Global invasive species database

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  • Butterfly bush (Photo: � J.S. Peterson. USDA NRCS NPDC. Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney, NSW, Australia. March 13, 2002)
  • Butterfly bush (Photo: � J.S. Peterson. USDA NRCS NPDC. Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney, NSW, Australia. March 13, 2002)
  • Butterfly bush (Photo: � J.S. Peterson. USDA NRCS NPDC. Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney, NSW, Australia. March 13, 2002)
  • Butterfly bush (Photo: � J.S. Peterson. USDA NRCS NPDC. Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney, NSW, Australia. March 13, 2002)
  • Butterfly bush (Photo: � J.S. Peterson. USDA NRCS NPDC. Lockeford Plant Materials Center, San Joaquin Co., CA. May 21, 2002)
  • Butterfly bushi flowers (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr)
  • This picture gives an impression of the habit (general appearance) of the butterfly bush (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr)
  • Buddleja davidii fruits (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr)
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Common name
buddleia (French, France), summer lilac (English), arbre aux papillons (French, France), orange eye (English), butterfly bush (English)
Synonym
Buddleja variabilis , Hemsley
Similar species
Buddleja alternifolia
Summary
Buddleja davidii is a shade-intolerant woody weed from China, which, with small wind-dispersed seeds, rapidly colonises bare or disturbed sites. It is cultivated for ornamental purposes for its pretty flowers and ability to attract butterflies. It often takes hold in disturbed areas, riparian areas or open woodlands and has proven to be one of the worst weeds to forestry managers in New Zealand, where it out-competes Pinus radiata seedlings. Approval for release of a biological control agent, a leaf-chewing beetle Cleopus japonicus, has recently been given in New Zealand.
Species Description
Buddleja davidii is a shrub between 1 and 5m in height with widely spreading branches. The foliage is semi-erect to falling. Quite flexible quadrangular branches. Leaves: opposite, lanceolate, from 10 to 30cm length with slightly toothed edges, upper face dark green and shiny, lower face white with downy hairs. Flowers: gathered in dense and pointed inflorescences approximately 35cm long. Small, (10mm X 3mm) scented hermaphrodite flowers. Corolla in the shape of tube which ends in 4 lobes, coloured white to crimson according to the varieties, with an orange stain in the centre. Flowering from July to October in Europe. Fruit is small, 8mm long capsules. Fruiting from September to December in Europe.
Notes
Its delicate perfume attracts butterflies.
Lifecycle Stages
Seeds can remain dormant in the ground for many years. Buddleia is able to colonise a new zone in one to two years from seeding. A shrub can flower and bear fruit in the first year. It can reach a height of 2 metres one year after being cut at the base. Buddleia is a coloniser of short lifespan (the oldest individual having been found is 37 years old). The largest densities of invasion would normally be observed in the first ten years.
Uses
This plant is appreciated as an ornamental, and is planted in hedges and other borders.
Habitat Description
Buddleia usually occurs in open and disturbed sites like railways, the edges of roads, walls, cliffs, building sites, waste lands and ruins. It typically colonises river banks at altitudes of 2000m or more. Sometimes it is found in forests.
Reproduction
Buddleia davidii is pollinated by insects, in particular butterflies.
Pathway

Principal source: Sarah Brunel, Conservatoire Botanique National Méditerranéen de Porquerolles

Compiler: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review:

Publication date: 2010-09-28

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Buddleja davidii. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=650 on 29-07-2016.

General Impacts
Dense infestations of Buddleia compete with indigenous vegetation of rivers and impede the growth and reproduction of other species of trees and shrubs. Monospecific stands of Buddleia impede access to rivers. Seedlings, which have superficial rooting, are easily carried away in floods and may form blockages, causing erosion of banks.
Management Info
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Buddleja davidii for Hawai‘i and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The alien plant screening system is derived from Pheloung et al. (1999) with minor modifications for use in Pacific islands (Daehler et al. 2004). The result is a score of 13 and a recommendation of: \"Likely to cause significant ecological or economic harm in Hawai‘i and on other Pacific Islands as determined by a high WRA score, which is based on published sources describing species biology and behaviour in Hawai‘i and/or other parts of the world.\"

\r\nBiological: Researchers in New Zealand are currently studying the possibility of biological control with the coleopter Cleopus japonicus. \r\n

\r\nIntegrated management: Management methods such as digging it out are applicable only to minor infestations at the initial stage of invasion. Cutting inflorescences before they bear fruit is a preventative technique, which makes it possible to limit the production of the seeds. Disturbances caused by uprooting young Buddleia shrubs actually assist its development. After uprooting, planting alternative species is recommended. It is necessary to remove uprooted plants which can grow as cuttings. When it is cut, Buddleia grows back from the stump very vigorously. Cutting must be carried out at the base of the seedling and be accompanied by an immediate white-washing of the stump with a systemic weedkiller.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Buddleja davidii
NATIVE RANGE
  • china
Informations on Buddleja davidii has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Buddleja davidii in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Dense infestations of Buddleia compete with indigenous vegetation of rivers and impede the growth and reproduction of other species of trees and shrubs. Monospecific stands of Buddleia impede access to rivers. Seedlings, which have superficial rooting, are easily carried away in floods and may form blockages, causing erosion of banks.
Red List assessed species 0:
Management information
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Buddleja davidii for Hawai‘i and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The alien plant screening system is derived from Pheloung et al. (1999) with minor modifications for use in Pacific islands (Daehler et al. 2004). The result is a score of 13 and a recommendation of: \"Likely to cause significant ecological or economic harm in Hawai‘i and on other Pacific Islands as determined by a high WRA score, which is based on published sources describing species biology and behaviour in Hawai‘i and/or other parts of the world.\"

\r\nBiological: Researchers in New Zealand are currently studying the possibility of biological control with the coleopter Cleopus japonicus. \r\n

\r\nIntegrated management: Management methods such as digging it out are applicable only to minor infestations at the initial stage of invasion. Cutting inflorescences before they bear fruit is a preventative technique, which makes it possible to limit the production of the seeds. Disturbances caused by uprooting young Buddleia shrubs actually assist its development. After uprooting, planting alternative species is recommended. It is necessary to remove uprooted plants which can grow as cuttings. When it is cut, Buddleia grows back from the stump very vigorously. Cutting must be carried out at the base of the seedling and be accompanied by an immediate white-washing of the stump with a systemic weedkiller.

Locations
FRANCE
ISLE OF MAN
NEW ZEALAND
SAINT HELENA
Management Category
Control
Bibliography
12 references found for Buddleja davidii

Managment information
Alien Plants in Ireland, 2007. Buddleja davidii
Summary: The database of alien plants in Ireland contains detailed information on 715 alien plant taxa currently occurring in (semi-) natural habitats in Ireland (both the Republic and Northern-Ireland). This database was developed in 2006 at the School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, as part of the BioChange project, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Ireland.
Available from: http://www.biochange.ie/alienplants/index.php [Accessed April 26 2007]
This page available from: http://www.biochange.ie/alienplants/result_species.php?species=695&volg=i&lang=latin&p=i [Accessed 26 April 2007]
AME, 2005 Agence M�diterran�enne de l Environnement. Plantes Envahissantes de la Region Mediterraneenne. Buddleja davidii
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Paterson, J.P.H. 2000. Buddleja davidii Franchet (Loganiaceae)
Summary: Available from: http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/docs/web-bud.htm [Accessed 20 January 2005, ]
PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk). 2004. Buddleja davidii Franch., Buddlejaceae.
Summary: Ecology, synonyms, common names, distributions (Pacific as well as global), management and impact information.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/buddleja_davidii.htm [Accessed 20 January 2005]
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
General information
Richard, S. 1996. Invasive Plants: Weeds of the Global Garden. In Randall, J.M. and Marinelli, J. (eds). Brooklyn Botanic Garden Handbook: 149.
Smith, A.C. 1991. Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new Flora of Fiji. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii, National Tropical Botanical Garden 5: 74.
Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. and Sohmer, S.H. 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai`i: 415. University of Hawai`i Press: Honolulu.
Contact
The following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Buddleja davidii
Brunel,
Sarah
Organization:
Conservatoire Botanique National M�diterran�en de Porquerolles
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