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  • Undaria on hull of Rapuhei (NZOI Research Vessel) (Photo: Cameron Hay)
  • Undaria on hull of unnamed yacht, Magazine Bay, Lyttleton (Photo: Cameron Hay)
  • Undaria pinnatifida (Photo: Cameron Hay)
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Common name
miyeuk (Korean), wakame (Japanese), apron-ribbon vegetable (English), Japanese kelp (English), Asian kelp (English), qundaicai (Chinese), haijiecai (Chinese)
Synonym
Alaria pinnatifida , Harvey1860
Ulopteryx pinnatifida , (Harvey) Kjellman 1885
Similar species
Alaria esculenta, Saccorhiza polyschides, Undaria undarioides, Undaria peterseniana, Ecklonia radiata
Summary
The kelp (Undaria pinnatifida) is native to Japan where it is cultivated for human consumption. It is an opportunistic weed which spreads mainly by fouling ship hulls. It forms dense underwater forests, resulting in competition for light and space which may lead to the exclusion or displacement of native plant and animal species.
Species Description
Undaria pinnatifida is a brown seaweed that can reach an overall length of 1-3 metres. It is an annual species with two separate life stages. The macroscopic stage (the sporophyte), usually present through the late winter to early summer months and a microscopic stage (the gametophyte), present during the colder months.
The sporophyte is golden-brown in colour, with a lighter coloured stipe.It has a strap-like midrib full length of thallus, 1-3cm wide; edges of midrib expanded as thin membranous pinnatifid blade; pinnnae 50-80cm long, blade dotted with white cryptostomata and dark gland cells, terminates well short of base; naked basal section of midrib forms stipe. As sporophytes mature two thickened fluted sporophylls develop, one along each edge of stipe, and bend laterally around stipe with folds becoming interleaved, always in two discrete pieces.The gametophyte is microscopic.
The spiral sporophyll and the midrib are the key identification features.
Lifecycle Stages
The life cycle of U. pinnatifida is complex. The macroscopic sporophytes grow during winter and release spores as summer approaches.These spores which are microscopic disperse and settle down to germinate into gametophytes, when conditions are favourable these gametophytes produce sperms and eggs which fertilise and grow into the plant ie. the sporophyte.
Temperature, light and depth are all important cues in development (NIMPIS, 2002).
Uses
Overwhelmingly the main use of undaria is as human food. It is essentially a staple of the Japanese and Korean diets and is also widely consumed in Japan.
Habitat Description
Undaria pinnatifida is described as an opportunistic seaweed able to rapidly colonise new or disturbed substrata and artificial floating structures. It occures in dense, vigorous stands on benthic shores, forming thick canopy over the biota in a wide range of shores varying in exposure, from low tide level down to 15m in clear waters.
\r\nUndaria inhabits cold temperate coastal areas and grows best in waters below\r\n12° C. Sporophytes are reported to degrade at temperatures above 20° C and\r\ndie at temperatures greater than 23° C.\r\nUndaria pinnatifida grows in a wide range of wave exposures from sheltered marinas to the open coast, and extends vertically from the low intertidal to 18m depth\r\n(although it is most common between 1 and 3m depth). It tolerates a wide range\r\nof irradiance from full sunlight to very low light levels, but is unlikely to invade\r\nareas with a high fresh water input.
\r\nUndaria can grow on any hard surface including artificial substrates such as\r\nrope, pylons, buoys, the hulls of vessels, bottles, floating pontoons and plastic.\r\nOn natural substrates, undaria inhabits stable rocky reefs, mobile cobble\r\nhabitats, mudstone, and in primarily soft sediment habitats attaches to hard\r\nsurfaces such as shell. It can also grow on seagrass (while a small\r\nsporophyte), the shells of abalone and bivalves, invertebrates and epiphytically\r\non other seaweeds (MFish, 2001).
Reproduction
Asexual/sexual. Annual heteromorphic life cycle alternative between the diploid macroscopic sporophyte and the haploid microscopic gametophyte (NIMPIS, 2002).
Pathway
The accidental translocation of undaria through aquaculture and fisheries activities.The release of the species in ballast water discharged from vessels. Various types and life stages of species can be transported in ballast water.This vector can introduce species through a variety of means. Three examples are: (1) The spawning of a fouling species on a vessel in port (2) The dislodgement of fouling species from a vessel in port and (3) The sinking of fouled vessels either deliberThe accidental release of undaria, imported for human consumption, it is a staple in the Japanese and Korean diets.

Principal source:

Compiler: Dr. Marc Verlaque, CNRS Centre d'Oc�anologie de Marseille, France & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Dr. Marc Verlaque, CNRS Centre d'Oc�anologie de Marseille, France.

Publication date: 2007-05-31

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Undaria pinnatifida. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=68 on 29-08-2016.

General Impacts
The impacts of Undaria pinnatifida are not well understood and are likely to vary considerably depending on the location. Undaria can change the structure of ecosystems, especially in areas where native seaweeds are absent (Mfish, 2001).
NIMPIS, 2002 states that U. pinnatifida has the potential to become a problem for marine farms by increasing labour and harvesting costs due to fouling problems on fin fish cages, oyster racks, scallop bags and mussel ropes. Heavy fouling may also restrict water flow through cages.
The Department of Conservation in its brochure \"Gorse of the Sea\" state that undaria could foul mussel farms, salmon farms and boats. Heavy infestations of undaria may also clog marine farming machinery, slow growth of mussels and restrict water circulation.Heavy fouling of boats seriously decreases their efficiency.
Management Info
Preventative measures: Undaria has a microscopic phase in its life cycle, and it is thought that eradication of this species is unlikely to succeed. The approach to undaria management would thus be to slow its spread and reduce the chances of it reaching new locations. In addition to natural dispersal the role of human mediated vectors; ballast water, attachment to hulls, marine equipment etc plays a major role in the spread of undaria. Vector management and awareness would go a long way in slowing its spread. In the long-term, it is hoped that eventually there could be systems to treat vessel hulls with UV light or high-pressure, heated water to kill harmful spores and bacteria quickly and efficiently (MPA NEWS, December 2004/ January 2005).

A two year study was undertaken for the Department of Environment and Heritage (Australia) by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) to identify and rank introduced marine species found within Australian waters and those not found within Australian waters.
All of the non-native potential target species identified in this report are ranked as high, medium and low priority, based on their invasion potential and impact potential. A hazard ranking of potential domestic target species based on invasion potential from infected to uninfected bioregions identifies Undaria pinnatifida as a 'medium priority species' - these species have a reasonably high impact/or invasion potential.
For more details, please see Hayes et al. 2005.
The rankings determined in Hayes et al. 2005 will be used by the National Introduced Marine Pest Coordinating Group in Australia to assist in the development of national control plans which could include options for control, eradication and/or long term management.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Undaria pinnatifida
NATIVE RANGE
  • china
  • japan
  • korea, democratic people's republic of
  • korea, republic of
  • pacific - eastern central
Informations on Undaria pinnatifida has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Undaria pinnatifida in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
The impacts of Undaria pinnatifida are not well understood and are likely to vary considerably depending on the location. Undaria can change the structure of ecosystems, especially in areas where native seaweeds are absent (Mfish, 2001).
NIMPIS, 2002 states that U. pinnatifida has the potential to become a problem for marine farms by increasing labour and harvesting costs due to fouling problems on fin fish cages, oyster racks, scallop bags and mussel ropes. Heavy fouling may also restrict water flow through cages.
The Department of Conservation in its brochure \"Gorse of the Sea\" state that undaria could foul mussel farms, salmon farms and boats. Heavy infestations of undaria may also clog marine farming machinery, slow growth of mussels and restrict water circulation.Heavy fouling of boats seriously decreases their efficiency.
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
JERSEY
Mechanism
[1] Competition
[1] Bio-fouling
Outcomes
[3] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Modification of natural benthic communities
  • [1] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [1] Habitat degradation
Management information
Preventative measures: Undaria has a microscopic phase in its life cycle, and it is thought that eradication of this species is unlikely to succeed. The approach to undaria management would thus be to slow its spread and reduce the chances of it reaching new locations. In addition to natural dispersal the role of human mediated vectors; ballast water, attachment to hulls, marine equipment etc plays a major role in the spread of undaria. Vector management and awareness would go a long way in slowing its spread. In the long-term, it is hoped that eventually there could be systems to treat vessel hulls with UV light or high-pressure, heated water to kill harmful spores and bacteria quickly and efficiently (MPA NEWS, December 2004/ January 2005).

A two year study was undertaken for the Department of Environment and Heritage (Australia) by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) to identify and rank introduced marine species found within Australian waters and those not found within Australian waters.
All of the non-native potential target species identified in this report are ranked as high, medium and low priority, based on their invasion potential and impact potential. A hazard ranking of potential domestic target species based on invasion potential from infected to uninfected bioregions identifies Undaria pinnatifida as a 'medium priority species' - these species have a reasonably high impact/or invasion potential.
For more details, please see Hayes et al. 2005.
The rankings determined in Hayes et al. 2005 will be used by the National Introduced Marine Pest Coordinating Group in Australia to assist in the development of national control plans which could include options for control, eradication and/or long term management.

Management Category
Prevention
Eradication
Control
Unknown
Monitoring
Bibliography
39 references found for Undaria pinnatifida

Managment information
Brown, M. T. and Lamare, M. D. 1994. The distribution of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar within Timaru harbour, New Zealand. Japanese Journal of Phycology 42: 63-70.
Castric Fey, A., Beaupoil, C., Bouchain, J., Pradier, E. and L Hardy Halos, M. T. 1999. The introduced alga Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Alariaceae) in the rocky shore ecosystem of the St Malo area: morphology and growth of the sporophyte. Botanica Marina 42: 71-82.
Castric Fey, A., Girard, A. and L hardy Halos, M. T. 1993. The distribution of Undaria pinnatifida on the coast of the Saint Malo (Brittany, France). Botanica Marina 36: 351-358.
Cecere, E., Petrocelli, A. and Saracino, O. D. 2000. Undaria pinnatifida (Fucophyceae, Laminariales) spread in the central Mediterranean: its occurrence in the Mar Piccolo of taranto (Ionian Sea, southern Italy). Cryptogamie, Algologie 21: 305-309.
Curiel, D. Guidetti, P. Bellemo, G. Scattolin, M. Marzocchi, M. 2002. The introduced alga Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Alariaceae) in the Lagoon of Venice. Hydrobiologia. vol. 477, no. 1, pp. 209-219.
Summary: Study on undaria invasion in Venice, Italy.
Fletcher, R. L. and Farrell, P. 1999. Introduced brown algae in the North East Atlantic, with particular respect to Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen 52: 259-275.
Fletcher, R. L. and Manfredi, C. 1995. The occurrence of Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales) on the South Coast of England. Botanica Marina 38: 355-358.
Floc h, J. Y., Pajot, R. and Mouret, V. 1996. Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) 12 years after its introduction into the Atlantic Ocean. Hydrobiologia 326/327: 217-222.
Floc h, J. Y., Pajot, R. and Wallentinus, I. 1988. The Japanese brown alga Undaria pinnatifida on the coasts of France and the possibilities of its establishment in european waters. International Council Exploration Sea, CIES, Bergen 10 October 198. 16pp.
Forrest, B. 2000. A management strategy for the Asian kelp Undaria? Aliens 12.
Forrest, B. M., Brown, S. N., Taylor, M. D., Hurd, C. L. and Hay, C. H. 2000. The role of natural dispersal mechanisms in the spread of Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae). Phycologia 39: 547-553
Summary: Study of dispersal of Undaria pinnatifida.
Hay, C. H. 1990. The dispersal of sporophytes of Undaria pinnatifida by coastal shipping in new Zealand, and implications for further dispersal of Undaria in France. British Phycological Journal 25: 301-313.
Hay, C. H. and Luckens, P. A. 1987. The Asian kelp Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyta, Laminariales) found in a New Zealand harbour. New Zealand Journal Botany 25: 364-366.
Hayes, K., Sliwa, C., Migus, S., McEnnulty, F., Dunstan, P. 2005. National priority pests: Part II Ranking of Australian marine pests. An independent report undertaken for the Department of Environment and Heritage by CSIRO Marine Research.
Summary: This report is the final report of a two year study designed to identify and rank introduced marine species found within Australian waters (potential domestic target species) and those that are not found within Australian waters (potential international target species).
Available from: http://www.marine.csiro.au/crimp/reports/PriorityPestsFinalreport.pdf [Accessed 25 May 2005]
Hewitt, C.L, Campbell, M.L. and Gollasch, S. 2006. Alien Species in Aquaculture. Considerations for responsible use. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. viii + 32 pp.
Summary: This publication aims to first provide decision makers and managers with information on the existing international and regional regulations that address the use of alien species in aquaculture, either directly or indirectly; and three examples of national responses to this issue (New Zealand, Australia and Chile).
Available from: http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/2006-036.pdf [Accessed 22 September 2008]
McEnnulty, F.R., Jones, T.E. and Bax, N.J. (2001), The Wed-Based Rapid Response Toolbox
Summary: Web publication: Date of release: June 2001, Date of access: 26/03/2004.
Ministry of Fisheries 2001. Marine Biosecurity: Action Plan for Unwanted Species Undaria pinnatifida
Summary: Available from: http://biodiversity.govt.nz/pdfs/seas/undaria_action_plan_dec01.pdf [Accessed 9 July 2007]
Saito, Y. (1975). Undaria. IN: Advance of phycology in Japan, (Tokida, J., Hirose, H. Eds) Dr. W. Junk b.v., The Hague304-320.
Sanderson, J. C. 1990. A preliminary survey of the distribution of the introduced macroalga, Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) suringar on the coast of Tasmania, Australia. Botanica Marina 33: 153-157.
Silva, P.C. Woodfield, R.A. Cohen, A.N. Harris, L.H. Goddard, J.H.R. 2002. First report of the Asian kelp Undaria pinnatifida in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Biological Invasions vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 333-338.
Summary: Distribution of undaria in the Pacific.
Tasman District Council (TDC) 2001. Tasman-Nelson Regional Pest Management Strategy
General information
Boudouresque, C. F., Gerbal, M. and Knoepffler-P�guy, M. 1985. L algue japonaise Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales) en M�diterran�e. Phycologia 24: 364-366.
Casas, G. N. and Piriz, M. L. 1996. Surveys of Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) in Golfo Nuevo, Argentina. Hydrobiologia 326/327: 213-215.
Dept. of Fisheries, Introduced Marine Aquatic Invaders.
Summary: Available from: http://www.fish.wa.gov.au/hab/broc/marineinvader/marine11.html [Accessed 24 September 2004]
Guiry, M.D. & Nic Dhonncha, E., 2005. Undaria pinnatifida AlgaeBase version 3.0. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway.
Summary: AlgaeBase is a database of information on algae that includes terrestrial, marine and freshwater organisms.
AlgaeBase is available from: http://www.algaebase.org; Undaria pinnatifida information is available from: http://www.algaebase.org/speciesdetail.lasso?species_id=350&sk=0&from=results&-session=abv3:82D8C9F5076c500931kSpSC20074 [Accessed 04 March 2005].
JNCC Adviser To Govternment
Summary: Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/marine/non_native/dns/d2_1_3_2.htm [Accessed 24 September 2004]
Knoepffler P�guy, M., Noailles, M. C., Boudouresque, C. F. and Abelard, C. 1990. Phytobenthos des Pyr�n�es Orientales: compl�ment � l inventaire, pr�sence d esp�ces non-indig�nes (Sargassum et Undaria). Bulletin Soci�t� Zoologique France 115: 37-43.
Leliaert, F., Kerckhof, F. and Coppejans, E. 2000. Eerste waarnemingen van Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar (Laminariales, phaeophyta) en de epifyt Pterothamnion plumula (Ellis) Nageli (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) in Noord Frankrijk en Belgie. Dumortiera.
Perez, R., Kaas, R. and Barbaroux, O. 1984. Culture exp�rimentale de l algue Undaria pinnatifida sur les c�tes de France. Science et Peche 343: 15pp.
Perez, R., Lee, J. Y. and Juge, C. 1981. Observations sur la biologie de l algue japonaise Undaria pinnatifida (harvey) Suringar introduite accidentellement dans l �tang de Thau. Science et Peche 325: 12pp.
Rismondo, A., Volpe, S., Curiel, D. and Solazzi, A. 1993. Segnalazione di Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar a Chioggia (Laguna Veneta). Societa Veneziana Scienze Naturali, Lavori 18: 329-330.
Santiago Caamano, J., Duran Neira, C. and Acuna Castroviejo, R. 1990. Aparicion de Undaria pinnatifida en las costas de Galicia (Espana). Un nuevo caso en la problematica de introduction de especies foraneas. CIS Santiago de Compostela, Informes Tecnicos 3.
Sea Fishing and Aquaculture, Dept. of Primary Industries, Water and Environment
Summary: Available from: http://www.dpiwe.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/WebPages/ALIR-4Z56E6?open [Accessed 24 September 2004]
Contact
The following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Undaria pinnatifida
Verlaque,
Marc
Undaria pinnatifida
Organization:
CNRS Centre d Oc�anologie de Marseille Campus de Luminy
Address:
Route Leon Lachamp Case 901 13288 Marseille Cedex 9, France
Phone:
+33 4 91829106
Fax:
+33 4 91411265