasco 1995. Trachemys scripta elegans in Southwestern Spain. Herpetological Review. 26(3).133-134.
Summary: Available from: http://www.freewebs.com/trachemysadoption/articles/DaSilvaBlasco.pdf [Accessed 18 January 2009]
De Lathouder, Raymonde; Darryl N. Jones & Stephen R. Balcombe., 2009. Assessing the abundance of freshwater turtles in an Australian urban landscape. Urban Ecosyst (2009) 12:215�231
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts., 2009. Ecological Australia: Prioritisation of High Conservation Status Mainland Islands. Project No 09SUTNRM-0002. Prepared for Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts
Derraik, Jose� G. B. & Simon Phillips., 2009. Online trade poses a threat to biosecurity in New Zealand. Biol Invasions DOI 10.1007/s10530-009-9595-0
Dupre, Alain; Servan, Jean; Veysset, Alain., 2006. Florida turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans: recuperation in France and international trade. Bulletin de la Societe Herpetologique de France.(117). 2006. 5-24.
Summary: A survey of abandons of Trachemys scripta elegans in several reception centres in 2004 shows a decrease of abandons since the ban in the European Union.
Fattizzo, Tiziano., 2004. Distribution and conservational problems of Emys orbicularis in Salento (South Apulia, Italy). Biologia (Bratislava). 59(Suppl. 14). 2004. 13-18.
Summary: To obtain reliable data on the current situation of Emys orbicularis in the Salentine peninsula (Salento, South Apulia, Italy), 15 wetlands along the Adriatic and Ionic coasts were surveyed. E. orbicularis was recorded in 13 sites. However, reproduction was confirmed only for six populations. A particular cause of concern is the presence of reproducing red-eared sliders (T. scripta elegans) at three sites.
Gianaroli, et al., 1999. Problems of conservation of the European pond turtle in Modena. The case of the Villa Sorra park. Atti della Societa Dei Naturalisti e Matematici di Modena. 130 1999. 115-124.
Summary: Reports of Trachemys scripta elegans in Italy.
Goh, Ter Yang; O Riordan, Ruth M., 2007. Are tortoises and freshwater turtles still traded illegally as pets in Singapore? Oryx. 41(1). JAN 2007. 97-100.
Group of experts on Invasive Alien Species. 2005. CONVENTION ON THE CONSERVATION OF EUROPEAN WILDLIFE AND NATURAL HABITATS, Group of experts on Invasive Alien Species, 6th meeting, Palma de Majorca (Spain), 9-11 June 2005, BELGIUM / BELGIQUE: Actions taken in Belgium in response to the threats of Invasive alien species.
Haffner, P., 1997. Assessment of recent introductions of amphibians and reptiles in inland aquatic systems in Metropolitan France. Bulletin Francais de la Peche et de la Pisciculture. 0(344-345). 1997. 155-163.
Summary: In Metropolitan France, 36 regularly breeding amphibians and 33 regularly breeding reptiles are presently recorded. The red-eared turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) may be naturalised in the near future.
IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4.
Summary: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species provides taxonomic, conservation status and distribution information on taxa that have been globally evaluated using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. This system is designed to determine the relative risk of extinction, and the main purpose of the IUCN Red List is to catalogue and highlight those taxa that are facing a higher risk of global extinction (i.e. those listed as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable). The IUCN Red List also includes information on taxa that are categorized as Extinct or Extinct in the Wild; on taxa that cannot be evaluated because of insufficient information (i.e. are Data Deficient); and on taxa that are either close to meeting the threatened thresholds or that would be threatened were it not for an ongoing taxon-specific conservation programme (i.e. are Near Threatened).
Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/ [Accessed 25 May 2011]
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Kirkpatrick, Win; Amanda Page and Marion Massam, November 2007, Pond Slider (Trachemys scripta) risk assessments for Australia. Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia.
Summary: Models for assessing the risk that exotic vertebrates could establish in Australia have been developed for mammals, birds (Bomford 2003; Bomford 2006, 2008), reptiles and amphibians (Bomford 2006, 2008; Bomford et al. 2005). These Risk Assessment models have been further explored by Western Australia Department of Agriculture & Food (DAFWA) to confirm that they reasonably predict public safety, establishment and pest risks across a full range of exotic species and risk levels. Mammals and birds were assessed for the pest risk they pose if introduced to Australia, by calculating Vertebrate Pests Committee (VPC) Threat Categories. These categories incorporate risk of establishing populations in the wild, risk of causing public harm, and risk of becoming a pest (eg causing agricultural damage, competing with native fauna, etc). The 7-factor Australian Bird and Mammal Model was used for these assessments.
Massam M, Kirkpatrick W and Page A., 2010. Assessment and prioritisation of risk for forty introduced animal species. Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre, Canberra.
Summary: This report documents work contributing to a project commissioned by the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre to validate and refine risk assessment models used in decisions to import and manage introduced vertebrate species. The intent of the project was to: a) increase predictive accuracy, scientific validation and adoption of risk assessment models for the import and keeping of exotic vertebrates, and b) reduce the risk of new vertebrate pests establishing introduced populations in Australia.
Available from: http://www.feral.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/DAFWA_RA_060510.pdf [Accessed 16 March 2011]
Najbar and Bartlomiej, 2001.The red-eared terrapin Trachemys scripta elegans (Wied, 1839) in the Lubuskie province (western Poland). Przeglad Zoologiczny . 45(1-2). 2001. 103-109.
Summary: Spread of Trachemys scripta elegans in Poland.
Neil F. Ramsay; Pek Kaye; Abigayle Ng; Ruth M. O Riordan and Loke Ming Chou., 2007. Chapter 8: The red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) in Asia: a review In Biological invaders in inland waters: Profiles, distribution, and threats Vol2 Invading Nature - Springer Series In Invasion Ecology. Francesca Gherardi
Summary: This chapter reviews what is currently known about the status of red-eared sliders in Asia, as well as the potential impact of this non-indigenous species on the native Asian biota. It includes published literature, information from websites, as well as mentioning ongoing research where known.
Piovano, et al., 1999. Trachemys scripta elegans monitoring in Torino urban park. Rivista di Idrobiologia. 38(1-3). Gennaio-Dicembre, 1999. 499-508.
Summary: Red-eared slider population monitoring.
Queensland Government, Department of Employment, Economic Developmentand Innovation (DEEDI) 2009. Red-eared slider turtle
Summary: Available from: http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/4790_8289.htm [Accessed 18 January 2009]
Real, Raimundo; Marquez, Ana L; Estrada, Alba; Munoz, A. Roman; Vargas, J. Mario., 2008. Modelling chorotypes of invasive vertebrates in mainland Spain. Diversity & Distributions. 14(2). MAR 2008. 364-373.
Republic of Korea, 2002. Wetlands Part 1
Summary: Report from Republic of Korea.
Republic of Korea, 2002. Wetlands Part 2
Summary: Report from Republic of Korea.
Scalera R., 2007. An overview of the natural history of non indigenous amphibians and reptiles. In: Gherardi F. (editor) Biological Invaders in Inland Waters: Profiles, Distribution and Threats. Springer. Pp. 141-160.
Scalera R., 2007. Virtues and shortcomings of EU legal provisions for managing NIS: Rana catesbeiana and Trachemys scripta elegans as case studies. In: Gherardi F. (editor) Biological Invaders in Inland Waters: Profiles, Distribution and Threats. Springer. Pp. 669-678.
Scalera, Riccardo., 2006. Trachemys scripta. Datasheet DAISIE (Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe)
Summary: Available from: http://www.europe-aliens.org/pdf/Trachemys_scripta.pdf [Accessed 28 December 2009]
Servan, J. and Arvy, C., 1997. The introduction of Trachemys scripta in France: A new competitor for the European pond turtles. Bulletin Francais de la Peche et de la Pisciculture. 0(344-345).173-177.
Summary: Report from France.
Teillac-Deschamps, Pauline; Lorrilliere, Romain; Servais, Veronique; Delmas, Virginie; Cadi, Antoine; Prevot-Julliard; Anne-Caroline., 2009. Management strategies in urban green spaces: Models based on an introduced exotic pet turtle. Biological Conservation. 142(10). OCT 2009. 2258-2269.
The Outlaws of the Ecosystem - Invasive Alien Species Ministry of Environment, Republic of Korea.
Summary: Report from Republic of Korea.
Thirakhupt, Kumthorn; Van Dijk, Peter Paul., 1994. Species diversity and conservation of turtles of western Thailand. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society. 42(2). 1994. 207-259.
Summary: Up to 16 species of native turtles still inhabit the Mae Klong basin and adjacent minor drainages; among these are several rare species; the high number of genera (10 to 15) may make it the world s most diverse turtle community (Thirakhupt & Van Dijk 1994). Exotic turtle species, specifically the chinese softshell (Pelodiscus sinensis) and the red-eared terrapin (Trachemys scripta elegans) were introduced to Thailand in recent years. The exotic turtle species present in Mae Klong basin have a proven potential to disrupt native turtle populations. Their establishment in the wild should be prevented.
Van Wilgen, Nicola J; Richardson, David M; Laard, Ernst H. W., 2008. Alien reptiles and amphibians in South Africa: Towards a pragmatic management strategy. South African Journal of Science. 104(1-2). JAN-FEB 2008. 13-20.
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
VOV News 26th Feb, 2004 Invasive turtle species discovered in Hoan Kiem.
Summary: Report from Viet Nam.
Walton, Craig pers. comm., April 2006.
Summary: Craig Walton. Principal Project Officer, Queensland Interagency Pest Management Committee.
Yasukawa, Yuichirou., 2005. Alien freshwater turtles which may become established in Japan in the near future. Bulletin of the Herpetological Society of Japan.(2). 2005. 155-163.
Summary: This paper outlines alien freshwater turtles which may become established in Japan in the near future. The following turtles designated by the law for the protection of indigenous ecology are discussed: Macroclemys temmincki, Apalone spp., Graptemys spp., Pseudemys spp. Trachemys scripta scripta and Ocadia sinensis. Trachemys scripta elegans and Polodiscus sinensis sinensis are already established in Japan.
General information
Bacon, Jamie P; Gray, Jennifer A; Kitson, Lisa., 2006. Status and conservation of the reptiles and amphibians of the Bermuda islands. Applied Herpetology 3: 323-344
Bauer, A.M., Sadlier, R.A., Ineich I. (trad.) 2000. - The Herpetofauna of New Caledonia. Ithaca, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, 310 p.
Bettelheim, Matthew P; Bury, R. Bruce; Patterson, Laura C; Lubcke, Glen M., 2006. Trachemys scripta elegans (red-eared slider). Reproduction. Herpetological Review. 37(4). DEC 2006. 459-460
Bodie J. R., 2001. Stream and riparian management for freshwater turtles. Journal of Environmental Management (2001) 62, 443�455
Bouskila A, 1986. On the danger of spreading of the Red-eared terrapin, Chrysemys scripta, in natural habitats in Israel. Hardun no. 4: 27-30.
Brejcha, Jindrich; Vojtech Miller; Lenka Jerabkova and Martin Sandera., 2009. Distribution of pond slider (Trachemys scripta) in the Czech Republic. Herpetologick� informace, 2009, Vol. 8 (1)
Summary: Abstract: The North American species of turtle Trachemys scripta has been introduced into the Czech Republic. First records of the pond slider are from the 60�s.We have put together a list of 190 records of the pond slider in the Czech Republic, on the basis of published data, verbal notices and unpublished data. In 9 cases we have noted a count of 10 and more specimens.The main areas of occurrence are regions with warmer climate: Prague and surroundings, Polab� (along Elbe river), north Moravia (Opava and Ostrava regions) and some localities in south Moravia. 4 attempts of reproduction were noted. In one case the eggs were succesfully artificially incubated for the period of 95 days at 25,5�C.
Breuil, M. 2002. Histoire naturelle des Amphibiens et des Reptiles terrestres de l archipel Guadeloup�en. In Patrimoines Naturels, MNHN, Paris.
Summary: Ce livre propose une synth�se sur les amphibiens et reptiles terrestres de l archipel Guadeloup�en. Six esp�ces d anoures, 5 de tortues, 21 de l�zards dont 4 �teintes et 7 de serpents sont d�taill�es.
Buden, D.W., Lynch, D.B., and Zug, G.R. 2001. Recent records of exotic reptiles on Pohnpei, Eastern Caroline Islands, Micronesia. Pacific Science. 55 (1): 65.
Burgin, Shelley., 2007. Confirmation of an established population of exotic turtles in urban Sydney. Australian Zoologist. 33(3). JUN 2006. 379-384
Summary: Shelley (2007) investigated whether exotic turtle species were capable of establishing breeding populations in the Sydney area and confirmed that two exotic species were present: Trachemys scripto elegans and Clemmys marmorato.
Cadi, A., and Bertrand, A. 2003. Cons�quences des l�ch�s de Trach�myde � tempes rouges (Trachemys scripta elegans) dans les milieux humides europ�ens. Manouria 6(18): 17-22.
Cadi, A., and Joly, P. 2003. Competition for basking places between the endangered European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis galloitalica) and the introduced red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). Canadian Journal of Zoology 81: 1392-1398.
Cadi, A., Delmas, V., Prevot-Julliard, A.C., Joly, P. Pieau, C and Girondot, M. 2004. Successful reproduction of the introduced slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) in the South of France. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 14: 237-246.
Cadi, A; Joly, P., Impact of the introduction of the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) on survival rates of the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis). Biodiversity & Conservation. 13(13). December 2004. 2511-2518.
Carr, John L., 2008. Terrestrial Foraging by Two Species of Semiaquatic Turtles (Testudines: Emydidae). Southeastern Naturalist. 7(4). 2008. 748-752.
CONABIO. 2008. Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras en M�xico. Especies invasoras - Reptiles. Comisi�n Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Fecha de acceso.
Summary: English:
The species list sheet for the Mexican information system on invasive species currently provides information related to Scientific names, family, group and common names, as well as habitat, status of invasion in Mexico, pathways of introduction and links to other specialised websites. Some of the higher risk species already have a direct link to the alert page. It is important to notice that these lists are constantly being updated, please refer to the main page (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), under the section Novedades for information on updates.
Invasive species - reptiles is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Reptiles [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Spanish:
La lista de especies del Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras de m�xico cuenta actualmente con informaci�n aceca de nombre cient�fico, familia, grupo y nombre com�n, as� como h�bitat, estado de la invasi�n en M�xico, rutas de introducci�n y ligas a otros sitios especializados. Algunas de las especies de mayor riesgo ya tienen una liga directa a la p�gina de alertas. Es importante resaltar que estas listas se encuentran en constante proceso de actualizaci�n, por favor consulte la portada (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), en la secci�n novedades, para conocer los cambios.
Especies invasoras - Reptiles is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Reptiles [Accessed 30 July 2008]
de Sa, I.V.A. and Solari, C.A. 2001. Salmonella in Brazilian and imported pet reptiles. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 32 (4): 293-297.
Summary: Notes on red-eared slider in Brazil and salmonella.
Diesmos, Arvin C; Brown, Rafe M; Alcala, Angel; Sison, Rogelio V., 2008. Status and Distribution of Nonmarine Turtles of the Philippines. Chelonian Conservation & Biology. 7(2). DEC 2008. 157-177
Dolan, Chad R; Lamer, James T; Tucker, John K. ., 2006. Trachemys scripta elegans (Red-eared slider). Herpetological Review. 37(1). MAR 2006. 105.
Emer, S. 2004. Growth of an introduced population of Trachemys scripta elegans, at Fox Pond, Eckerd College, Pinellas County, Florida. Herpetological Review. 35 (1): 34-35.
Emer, Sherri., 2004. Growth of an introduced population of Trachemys scripta elegans at Fox Pond, Eckerd College, Pinellas County, Florida. Herpetological Review. 35(1). March 2004. 34-35.
Feldman, M. L., 2007. The red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) in New Zealand. The Newsletter of Chelonian Conservationists and Biologists, Turtle and Tortoise Newsletter Apr 2007 : Issue 10, pg(s) 2-39
Summary: No abstract
Ferri, Vincenzo; Soccini, Christiana., 2003. Reproduction of Trachemys scripta elegans in a semi-natural habitat in Lombardy (northern Italy). Natura Bresciana. 33 2003. 89-92.
Summary: During ecological studies carried out on some introduced populations of Trachemys scripta elegans, for the first time egg-laying patterns and reproductive success has been recorded in semi-natural habitats of Lombardy.
Fidenci, Pierre., 2006. Trachemys scripta elegans (Red-eared Slider). Reproduction. Herpetological Review. 37(1). MAR 2006. 80.
Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), 2009. Subspecies: Trachemys scripta elegans
Summary: Available from: http://data.gbif.org/species/14835399 [Accessed 15 June 2010]
Gulf States Marine and Fisheries Commission (GSFMC), 2009. Trachemys scripta elegans (Wied)
Summary: Available from: http://nis.gsmfc.org/nis_factsheet.php?toc_id=208 [Accessed 28 December 2009]
Hatzofe O, 2006. Invasive Species in Israel. Israel Nature & Parks Authority internal report.
Hidalgo-Vila, J; Diaz-Paniagua, C; Ribas, A; Florencio, M; Perez-Santigosa, N; Casanova, J. C., 2009. Helminth communities of the exotic introduced turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans in southwestern Spain: Transmission from native turtles. Research in Veterinary Science. 86(3). JUN 2009. 463-465.
Ibarra-Vidal, Hector., 2007. Record of the Red Eared Slider, Trachemys scripta elegans) (Wied-Neuwied, 1839), (Testudinata, Emydidae) in a wetland in Concepcion, Chile. Boletin de la Sociedad de Biologia de Concepcion. 78 2007. 49-50.
Summary: Trachemys scripta elegans is recorded in Chile. It is discussed as a possible invading species in Chile s mediterraean zone.
Ineich, Ivan., 2009. Herpetological survey of Maiao Island, Society Archipelago (French Polynesia). Bulletin de la Societe Herpetologique de France.(130-31). 2009. 51-63.
Summary: Twelve species form the native herpetofauna of Maiao Island, Society Archipelago (French Polynesia). Two geckos (Hemidactylus frenatus and Phelsuma laticauda) have been recently introduced and T. scripta elegans was introduced about 15 years ago (Ineich 2009).
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Trachemys scripta elegans
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/taxastep?king=every&p_action=containing&taxa=Trachemys+scripta+elegans&p_format=&p_ifx=plglt&p_lang= [Accessed March 2005]
Iverson J B; Etchberger, C R ., 1989. The Distributions of the Turtles of Florida USA. Florida Scientist. 52(2). 1989. 119-144
Summary: The distribution of all 25 turtle species recorded from Florida are mapped and reviewed.
Joglar, Rafael L; Alberto O. �lvarez; T. Mitchell Aide; Diane Barber; Patricia A. Burrowes; Miguel A. Garc�a; Abimael Le�n-Cardona; Ana V. Longo; N�stor P�rez-Buitrago; Alberto Puente; Neftal� Rios-L�pez; Peter J. Tolson., 2007. Conserving the Puerto Rican herpetofauna. Applied Herpetology 4: 327-345
Kosuge, Yasuhiro; Ogano, Hirokazu; Hasegawa, Masami., 2003. Spatial distribution of the fresh water turtles along Koito River, Boso Peninsula. Journal of the Natural History Museum & Institute Chiba Special Issue.(6). March 31, 2003. 55-58.
Summary: Distribution pattern of freshwater turtles was investigated along the Koito River basin, Boso Peninsula, central Japan.
Krysko, Kenneth L; Sheehy, Coleman M. III., 2005. Ecological status of the Ocellated Gecko, Sphaerodactylus argus argus Gosse 1850, in Florida, with additional herpetological notes from the Florida Keys. Caribbean Journal of Science. 41(1). 05. 169-172.
Lamer, James T; Dolan, Chad R; Tucker, John K., 2007. Trachemys scripta elegans (Red-eared slider). Coloration. Herpetological Review. 38(3). SEP 2007. 336.
Leatherman, Brian M; Jennings, Mark R., 2007. Actinemys marmorata (Pacific pond turtle) and Trachemys scripta elegans (Red-eared slider). Reproductive behavior. Herpetological Review. 38(3). SEP 2007. 327.
Leberer, Trina., 2003. Records of freshwater turtles on Guam, Mariana Islands. Micronesica 35-36:649-652. 2003
Lee, D. S., 2005. Reptiles and amphibians introduced to the Bahamas; a potential conservation crisis. Bahamas Journal of Science [Bahamas J. Sci.]. Vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 2-6. May 2005.
Summary: The number of exotic species of reptiles and amphibians introduced to the Bahamas continues to grow. Lee (2005) reviews the documented introductions and reports on four additional species.
Lorvelec, O., Pascal., M., Pavis, C., Feldmann, P. 2007. Amphibians and reptiles of the French West Indies : Inventory, threats and conservation. Applied Herpetology 4, 131-161
Summary: Cet article fait le point des connaissances sur les amphibiens et les reptiles indig�nes et introduits des Antilles fran�aises. Les impacts des esp�ces introduites sur la faune indig�ne sont discut�s. Le cas de la conservation des populations d Iguana delicatissima sur l�le de Petite-Terre est pr�sent�
Mosimann, Denis; Cadi, Antoine., 2004. On the occurrence and viability of the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) in Moulin-de-Vert (Geneva, Switzerland): 50 years after first introduction. Biologia (Bratislava). 59(Suppl. 14). 2004. 109-112.
Summary: This paper reports on an investigation designed to survey a mixed population of Emys orbicularis and Trachemys scripta elegans in the Moulin-de-Vert reserve (Canton of Geneva, SW Switzerland) 50 years after introduction of the first E. orbicularis, and to study the habitat use by E. orbicularis there. The authors estimate the population size to be 306 +/- 10.5 turtles. This corresponds to a density of 64 individuals per hectare.
Nagano, Noriyuki; Oana, Shinji; Nagano, Yukiko; Arakawa, Yoshichika., 2006. A severe Salmonella enterica serotype paratyphi B infection in a child related to a pet turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases. 59(2). APR 2006. 132-134.
NOBANIS (North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species) 2009. Trachemys scripta (Testudinidae, Reptilia & amphibia)
Summary: Available from: http://www.nobanis.org/speciesInfo.asp?taxaID=713 [Accessed 27 December 2009]
Outerbridge, Mark E., 2008. Ecological Notes on Feral Populations of Trachemys scripta elegans in Bermuda. Chelonian Conservation & Biology. 7(2). DEC 2008. 265-269.
Parham, J.F. and van Leuvan, T. 2002. Emys orbicularis (European Pond Turtle). Herpetological Review. 33 (2): 147.
Pascal, M., Barr�, N., De Garine-Wichatitsky, Lorvelec, O., Fr�tey, T., Brescia, F., Jourdan, H. 2006. Les peuplements n�o-cal�doniens de vert�b�br�s : invasions, disparitions. Pp 111-162, in M.-L. Beauvais et al., : Les esp�ces envahissantes dans l�archipel n�o-cal�donien, Paris, IRD �ditions, 260 p.+ c�d�rom
Summary: Synth�se des introductions d esp�ces de vert�br�s en Nouvelle-Cal�donie et �valuation de leurs impacts.
Perez-Santigosa, Natividad; Diaz-Paniagua, Carmen; Hidalgo-Vila, Judith., 2008. The reproductive ecology of exotic Trachemys scripta elegans in an invaded area of southern Europe. Aquatic Conservation. 18(7). NOV-DEC 2008. 1302-1310.
Perry, Gad; Owen, Jennifer L; Petrovic, Clive; Lazell, James; Egelhoff, Jim., 2007. The red-eared slider, Trachemys scripta elegans, in the British Virgin Islands. Applied Herpetology. 4(1). 2007. 88-89.
Polo-Cavia, Nuria; Lopez, Pilar; Martin, Jose., 2008. Interspecific differences in responses to predation risk may confer competitive advantages to invasive freshwater turtle species. Ethology. 114(2). FEB 2008. 115-123.
Polo-Cavia, Nuria; Lopez, Pilar; Martin, Jose., 2009a. Interspecific differences in heat exchange rates may affect competition between introduced and native freshwater turtles. Biological Invasions. 11(8). OCT 2009. 1755-1765.
Polo-Cavia, Nuria; Lopez, Pilar; Martin, Jose., 2009b. Interspecific differences in chemosensory responses of freshwater turtles: consequences for competition between native and invasive species. Biological Invasions. 11(2). FEB 2009. 431-440.
Powell, Robert and Sixto J. Inch�ustegui., 2009. Conservation of the herpetofauna of the Dominican Republic. Applied Herpetology 6 (2009) 103�122
Prevot-Julliard, Anne-Caroline; Gousset, Emeline; Archinard, Chloe; Cadi, Antoine; Girondot, Marc., 2007. Pets and invasion risks: is the Slider turtle strictly carnivorous? Amphibia-Reptilia. 28(1). JAN 2007. 139-143.
Probst J.-M. 1997. Animaux de la R�union. Azal�es Editions. 168 pp.
Puky, Miklos; Gemesi, Dorottya; Schad, Peter., 2004. Distribution of Emys orbicularis in Hungary with notes on related conservational and environmental education activities. Biologia (Bratislava). 59(Suppl. 14). 2004. 55-60.
Summary: In 2001 an intensive herpetofaunal mapping project was launched to build a detailed database for Hungary. Using different sampling methods, Emys orbicularis was found in semi-natural lentic and lotic waters as well as in canals, fishponds and other artificial water bodies. Both natural and anthropogenic factors endanger E. Orbicularis causing local extinctions, e. g., through habitat destruction, fragmentation, drought, and isolation. Sporadic records of Trachemys scripta elegans in the wild are known as well but no evidence has been collected on its reproduction so far. E. Orbicularis has the potential to become not only a keystone species in biological monitoring but also a symbol of wetland conservation.
Reptiles Database, 2010. Trachemys scripta Thunberg, 1792
Summary: Available from: http://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species.php?genus=Trachemys&species=scripta [Accessed September 8 2010]
Roll, Uri; Tamar Dayan & Daniel Simberloff., 2008. Non-indigenous terrestrial vertebrates in Israel and adjacent areas. Biol Invasions (2008) 10:659�672
Samedi & D. T. Iskandar. 2000. Freshwater turtleand tortoise conservation and utilization in Indonesia. In: Asian turtle trade: proceedings of a workshop on conservation and trade of freshwater turtles and tortoises in Asia. pp:106�111. P. P. van Dijk, B. L. Stuart & A. G. J. Rhodin (Eds). Chelonian Research Monographs No. 2
Summary: T. scripta elegans, an invasive species introduced by pet trade to fresh water bodies nearly all over the world, has recently been listed for Sulawesi.
Scalera, R. 2006. Trachemys scripta. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe.
Selman, Will; Qualls, Carl., 2009. Trachemys scripta elegans (Red-eared Slider). Maximum Basking Duration
Servan, Jean; Dupre, Alain., 2003. Reintroduction and introduction and are two aspects of wild fauna and flora management. Bulletin de la Societe Herpetologique de France.(105). 2003. 9-40.
Summary: Examples of turtles (mainly Emys orbicularis and Testudo hermanni hermanni) reintroductions and introductions (Trachemys scripta elegans) in France are analysed.
Shacham, Boaz; Hatzofe, Ohad., 2008. The red-eared slider, Trachemys scripta elegans, in Israel. Applied Herpetology. 5(2). 2008. 199-200.
Soccini, Christiana; Ferri, Vincenzo., 2004. Bacteriological screening of Trachemys scripta elegans and Emys orbicularis in the Po plain (Italy). Biologia (Bratislava). 59(Suppl. 14). 2004. 201-207.
Summary: Since 1999, introduced Trachemys scripta elegans from artificial and natural water bodies in the Po plain (North Italy) were bacteriologically screened. From 2001 onwards, a survey of Emys orbicularis was started in the same area. 15 carcasses and 349 cloacal swabs from T. scripta elegans, and 100 cloacal swabs from E. Orbicularis have been studied. Most samples yielded positive bacteriological results. Bacteria known as pathogens for chelonians (eg: Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas spp., Edwardsiella tarda), have been identified.
Somma, Louis A; Ann Foster, and Pam Fuller. 2009. Trachemys scripta elegans. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL.
Summary: Available from: http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.asp?speciesID=1261 [Accessed 28 December 2009]
Stitt, Eric., 2005. The Red-Eared Slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). Sonoran Herpetologist 18(6) 2005
Summary: Available from: http://tucsonherpsociety.org/Stitt%202005_18(6)65.pdf [Accessed 28 December 2009]
Stone, Paul A; Hranitz, John M., 1997. Trachemys scripta elegans (red-eared slider). Colonization. Herpetological Review. 28(3). 1997. 150.
Townsend, Josiah H; Krysko, Kenneth L; Reppas, Anthony T; Sheehy, Coleman M., 2002. Noteworthy records for introduced reptiles and amphibians from Florida, USA. Herpetological Review. 33(1). March, 2002. 75.
Tucker, John K., 2001a. Clutch frequency in the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). Journal of Herpetology. 35(4). December, 2001. 664-668.
Tucker, John K., 2001b. Nesting red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) exhibit fidelity to their nesting areas.
Tucker, John K; Lamer, James T; Dolan, Chad R., 2007. Trachemys scripta elegans (Red-eared slider). Kyphosis. Herpetological Review. 38(3). SEP 2007. 337-338.
Watkins-Colwell, Gregory J; Twan A. Leenders; Brian T. Roach; Daniel J. Drew; Gregg Dancho and Jeanne Yuckienuz., 2006. New Distribution Records for Amphibians and Reptiles in Connecticut, with Notes on the Status of an Introduced Species. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History 47(1):47-62. 2006
Summary: Recent field work and a review of catalogued specimens in the herpetology collections at the Yale Peabody has yielded 170 new town records for amphibians and reptiles in Connecticut. These are reported here, along with observations on the status of the red-ear slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) in Connecticut.
Wilson, A., A. Wilke & Z. Sara�. 2009. Invasive plants and animals: Freshwater plants and animals. Queensland Government: Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries.
Witzell, W.N. 1999. Aquatic turtles (Testudines: Emydidae) in an urban south Florida man-made pond. Florida Scientist. 62 (3-4): 172-174.
Summary: Study on red-eared slider in Florida
Contact
The following 2 contacts offer information an advice on Trachemys scripta elegans
Maillard,
Jean-Fran�ois
Geographic region: Caribbean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage. Cellule technique de Martinique
Address:
s/c DIREN 4 Bd de Verdun 97200 Fort de France
Phone:
Fax:
Pendlebury,
Paul
Website
Studying the impacts of invasives, frog decline and impacts of effemeralism of water-courses on amphibians. A specialist in the catching and transporting of protected species of Reptiles and Amphibians
Organization:
Reptrans
Address:
19 Farne Close, Hailsham, Sussex. BN27 3DF
Phone:
01323 - 833273
Fax:
01323 - 833542