Global invasive species database

  • General
  • Distribution
  • Impact
  • Management
  • Bibliography
  • Contact
prev
  • External left valve of Mytilopsis leucophaeata, with ventrally rounded margins (Photo: Annick Verween, University of Gent)
  • Internal left valve of Mytilopsis leucophaeata, with grey periostracum, small pallial sinus and clear apophyse (Photo: Annick Verween, University of Gent)
  • Detailed image of the apophyse in Mytilopsis leucophaeata (Photo: Annick Verween, University of Gent)
next
Common name
Conrad's false mussel (English), brackish water mussel (English), dark false mussel (English)
Synonym
Mytilopsis cochleatus ,
Mytilopsis leucophaeta ,
Mytilopsis leucophaetus ,
Congeria cochleatus ,
Congeria cochleata ,
Similar species
Dreissena polymorpha, Dreissena rostriformis (bugensis)
Summary
Mytilopsis leucophaeata is a bivalve mollusk native to the Gulf of Mexico and portions of the North American Atlantic coast that has invaded Europe and non-native locations of North America. It establishes dense populations that attach to natural and artificial surfaces and has become a problematic biofouler, especially to electrical and industrial plant cooling systems. Its ecological effects have yet to be determined.
Species Description
Mytilopsis leucophaeata is a dreissenid, bivalve mussel that typically reaches 22 to 25 mm in length (Kennedy, 2010; Laine et al, 2006). It has a thick, rugrose periostractum covering its shell that is dark brown in adults and cream-colored in young specimens with fine to medium rough concentric lines. It commonly has “zebra stripes” and zig-zag patterns in juveniles (Verween et al, 2010; NOBANIS, 2011; Laine et al, 2006). Its shell shape is mytiliform and incurved with the anterior side depressed, hinge margin excavated, and teeth obsolete (Verween et al, 2010). The interior of the shell of M. leucophaeata is gray and has a shelf, or myophore, plate at the anterior with an apophysis, a small triangular tooth that serves as an attachment point for anterior retractor muscles, which is absent many similar-looking mussels including the Zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Verween et al, 2010; Zebra Mussel Information System, 2002). It is an epifaunal species that attaches to hard substrates with byssal threads (NOBANIS, 2011; Verween et al, 2010).
Lifecycle Stages
The larvae of Mytilopsis leucophaeata are planktonic and have been found to metamorphose in about 6 days to 2 weeks depending on temperature (Sidall, 1980). It has been found to have an average growth rate of about 3-6 mm/year (Verween, 2006). Young Dark false mussels in Amsterdam Harbor were measured to an average of 4 mm by the end of May after a period of no growth over winter. Their subsequent average sizes included 8 mm(end of June), 11 mm (end of July), 15 mm (end of August), 17 mm (mid-September), and 19 mm (end of October). The maximum size was about 23–24 mm and no individual seemed to be older than a year and a few months (Vorstman, 1933). However, these sizes may not be typical as first year and even maximum sizes of 10-15 mm have also been reported (Kennedy, 2010).
Habitat Description
Mytilopsis leucophaeata generally inhabits oligohaline to mesohaline estuarine environments (Kennedy, 2010). It is strongly euryhaline and has been recorded from salinities of 0-25 PSU with an optimal range of 0.75-20.9 PSU (Verween et al, 2010). It is also fairly temperature tolerant and may tolerate temperatures from 6.8°C to 37°C, but its optimum range, in which reproduction occurs, is between 15°C to 27°C (Verween et al, 2010; Rajagopal et al, 2005b; NOBANIS, 2011). It attaches to artificial and natural substrates including stones, woody debris, oysters, conduits, bottles, stone walls, wooden posts and other structures (Verween et al, 2010; Kennedy, 2010).
Reproduction
Mytilopsis leucophaeata is a dioecious species that reproduces sexually by external fertilization (Zebra Mussel Information System, 2002). Reproduction may occur continuously in some locations or from the late spring to early fall in others (Verween et al, 2009b; Kennedy, 2010; NOBANIS, 2011). The minimum reported temperature required for spawning is about 13-15°C (NOBANIS, 2011; Verween et al, 2010).
Nutrition
Mytilopsis leucophaeata is a filter feeder that consumes phytoplankton, plant detritus, diatoms, and other organic matter (Verween et al, 2010; Kennedy, 2010).

Principal source: Therriault et al. 2004. Molecular resolution of the family Dreissenidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) with emphasis on Ponto-Caspian species, including first report of Mytilopsis leucophaeata in the Black Sea basin
Rajagopal et al. 2002b. How effective is intermittent chlorination to control adult mussel fouling in cooling water systems?

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Therriault, T.W Department of Fisheries and Oceans. Pacific Biological Station Canada

Publication date: 2011-02-23

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Mytilopsis leucophaeata. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=707 on 26-09-2016.

General Impacts
Mytilopsis leucophaeata is a biofouling species which commonly disturbs coolant water systems of industrial and power plants. Its rapid reproduction in such an ideal environment may result in extremely dense populations that clog water intakes and may damage or cause failure to systems (Rajagopal et al, 2002c; Kennedy, 2010; Verween et al, 2006). Specific examples of its biofouling have been reported from Belgium, Finland, and the Netherlands with densities ranging from tens of thousands to even millions of individuals/m2 (Verween et al, 2007a; Laine et al, 2006; Rajagopal et al, 2002b). M. leucophaeata also fouls boats, ropes, cages, and other marine equipment (Bergstrom, 2004). Aside from biofouling, dense populations M. leucophaeata alter ecosystems and likely have significant ecological effects similar to that of the more widely researched dreissenid Zebra mussel, (Dreissena polymorpha), which demand further investigation.
Management Info
Preventative measures: Early detection and prevention of establishment of Mytilopsis leucophaeata is essential, especially in industrial plant cooling systems (Verween et al, 2002). Adherence to GloBallast (GEF/UNDP/IMO Global Ballast Water Programme) ballast water standards may prevent is establishment in new locations.

Physical: The use of a submersible cleaning and maintenance platform (SCAMP) was found ineffective at removing Mytilopsis leucophaeata (Davidson et al, 2008).

Chemical: Chlorination is effective in controlling Mytilopsis polymorpha in water cooling system intakes, which has been applied successfully to the similar biofouler Driessena polymorpha (Rajagopal et al, 2002a; Verween et al, 2009a). M. leucophaeata is more resistant to chlorination than D. polymorpha and has been found to close its valves when exposed to chlorine. Therefore, continuous levels of chlorination are necessary to achieve results (Rajagopal et al, 2003). Levels of 0.25 mg/L residual chlorine achieved 100% mortality in a little over 100 days (Rajagopal et al, 2002b). Higher levels of 1mg/L achieved 100% mortality after 588 hours (Rajagopal et al, 2003). Such durations of continuous chlorination may not be practical though (Rajagopal et al, 2002a). Chlorine levels of 0.6mg/L were effective against M. leucophaeata embryos even at short intervals (Verween et al, 2009a). Experimentation with pulse chlorination has been recommended but not evaluated (Rajagopal et al, 2002a). Peracetic acid, used as commercial product Degaclean, was also found to be effective against embryos achieving over 98% mortality at 3 mg/L in a 15 minute exposure. Although it may be a more ecologically friendly alternative to chlorine, its higher cost may be prohibitive (Verween et al, 2009a).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Mytilopsis leucophaeata
NATIVE RANGE
  • mexico
  • united states
Informations on Mytilopsis leucophaeata has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Mytilopsis leucophaeata in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Mytilopsis leucophaeata is a biofouling species which commonly disturbs coolant water systems of industrial and power plants. Its rapid reproduction in such an ideal environment may result in extremely dense populations that clog water intakes and may damage or cause failure to systems (Rajagopal et al, 2002c; Kennedy, 2010; Verween et al, 2006). Specific examples of its biofouling have been reported from Belgium, Finland, and the Netherlands with densities ranging from tens of thousands to even millions of individuals/m2 (Verween et al, 2007a; Laine et al, 2006; Rajagopal et al, 2002b). M. leucophaeata also fouls boats, ropes, cages, and other marine equipment (Bergstrom, 2004). Aside from biofouling, dense populations M. leucophaeata alter ecosystems and likely have significant ecological effects similar to that of the more widely researched dreissenid Zebra mussel, (Dreissena polymorpha), which demand further investigation.
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
BELGIUM
FINLAND
NETHERLANDS
Mechanism
[3] Bio-fouling
Outcomes
[3] Socio-Economic
  • [3] Damage to infrastructures
Management information
Preventative measures: Early detection and prevention of establishment of Mytilopsis leucophaeata is essential, especially in industrial plant cooling systems (Verween et al, 2002). Adherence to GloBallast (GEF/UNDP/IMO Global Ballast Water Programme) ballast water standards may prevent is establishment in new locations.

Physical: The use of a submersible cleaning and maintenance platform (SCAMP) was found ineffective at removing Mytilopsis leucophaeata (Davidson et al, 2008).

Chemical: Chlorination is effective in controlling Mytilopsis polymorpha in water cooling system intakes, which has been applied successfully to the similar biofouler Driessena polymorpha (Rajagopal et al, 2002a; Verween et al, 2009a). M. leucophaeata is more resistant to chlorination than D. polymorpha and has been found to close its valves when exposed to chlorine. Therefore, continuous levels of chlorination are necessary to achieve results (Rajagopal et al, 2003). Levels of 0.25 mg/L residual chlorine achieved 100% mortality in a little over 100 days (Rajagopal et al, 2002b). Higher levels of 1mg/L achieved 100% mortality after 588 hours (Rajagopal et al, 2003). Such durations of continuous chlorination may not be practical though (Rajagopal et al, 2002a). Chlorine levels of 0.6mg/L were effective against M. leucophaeata embryos even at short intervals (Verween et al, 2009a). Experimentation with pulse chlorination has been recommended but not evaluated (Rajagopal et al, 2002a). Peracetic acid, used as commercial product Degaclean, was also found to be effective against embryos achieving over 98% mortality at 3 mg/L in a 15 minute exposure. Although it may be a more ecologically friendly alternative to chlorine, its higher cost may be prohibitive (Verween et al, 2009a).

Bibliography
48 references found for Mytilopsis leucophaeata

Managment information
Bergstrom, P. 2004. An Introduction to Dark False mussels. NOAA Chesapeake Bay Office.
Summary: Available from: http://www.chesapeakebay.net/pubs/calendar/LRSC_09-30-04_Presentation_1_5352.pdf [Accessed 20 December 2004]
Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.
Summary: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
The decision support tools are available from: http://cefas.defra.gov.uk/our-science/ecosystems-and-biodiversity/non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx [Accessed 13 October 2011]
The guidance document is available from http://www.cefas.co.uk/media/118009/fisk_guide_v2.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009].
Conn, D. B., Lutz, R. A., Hu, Y-P, Kennedy, V. (1993). Guide to the identification of larval and postlarval stages of zebra mussels Dreissena spp. and the dark false mussel Mytilopsis leucophaeata. New York Sea Grant: 22 pp.
Davidson, Ian C.; McCann, Linda D.; Sytsma, Mark D.; Ruiz, Gregory M., 2008. Interrupting a multi-species bioinvasion vector: The efficacy of in-water cleaning for removing biofouling on obsolete vessels. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 56(9). SEP 2008. 1538-1544.
Rajagopal, Sanjeevi; Gerard van der Veldea & Henk A. Jenner, 2002a. Effects of low-level chlorination on zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. Water Research 36 (2002) 3029�3034
Rajagopal, Sanjeevi; Van Der Velde, Gerard; Van der Gaag, Marinus; Jenner, Henk A., 2003. How effective is intermittent chlorination to control adult mussel fouling in cooling water systems? Water Research. 37(2). January 2003. 329-338.
Rajagopal, S., G. Velde, M. Gaag, and H. A. Jenner. 2002a. Sublethal responses of zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha to low-level chlorination: An experimental study. Biofouling. 18(2). June 2002. 95-104.
Rajagopal, S., G. Velde, M. Gaag, and H. A. Jenner. 2002b. Control of brackish water fouling mussel, Mytilopsis leucophaeata (Conrad), with sodium hypochlorite. Archives-of-Environmental-Contamination-and-Toxicology. 2002; 43(3): 296-300.
Rajagopal, S., G. Velde, M. Gaag, and H. A. Jenner. 2003. How effective is intermittent chlorination to control adult mussel fouling in cooling water systems? Water Research. 37(2). 329-338.
Rajagopal, S. van der Gaag, M.; van der Velde, G.; Jenner, H. A., 2002b. Control of brackish water fouling mussel, Mytilopsis leucophaeata (Conrad), with sodium hypochlorite. Archives of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology. 43(3). October, 2002. 296-300
Rajagopal, S.; Van der Gaag, M.; Van der Velde, G.; Jenner, H. A., 2005b. Upper temperature tolerances of exotic brackish-water mussel, Mytilopsis leueophaeata (Conrad): An experimental study. Marine Environmental Research. 60(4). OCT 2005. 512-530.
Rajagopal S, van der Gaag M, van der Velde G, Jenner H. A., 2005c. Upper temperature tolerances of exotic brackish-water mussel, Mytilopsis leucophaeata (Conrad): a laboratory study. Marine Environmental Research (In press)
Rajagopal, S. , Van der Velde, G. , Van der Gaag, M. and Jenner, H. A. 2002c. Sublethal Responses of Zebra Mussel, Dreissena polymorpha to Low-level Chlorination: An Experimental Study , Biofouling, 18: 2, 95 � 104
Rajagopal, S.; van der Velde, G.; van der Gaag, M.; Jenner, H. A., 2005a. Byssal detachment underestimates tolerance of mussels to toxic compounds. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 50(1). January 2005. 20-29.
Rajagopal S, van der Velde G, van der Gaag M, Jenner H. A., 2005a. Byssal detachment underestimates tolerance of mussels to toxic compounds. Marine Pollution Bulletin 50: 20-29.
Rajagopal S, van der Velde G, van der Gaag M, Jenner H. A., 2005b. Factors influencing the upper temperature tolerances of three mussel species in a brackish canal: size, season and laboratory protocols. Biofouling (In press).
Therriault, Thomas W. ; Docker, Margaret F.; Orlova, Marina I.; Heath, Daniel D.; MacIsaac, Hugh J., 2004. Molecular resolution of the family Dreissenidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) with emphasis on Ponto-Caspian species, including first report of Mytilopsis leucophaeata in the Black Sea basin. Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution. 30(3). March 2004. 479-489.
Verween, A. 2004. Towards an ecologically and economically sound biofouling control of Mytilopsis leucophaeata in the harbour of Antwerp, in: Mees, J. et al. (Ed.) (2004). VLIZ Young Scientists Day, Brugge, Belgium 5 March 2004: book of abstracts. VLIZ Special Publication, 17: pp. 25
Verween, A. , Hendrickx, F. , Vincx, M. and Degraer, S. 2007a. Larval presence prediction through logistic regression: an early warning system against Mytilopsis leucophaeata biofouling , Biofouling, 23: 1, 25 � 35
Verween, Annick; Vincx, Magda; Mees, Jan; Degraer, Steven, 2005. Seasonal variability of Mytilopsis leucophaeata larvae in the harbour of Antwerp: implications for ecologically and economically sound biofouling control. Belgian Journal of Zoology. 135(1). JAN 2005. 91-93.
Verween, A; Vincxa, M.; Degraer, S., 2009a. Comparative toxicity of chlorine and peracetic acid in the biofouling control of Mytilopsis leucophaeata and Dreissena polymorpha embryos (Mollusca, Bivalvia). International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. 63(4). JUN 2009. 523-528.
Zebra Mussel Information System. 2002. Mytilopsis leucophaeata - the False Dark Mussel. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
Summary: Available from: http://el.erdc.usace.army.mil/zebra/zmis/ [Accessed 20 December 2004]
General information
Denson, Dana R.; Wang, Shiao Y., 1998. Distinguishing the dark false mussel, Mytilopsis leucophaeata (Conrad, 1831), from the non-indigenous zebra and quagga mussels, Dreissena spp., using spermatozoan external morphology. Veliger. 41(2). April 1, 1998. 205-207.
de Souza, Jose R. B.; da Rocha, Clelia M. C.; de Lima, Maria dos P. R., 2005. Occurrence of exotic bivalve Mytilopsis leucophaeata (Conrad) (Mollusca, Bivalvia), in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia. 22(4). DEC 2005. 1204-1206.
Heiler, Katharina C. M.; Nahavandi, Nahid; Albrecht, Christian, 2010. A new invasion into an ancient lake- The invasion history of the Dreissenid mussel Mytilopsis leucophaeata (Conrad 1831) and its first record in the Caspian Sea. Malacologia. 53(1). 2010. 185-192.
Hilden, Martti; Silfverberg, Hans; Talman, Ritva, 2007. Accessions to the zoological museum, University of Helsinki/Helsingfors in in 2006. Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica. 83(2). 2007. 84-86.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2004. Online Database Mytilopsis leucophaeata
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=81335 [Accessed 20 December 2004]
Johnson, C.W. 1934. List of Marine Mollusca of the Atlantic coast from Labrador to Texas. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 40(1): 1-204
Koch, L.M. 1989. Mytilopsis leucophaeata (Conrad, 1831) from the upper Mississippi River (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae). Malacological Data Net 2:153-154.
Laine, A.O.; Mattila, J.; Lehikoinen, A., 2006. First record of the brackish water dreissenid bivalve Mytilopsis leucophaeata in the northern Baltic Sea Aquatic Invasions 1(1): 38-41
Marelli, D.C. and S. Gray. 1983. Conchological redescriptions of Mytilopsis sallei and Mytilopsis leucophaeta of the brackish Western Atlantic. Veliger 25:185-193.
NOBANIS, 2010. Mytilopsis leucophaeata (Conrad, 1831) � dark false mussel or Conrad�s false mussel
Summary: Available from: http://www.nobanis.org/MarineIdkey/Bivalvia/MytilopsisLeucophaeata.htm [Accessed 5 January 2011]
Pathy, D. A., and G. L. Mackie. 1993. Comparative shell morphology of Dreissena polymorpha, Mytilopsis leucophaeata, and the quagga mussel (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae) in North America. Canadian-Journal-of-Zoology. 1993; 71(5): 1012-1023.
Rajagopal, S. , van der Velde, G. , van der Gaag, M. and Jenner, H. A., 2005c. Factors influencing the upper temperature tolerances of three mussel species in a brackish water canal: Size, season and laboratory protocols , Biofouling, 21: 2, 87 � 97
Reguero, M., A. Garcia-Cuba, and G. Zuniga. 1991. Mollusca of Tampamachoco Lagoon, Veracruz, Mexico: Systematics and ecology. Anales-del-Instituto-de-Ciencias-del-Mar-y-Limnologia-Universidad-Nacional-Autonoma-de-Mexico. 1991; 18(2): 289-328.
Rehder, H.A. 1937. Congeria leucophaeata (Con.) in the Hudson River. Nautilus 50:143.
Siddall S. E., 1980. Early development of Mytilopsis leucophaeata Bivalvia Dreissenacea. Veliger. 22(4). 1980. 378-379.
Smith, D.G. and K.J. Boss. 1996. The occurrence of Mytilopsis leucophaeata (Conrad, 1831) (Veneroida: Dreissenidae) in Southern New England. Veliger 39:359-360.
Smith, Douglas G. Boss, Kenneth J., 1996. The occurrence of Mytilopsis leucophaeata (Conrad, 1831) (Veneroida: Dreissenidae) in Southern New England. Veliger. 39(4). 1996. 359-360.
Therriault, T.W., M. F. Docker, I. M. Orlova, D. D. Heath, and H. J. MacIsaac. 2004. Molecular resolution of the family Dreissenidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) with emphasis on Ponto-Caspian species, including first report of Mytilopsis leucophaeata in the Black Sea basin. Molecular-Phylogenetics-and-Evolution. 2004; 30(3): 479-489.
van der Velde, G.; Van der Gaag, R.; Rajagopal, S.; Jenner, H.A. 1998. Where exotic mussels Dreissena polymorpha and Mytilopsis leucophaeata meet in the brackish Noordzeekanaal, the Netherlands, in: (1998). Abstracts from the 8th International Zebra Mussel and other Nuisance Species Conference, Sacramento California.
Verween, Annick; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven. 2009b. Seasonal variation in gametogenesis and spawning of Mytilopsis leucophaeata, an invasive bivalve in Europe. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 75(Part 3). AUG 2009. 307-310
Verween, A. , Vincx, M. and Degraer, S., 2006. Growth patterns of Mytilopsis leucophaeata, an invasive biofouling bivalve in Europe , Biofouling, 22: 4, 221 � 231
Verween, A.; Vincx, M.; Degraer, S., 2007b. The effect of temperature and salinity on the survival of Mytilopsis leucophaeata larvae (Mollusca, Bivalvia): The search for environmental limits. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology. 348(1-2). SEP 7 2007. 111-120.
Verween, A.; Vincx, M.; Degraer, S. 2010. Mytilopsis leucophaeata: The brackish water equivalent of Dreissena polymorpha? A review, in: van der Velde, G. et al. (Ed.) (2010). The Zebra mussel in Europe. pp. 29-43
Walton, William C., 1996. Occurrence of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in the oligohaline Hudson River, New York. Estuaries. 19(3). 1996. 612-618.
Contact
The following 3 contacts offer information an advice on Mytilopsis leucophaeata
Annick,
Verween
Dr. Annick Verween is a marine biologist at the University of Gent in Belgium (Europe). She s interested in the ecology of fouling-organisms, with a special focus on the ecology of Mytilopsis leucophaeata in the harbour of Antwerp and throughout Europe in general. She s also working on achieving an efficient and rational use of biocides to control bio-fouling caused by M. leucophaeata and other mussel species. A new invader Rangia cuneata has recently been discovered by her in the harbour of Antwerp. She is currently working on increasing industrial awareness to new invaders and their possible biofouling problems.
Organization:
Marine Biology Section, Department of Biology University of Gent
Address:
Krijgslaan 281, S8 9000 Gent, Belgium
Phone:
09/264.85.34
Fax:
09/264.85.98
Rajagopal,
Dr. Sanjeevi
Website
Dr Rajgopals main research interests center around the biology, ecology, physiology and control of freshwater, estuarine and marine fouling animals, particularly bivalve molluscs. He has specialised in general marine fouling. His interests include the study of the biology, physiology and control of most important fouling mussel species, Perna viridis, Perna indica (=Perna perna), Modiolus philippinarum, Brachidontes striatulus, B. variabilis (tropical mussels), Mytilopsis leucophaeata (sub-tropical mussels), Mytilus edulis, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Dreissena polymorpha (temperate mussels). He is also involved in the development of novel (CO2), environmentally sound (heat treatment), chemical (chlorination) and nonchemical technologies (biological control) for the control of macrofouling in raw water systems.
Organization:
Department of Animal Ecology & Ecophysiology Institute for Water and Wetland Research Radboud University Nijmegen
Address:
Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen The Netherlands
Phone:
+31 (24) 365 2417
Fax:
+31 (24) 355 3450
Therriault,
T.W
Dr. Tom Therriault is a pelagic research scientist with the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans and is program head of Forage and Minor Finfish at the Pacific Biological Station in Nanaimo, BC. Current research is focused on identifying and understanding temporal and spatial patterns of nearshore fish communities, including environmental and anthropogenic impacts.
Organization:
Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada
Address:
Pacific Biological Station 3190 Hammond Bay Road Nanaimo, BC, V9T 6N7
Phone:
(250) 756-7394
Fax:
(250) 756-7138