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  • Achatina fulica shell (Photo credit: T.A. Burch and R.H. Cowie)
  • Achatina fulica shell (Photo credit: T.A. Burch and R.H. Cowie)
  • Achatina fulica live (Photo credit: D.J. Preston)
  • Achatina fulica live (Photo credit: D.J. Preston)
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Common name
Afrikanische Riesenschnecke (German), giant African snail (English), giant African land snail (English)
Synonym
Lissachatina fulica , (Bowdich 1822)
Similar species
Summary
Achatina fulica feeds on a wide variety of crop plants and may present a threat to local flora. Populations of this pest often crash over time (20 to 60 years) and this should not be percieved as effectiveness of the rosy wolfsnail (Euglandina rosea) as a biocontrol agent. Natural chemicals from the fruit of Thevetia peruviana have activity against A. fulica and the cuttings of the alligator apple (Annona glabra) can be used as repellent hedges against A. fulica.
Species Description
Achatina fulica has a narrow, conical shell, which is twice as long as it is wide and contains 7 to 9 whorls when fully grown. The shell is generally reddish-brown in colour with weak yellowish vertical markings but colouration varies with environmental conditions and diet. A light coffee colour is common. Adults of the species may exceed 20cm in shell length but generally average about 5 to 10cm. The average weight of the snail is approximately 32 grams (Cooling 2005).

Please see PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) Species Content Page Non-insects Giant African Snail for high quality diagnostic and overview images.

Notes
The Achatinidae gastropod family is native to Africa. The family is represented by about 200 species in 13 genera (Raut & Barker 2002). Several species of Achatinidae have attained pest status within their native range when the habitat has been anthropomorphically modified as a crop system including A. fulica (Raut & Barker 2002). Within the Achatinidae , four species are classified as giant African snails: Achatina achatina, A. fulica, Archachatina marginata, and Limicolaria aurora (Smith and Fowler 2003, in Venette & Larson 2004).

Some island systems appear to be resistant to invasion by A. fulica. The low abundance of A. fulica on some Pacific atolls may be due to the sandy soils and predation by hermit crabs (Coenobita perlatus and Birgus latro) (Schotman 1989, in Raut & Barker 2002). The omnivorous crab Gecarcoidea natalis provides biotic resistance to invasion by A. fulica on Christmas Island (Lake and O’Dowd 1991, in Raut & Barker 2002).

Meyer and Shiels (2009) hypothesise that reduction or eradication of Rattus rattus populations may cause an ecological release of some nonindigenous snail species where these groups coexist. As such, effective restoration for native snails and plants may not be realised after R. rattus removal in forest ecosystems as a consequence of the complex interactions that currently exist among rats, nonindigenous snails, and the rest of the food web.

Lifecycle Stages
Eggs hatch in anything from a few hours to 17 days. Snails mature at around 5 to 15 months, depending on the temperature (with cold winter temperatures inducing hibernation and delaying sexual maturity). Achatina fulica lifespan can be up to 9 years, with 5-6 years being the norm (Mead 1961) (Raut and Barker 2002).
Uses
A. fulica has an economic importance as a medicinal and protein source (Muniappan 1990). With the emergence of Achtinidae as a tradable edible product captive breeding has been established for various species including A. fulica around the world (Mead 1982, Upatham et al. 1988, Runham 1989, Monney 1994, in Raut & Barker 2002). Considerable amounts of Achatina meat are exported to Europe and America from Taiwan, China and other Asian countries (Mead 1982, in Raut & Barker 2002). Interest in A. fulica as an edible snail has lead to its establishment in regions of Brazil, such as Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Parana and Santa Catarina (Teles et al. 1997, J. Coltro pers. comm. 2000, in Raut & Barker 2002). In addition to farming for meat, several species of Achatinidae, including A. fulica, are maintained in temperate regions outside Africa as laboratory animals (eg: Nisbet 1974, Plummer 1975, in Raut & Barker 2002).
Habitat Description
All of the countries in which Achatina fulica is established have tropical climates with warm, mild year-round temperatures and high humidity (Venette and Larson 2004). The species occurs in agricultural areas, coastal areas and wetlands, disturbed areas, natural and planted forests, riparian zones, scrublands and shrublands, and urban areas (Moore 2005). These snails thrive in forest edge, modified forest, and plantation habitats (Raut and Barker 2002). Wherever it occurs, the snail keeps to the hot lowlands and the warm temperate lower slopes of the mountains. It needs temperatures well above freezing year round, and high humidity at least during part of the year, the drier months being spent in dormant aestivation. It is killed by sunshine (Venette and Larson 2004). A. fulica remains active at a temperature range of 9°C to 29°C, and survives temperatures of 2°C by hibernation and 30°C by aestivation (Smith and Fowler 2003).
Reproduction
Achatina fulica is an obligate-outcrossing hermaphrodite, which means that one externally fertilised snail can establish a population (Smith and Fowler 2003). . A. fulica produces large eggs that are 4.5mm to 5.5mm in diameter and only hatch at temperatures above 15°C (Srivastava et al. 1985). Snails begin laying eggs at six months of age and fecundity lasts approximately 400 days (Smith and Fowler 2003). Snails lay up to 100 eggs in their first year, and up to 500 in their second year; fecundity declines after the second year, but snails may live up to five years with a total egg clutch of up to 1 000 (Raut and Barker 2002).
Nutrition
Achatinidae are generally regarded as herbivores, feeding primarily on living and decaying vascular plant matter (Raut & Barker 2002). The location of food by A. fulica is powered by its sense of smell, being mainly attracted to garden crops (Farkas & Shorey 1976, Gallois & Daguzan 1989, in Albuquerque et al. 2008) and species used as refuge needs. Van Well (1948 1949, in Raut & Barker 2002) reported that young A. fulica feed on decaying matter and unicellular algae. The major requirement of hatchlings is calcium until their shell reaches the 5mm size (Mead 1961, Mead 1979). Animals with shells between 5 and 30 mm in height were observed to prefer living plants (Raut & Barker 2002). Although not entirely neglecting living vegetation, the maturing snails were found to largely return to a scavenging detritivorous habitat (Raut & Barker 2002). While A.. fulica is mainly vegetarian there is recent evidence that it can also act as a predator of other snails (Meyer et al. 2008, in ).

Achatina fulica has a remarkably broad range of host plants on which it feeds. Young A. fulica appear to prefer soft textured banana (Musa), bean (Beta vulgaris) and marigold (Tagetes patula). As the snail matures its dietary preferences broaden to include a larger variety of plants, including brinjal (Solanum melongena), cabbage and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea v. capitata and botrytis), lady’s finger (Abelmoschus esculentus), sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), papaya (Carica papaya), cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and peas (Pisum sativum) (Raut & Ghara 1989).

Pathway
There is a huge risk of the giant African snail (Achatina fulica) being spread and introduced into new locations via trade routes. It is frequently moved with agricultural products, equipment, cargo and plant or soil matter. The snails ability to store sperm is a distinct advantage and could enable a founding population to form from just one individual.Targeting risk industries such as nurseries, farmers markets, vehicle depots is important to prevent long distance spread of the snail.Achatina fulica may be accidentally associated with commerce.Achatina fulica has been introduced to new locations for ornamental purposes (Thiengo et al. 2007).Achatina fulica may be spread to new locations as a novelty fauna addition.Snails may be inadvertently transported with personal belongings.Achatina fulica has been introduced to new locations as a novelty pet (Thiengo et al. 2007).Achatina fulica may attach itself to vehicles and be spread in this way.Small snails and eggs may be inadvertently transported with agricultural, horticultural, and other commercial products and the containers they are shipped in (Thiengo et al. 2007).Accidental transport with military equipment may be important (Mead 1961, in Thiengo et al. 2007). Much of the later spread of A. fulica was related to Japanese activities in the years leading up to and during World War II (Thiengo et al<

Principal source: Raut & Barker 2002

Compiler: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
Updates on management information with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review: Review of updates under progress.
Dr. Robert H. Cowie, Center for Conservation Research and Training, University of Hawaii

Publication date: 2010-03-02

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Achatina fulica. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=64 on 28-08-2016.

General Impacts
For a detailed account of the environmental impacts of A. fulica please read: Achatina fulica (Giant African Land Snail) Impacts Information. The information in this document is summarised below.

Achatina fulica is considered one of the worst snail pests of tropic and subtropic regions. While their small size limits the quantity of plant material consumed per animal the aggregated nature of the infestations can lead to severe damage in infested plants (Raut & Barker 2002). The process of naturalisation may ameliorate the impacts of this invasive species. Mead (1979a) expressed the opinion that “...the phenomenon of decline in populations of Achatina fulica appears to be inevitable”.

Agricultural: In tropical agriculture the cost of A. fulica is fourfold. First there is the loss of crop yield caused by herbivory. Secondly, damage may be caused by the spread of disease through the transmission of plant pathogens. Thirdly, there is the cost associated with the control of the pest and, finally, there are the opportunities lost with enforced changes in agricultural practice such as limiting crops to be grown in a region to those resistant to snail infestation (Raut & Barker 2002).
For a list of “Economically important plants recorded as being subject to losses through damage by Achatina fulica Bowdich (Achatinidae) in regions outside of Africa” please see the full Impacts document. Irrespective of crop the seedling or nursery stage is the most vulnerable stage. In more mature plants the nature of the damage varies with the species, sometimes involving defoliation and in others involving damage to the stems, flowers or fruits (Raut & Barker 2002).

Economic/Livelihoods: In the US state of Florida it has been estimated that A. fulica would have caused an annual loss of USD 11 million in 1969 if its population had not been controlled (USDA 1982). In India it attained serious pest status, particularly in 1946/1947, when it appeared in epidemic proportions in Orissa and caused severe damage to vegetable crops and rice paddies (Pallewatta et al. 2002).

Disease Transmission: A. fulica distributes in its faeces spores of Phytophthora palmivora in Ghana; P. palmivora is the cause of black pod disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao); the oomycete which also infects black pepper, coconut, papaya and vanilla (Raut & Barker 2002). A. fulica spreads P. colocasiae in taro and P. parasitica in aubergine (Solanum melongena) and tangerine (Citrus reticulata) (Mead 1961 1979a, Turner 1964 1967, Muniappan 1983, Schotman 1989).

Ecosystem Change:Costs to the natural environment may include (Raut & Barker 2002) herbivory; altered nutrient cycling associated with large volumes of plant material that pass through the achatinid gut; adverse effects on indigenous gastropods that may arise through competition; and indirect adverse effects on indigenous gastropods that may arise through control of the snail (eg: biological control with the rosy wolfsnail (Euglandina rosea) or use of chemical pesticides applied against achatinids.

Human nuisance: A. fulica are also a general nuisance when found near human habitations and can be hazardous to drivers, causing cars to skid. Their decaying bodies release a bad odor and the calcium carbonate in their shells neutralises acid soils, altering soil properties and the types of plants that can grow in the soil (Mead 1961).

Human health: In many Asian, Pacific and American societies A. fulica may play a role in the transmission of the metastrongylus causative agents of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis (Angiostrongulus cantonensis and A. costaricensis).

Management Info
For a detailed account of management strategies A. fulica please read: Achatina fulica (Giant African Land Snail) Management Information. The information in this document is summarised below.

Preventative Measures: As there is a high risk of Achatina fulica being spread via trade routes there is potential to prevent its spread through international quarantine and surveillance activities. Small incipient populations of A. fulica have been eradicated at various times from California, USA; Florida, USA; Queensland, Australia; Fiji; Samoa; Vanuatu and Wake Island (Abbott 1949, Mead 1961 1979a, Colman 1977 1978, Muniappan 1982, Waterhouse & Norris 1987, Watson 1985, in Raut & Barker 2002). Control costs can range from USD 60 000 dollars for a 7-month procedure, to over USD 700 000 dollars for the eradication in Florida (Muniappan et al. 1986, Smith and Fowler 2003). For the few species in which spontaneous collapse has been repeatedly observed such as A. fulica, the possibility of such an event is warranted as a potential rationale for a do-nothing approach to management (Simberloff & Gibbons 2004).

Physical Control: Collection and destruction of the snails and their eggs has been reported to be effective in Guam, Hawaii, Japan and Sri Lanka, Australia, USA (Peterson 1957c, Mead 1961 1979a, Olson 1973, Colman 1977, in Raut & Barker 2002). Physical barriers that prevent movement of snails include the use of a strip of bare soil around the crop, a fence that consists of a screen of corrugated tin or security wire mesh.

Chemical control: Metaldehyde and/or calcium arsenate were used in early attempts to control A. fulica. A number of new molluscicidal chemicals are now available. The principal toxic effect of metaldehyde is through stimulation of the mucous glands, which cause excessive sliming, leading to death by dehydration; metaldehyde is toxic to slugs and snails both by ingestion and absorption by the ‘foot’ of the mollusk (Prasad et al. 2004). Sodium chloride (common table salt) is an effective dehydrating agent (Prasad et al. 2004). Various molluscicides like metaldehyde are non-selective, thus their use has a chance of endangering the survival of non-target snails, including endemic fauna (Prasad et al. 2004). Please see section 2.1.3 of Barker and Watts (2002) for information on the application of molluscicides.

There is much interest in naturally occurring chemicals as molluscicides. Panigrahi and Raut (1994, in Raut & Barker 2002) have demonstrated that an extract of the fruit of Thevetia peruviana has activity against A. fulica. Prasad and colleagues (2004) found natural softwood cutting fences made of alligator apple (Annona glabra) acted as snail repellents to protect the nursery beds.

Biological Control: rosy wolfsnail (Euglandina rosea) has been introduced throughout much of the introduced range of A. fulica in “biological control programmes” (Mead 1961, Tillier & Clarke 1983, Murray et al., 1988, in Gerlach 2001). The failure of these programmes and the devastating effect that E. rosea has had on many indigenous species is well known (Tillier & Clarke 1983, Clarke, Murray & Johnson 1984, Hadfield 1986, Murray et al. 1988, Cowie 1992, Pearce-Kelly, Clarke & Mace 1994, Coote et al. 1999 2000, in Gerlach 2001). Generalist predators such as E. rosea, Gonaxis quadrilateralis and Platydemus manokwari continue to be dispersed to new areas in misguided attempts to control this invasive gastropod.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Achatina fulica
Informations on Achatina fulica has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Achatina fulica in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
For a detailed account of the environmental impacts of A. fulica please read: Achatina fulica (Giant African Land Snail) Impacts Information. The information in this document is summarised below.

Achatina fulica is considered one of the worst snail pests of tropic and subtropic regions. While their small size limits the quantity of plant material consumed per animal the aggregated nature of the infestations can lead to severe damage in infested plants (Raut & Barker 2002). The process of naturalisation may ameliorate the impacts of this invasive species. Mead (1979a) expressed the opinion that “...the phenomenon of decline in populations of Achatina fulica appears to be inevitable”.

Agricultural: In tropical agriculture the cost of A. fulica is fourfold. First there is the loss of crop yield caused by herbivory. Secondly, damage may be caused by the spread of disease through the transmission of plant pathogens. Thirdly, there is the cost associated with the control of the pest and, finally, there are the opportunities lost with enforced changes in agricultural practice such as limiting crops to be grown in a region to those resistant to snail infestation (Raut & Barker 2002).
For a list of “Economically important plants recorded as being subject to losses through damage by Achatina fulica Bowdich (Achatinidae) in regions outside of Africa” please see the full Impacts document. Irrespective of crop the seedling or nursery stage is the most vulnerable stage. In more mature plants the nature of the damage varies with the species, sometimes involving defoliation and in others involving damage to the stems, flowers or fruits (Raut & Barker 2002).

Economic/Livelihoods: In the US state of Florida it has been estimated that A. fulica would have caused an annual loss of USD 11 million in 1969 if its population had not been controlled (USDA 1982). In India it attained serious pest status, particularly in 1946/1947, when it appeared in epidemic proportions in Orissa and caused severe damage to vegetable crops and rice paddies (Pallewatta et al. 2002).

Disease Transmission: A. fulica distributes in its faeces spores of Phytophthora palmivora in Ghana; P. palmivora is the cause of black pod disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao); the oomycete which also infects black pepper, coconut, papaya and vanilla (Raut & Barker 2002). A. fulica spreads P. colocasiae in taro and P. parasitica in aubergine (Solanum melongena) and tangerine (Citrus reticulata) (Mead 1961 1979a, Turner 1964 1967, Muniappan 1983, Schotman 1989).

Ecosystem Change:Costs to the natural environment may include (Raut & Barker 2002) herbivory; altered nutrient cycling associated with large volumes of plant material that pass through the achatinid gut; adverse effects on indigenous gastropods that may arise through competition; and indirect adverse effects on indigenous gastropods that may arise through control of the snail (eg: biological control with the rosy wolfsnail (Euglandina rosea) or use of chemical pesticides applied against achatinids.

Human nuisance: A. fulica are also a general nuisance when found near human habitations and can be hazardous to drivers, causing cars to skid. Their decaying bodies release a bad odor and the calcium carbonate in their shells neutralises acid soils, altering soil properties and the types of plants that can grow in the soil (Mead 1961).

Human health: In many Asian, Pacific and American societies A. fulica may play a role in the transmission of the metastrongylus causative agents of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis (Angiostrongulus cantonensis and A. costaricensis).

Red List assessed species 1: CR = 1;
View more species View less species
Locations
AMERICAN SAMOA
ANGUILLA
BRAZIL
COTE D'IVOIRE
ECUADOR
FRENCH POLYNESIA
GHANA
GUAM
INDIA
INDONESIA
JAPAN
MADAGASCAR
MALAYSIA
MAURITIUS
NEPAL
NEW CALEDONIA
NEW ZEALAND
NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS
PAPUA NEW GUINEA
PHILIPPINES
REUNION
SINGAPORE
SRI LANKA
TAIWAN
TANZANIA, UNITED REPUBLIC OF
THAILAND
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
UNITED STATES
VENEZUELA
Mechanism
[10] Competition
[3] Predation
[4] Disease transmission
[29] Grazing/Herbivory/Browsing
Outcomes
[14] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [12] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [1] Unspecified ecosystem modification
  • [1] Habitat or refugia replacement/loss
[2] Environmental Species - Population
  • [1] Reduces/inhibits the growth of other species
  • [1] Plant/animal health
[36] Socio-Economic
  • [25] Damage to agriculture
  • [3] Human health
  • [3] Human nuisance 
  • [5] Damage to ornamentals
Management information
For a detailed account of management strategies A. fulica please read: Achatina fulica (Giant African Land Snail) Management Information. The information in this document is summarised below.

Preventative Measures: As there is a high risk of Achatina fulica being spread via trade routes there is potential to prevent its spread through international quarantine and surveillance activities. Small incipient populations of A. fulica have been eradicated at various times from California, USA; Florida, USA; Queensland, Australia; Fiji; Samoa; Vanuatu and Wake Island (Abbott 1949, Mead 1961 1979a, Colman 1977 1978, Muniappan 1982, Waterhouse & Norris 1987, Watson 1985, in Raut & Barker 2002). Control costs can range from USD 60 000 dollars for a 7-month procedure, to over USD 700 000 dollars for the eradication in Florida (Muniappan et al. 1986, Smith and Fowler 2003). For the few species in which spontaneous collapse has been repeatedly observed such as A. fulica, the possibility of such an event is warranted as a potential rationale for a do-nothing approach to management (Simberloff & Gibbons 2004).

Physical Control: Collection and destruction of the snails and their eggs has been reported to be effective in Guam, Hawaii, Japan and Sri Lanka, Australia, USA (Peterson 1957c, Mead 1961 1979a, Olson 1973, Colman 1977, in Raut & Barker 2002). Physical barriers that prevent movement of snails include the use of a strip of bare soil around the crop, a fence that consists of a screen of corrugated tin or security wire mesh.

Chemical control: Metaldehyde and/or calcium arsenate were used in early attempts to control A. fulica. A number of new molluscicidal chemicals are now available. The principal toxic effect of metaldehyde is through stimulation of the mucous glands, which cause excessive sliming, leading to death by dehydration; metaldehyde is toxic to slugs and snails both by ingestion and absorption by the ‘foot’ of the mollusk (Prasad et al. 2004). Sodium chloride (common table salt) is an effective dehydrating agent (Prasad et al. 2004). Various molluscicides like metaldehyde are non-selective, thus their use has a chance of endangering the survival of non-target snails, including endemic fauna (Prasad et al. 2004). Please see section 2.1.3 of Barker and Watts (2002) for information on the application of molluscicides.

There is much interest in naturally occurring chemicals as molluscicides. Panigrahi and Raut (1994, in Raut & Barker 2002) have demonstrated that an extract of the fruit of Thevetia peruviana has activity against A. fulica. Prasad and colleagues (2004) found natural softwood cutting fences made of alligator apple (Annona glabra) acted as snail repellents to protect the nursery beds.

Biological Control: rosy wolfsnail (Euglandina rosea) has been introduced throughout much of the introduced range of A. fulica in “biological control programmes” (Mead 1961, Tillier & Clarke 1983, Murray et al., 1988, in Gerlach 2001). The failure of these programmes and the devastating effect that E. rosea has had on many indigenous species is well known (Tillier & Clarke 1983, Clarke, Murray & Johnson 1984, Hadfield 1986, Murray et al. 1988, Cowie 1992, Pearce-Kelly, Clarke & Mace 1994, Coote et al. 1999 2000, in Gerlach 2001). Generalist predators such as E. rosea, Gonaxis quadrilateralis and Platydemus manokwari continue to be dispersed to new areas in misguided attempts to control this invasive gastropod.

Locations
ANGUILLA
BERMUDA
BRAZIL
COTE D'IVOIRE
ECUADOR
FRENCH POLYNESIA
GHANA
GUAM
INDIA
JAPAN
MADAGASCAR
MAURITIUS
MICRONESIA, FEDERATED STATES OF
NEPAL
NEW CALEDONIA
NEW ZEALAND
PAPUA NEW GUINEA
REUNION
SAMOA
SEYCHELLES
TAIWAN
TUVALU
UNITED STATES
UNITED STATES MINOR OUTLYING ISLANDS
VANUATU
Management Category
Eradication
Control
None
Unknown
Bibliography
48 references found for Achatina fulica

Managment information
Barker, M. Gary and Corinne Watts., 2002. Management of the invasive alien snail Cantareus aspersus on conservation land DOC SCIENCE INTERNAL SERIES 31
Summary: Available from: http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/DSIS31.pdf [Accessed 7 March 2008]
Borrero, F.J., A.S.H. Breure, C.C. Christensen, M. Correoso & V.M. Avila. 2009. Into the Andes: Three new Introductions of Lissachatina fulica (Gastropoda, Achatinidae) and its Potential Distribution in South America, Tentacle 17.
Budha, P.B. & F. Naggs. 2008. The Giant African Land Snail Lissachatina fulica (Bowdich) in Nepal, The Malacologist 50: 19.
Summary: Available from: http://www.malacsoc.org.uk/The_Malacologist/BULL50/Budha.htm [Accessed 16 February 2010]
Civeyrel, L. and Simberloff, D. 1996. A tale of two snails: is the cure worse than the disease? Biodiversity and Conservation 5: 1231-1252.
Summary: A discussion of the introduction of predatory snails (notably Euglandina rosea), in putative attempts to control A. fulica. The devastating consequences on native land snail diversity, especially in the islands of the Pacific.
Connor, R.A. 2007. The Case of Achatina fulica and its impact in Anguilla, In: Anguilla Invasive Species workshop report.
Cooling, V. 2005. Risk Assessment of the Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica) Bowdich in New Zealand. LPSC 7700 Integrative Report. Unitec New Zealand (Unpublished Report)
Cowie, R. H. 2000. Non-indigenous land and freshwater molluscs in the islands of the Pacific: conservation impacts and threats. In G. Sherley (ed.) Invasive species in the Pacific: a technical review and regional strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa: 143-172.
Summary: Discusses the conservation related impacts of the introduction of alien land and freshwater snails and slugs to the islands of the Pacific. Provides details of the main alien species of concern, identifies islands most at risk and islands on which to focus conservation efforts. Lists distribution details for all alien snails and slugs in the Pacific.
Cowie, R. H. 2001. Can snails ever be effective and safe biocontrol agents?. International Journal of Pest Management 47: 23-40.
Summary: Discusses the use of land and freshwater snails as biological control agents against other snails and against aquatic weeds. Recommends snails not be used for biocontrol.
Craze, P.G. & J.R. Mauremootoo. 2002. A Test of Methods for Estimating Population Size of the Invasive Land Snail Achatina fulica in Dense Vegetation, Journal of Applied Ecology 39(4): 653-660.
Desinfesta��o e Controle do Caramujo Africano. Undated.
Summary: Text in Portuguese. Basic translation available.
Hoddle, M.S. 2004. Restoring Balance: Using Exotic Species to Control Invasive Exotic Species, Conservation Biology 18(1): 38-49.
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Mead, A. R. 1961. The giant African snail: a problem in economic malacology. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.
Summary: Major treatise on the worldwide spread of A. fulica, its impacts, and management.
Mead, A. R. 1979. Pulmonates volume 2B. Economic malacology with particular reference to Achatina fulica. London, Academic Press.
Summary: Update of Mead 1961.
Meyer, W.M. & A.B. Shiels. 2009. Black Rat (Rattus rattus) Predation on Nonindigenous Snails in Hawai�i: Complex Management Implications, Pacific Science 63(3): 339-347.
Prasad, G.S., D.R. Singh, S. Senani & R.P. Medhi. 2004. Eco-friendly way to keep away pestiferous Giant African snail, Achatina fulica Bowdich from nursery beds, Current Science 87(12).
Raut, S.K. & G.M. Barker. 2002. Achatina fulica Bowdich and Other Achatinidae as Pests in Tropical Agriculture. In: Barker (Ed.) Molluscs as Crop Pests. CABI.
Simberloff, D.& L. Gibbons. 2004. Now you See them, Now you don t! � Population Crashes of Established Introduced Species, Journal Biological Invasions 6(2): 161-172.
Thiengo, S.C., F.A. Faraco, N.C. Salgado, R.H. Cowie & M.A. Fernandez. 2007. Rapid spread of an invasive snail in South America: the giant African snail, Achatina fulica, in Brasil, Biol Invasions 9: 693-702.
Venette, R.C. & M. Larson. 2004. Mini Risk Assessment Giant African Snail, Achatina fulica Bowdich [Gastropoda: Achatinidae]
Summary: Available from: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/pest_detection/downloads/pra/afulicapra.pdf [Accessed 17 February 2010]
Walker, K. 2006. Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica) Pest and Diseases Image Library. Updated on 13/02/2006 9:44:47 AM.
Summary: PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) is a Commonwealth Government initiative, developed and built by Museum Victoria s Online Publishing Team, with support provided by DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry) and PHA (Plant Health Australia), a non-profit public company. Project partners also include Museum Victoria, the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and the Queensland University of Technology. The aim of the project is: 1) Production of high quality images showing primarily exotic targeted organisms of plant health concern to Australia. 2) Assist with plant health diagnostics in all areas, from initial to high level. 3) Capacity building for diagnostics in plant health, including linkage developments between training and research organisations. 4) Create and use educational tools for training undergraduates/postgraduates. 5) Engender public awareness about plant health concerns in Australia. PaDIL is available from : http://www.padil.gov.au/aboutOverview.aspx, this page is available from: http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=228 [Accessed 6 October 2006]
General information
Albuquerque, F.S., M.C. Peso-Aguiar, M.J.T. Assun��o-Albuquerque. 2008. Distribution, feeding behavior and control strategies of the exotic land snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in the northeast of Brazil, Braz. J. Biol. 68(4).
Alicata, J.E. 1966. The presence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in islands of the Indian Ocean and probable role of the giant African snail, Achatina fulica in dispersal of the parasite to the Pacific Islands, Can. J. Zool. 44(6): 1041-1049.
Callil, C. pers. comm. 2003. Re: [Aliens-L] economic effects of invasives (Email)
Cowie, R.H. & A.C. Robinson. 2003. The decline of native Pacific island faunas: changes in status of the land snails of Samoa through the 20th century, Biological Conservation 110(1): 55-65.
Cowie, R.H. & J.A. Grant-Mackie. 2004. Land Snail Fauna of Mé Auré Cave (WMD007), Moindou, New Caledonia: Human Introductions and Faunal Change, Pacific Science 58(3): 447.
de Paiva Barcante, J.M., T.A. Barcante, S.R.C. Dias, W. dos Santos Lima. 2005. Occurrence of Achatina fulica Bowdich 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Achatinoidea) in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, Bol. Mus. Biol. Mello Leitao (N. Ser.) 18: 65-70.
de Vasconcellos, M.C. & E. Pile. 2001. Occurrence of Achatina fulica in the Vale do Para�ba, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, Rev. Sa�de P�blica 35(6).
Gargominy, O. (Ed.). 2003. Biodiversit� et conservation dans les collectivit�s fran�aises d outre-mer. Comit� fran�ais pour l UICN, Paris.
Summary: Synth�se sur la biodiversit� des �les fran�aises d outre-mer et les enjeux de conservation.
Available from: http://www.uicn.fr/Biodiversite-outre-mer-2003.html [Accessed 26 March 2008]
Gerlach, J. 2001. Predator, prey and pathogen interactions in introduced snail populations, Animal Conservation 4: 203-209.
Graeff-Teixeira, C. 2007. Expansion of Achatina fulica in Brazil and potential increased risk for Angiostrongyliasis, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 101 (8): Pages 743-744.
Griffiths, O. Florens, V. 2006. A field guide to the non-marine molluscs of the Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Rodrigues and R�union) and the Northern Dependencies of Mauritius. Bioculture Press, Mauritius
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2004. Online Database Achatina fulica
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=76978 [Accessed December 31 2004]
Kekauoha, W. 1966. Life history and population studies of Achatina fulica. The Nautilus 80: 3-10, 39-46.
Summary: Observations of fecundity, breeding season, growth rate, etc.
Kliks, M.M., K. Kroenke & J.M. Hardman. 1982. Eosinophilic Radiculomyeloencephalitis: An Angiostrongyliasis Outbreak in American Samoa Related to Ingestion of Achatina fulica Snails, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 31 (6): 1114-1122.
Louette, M. 1999. La faune terrestre de Mayotte. Annales du Mus�e Royal d Afrique Centrales (Sciences Zoologiques), 284: 1-248
Summary: Synth�se sur la faune terrestre de Mayotte
Martinez-Escarbassiere, R., E.O. Martinez & O. Castillo. 2008. Geographic distribution of Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica (Bowdich, 1882) (Gastropoda- Stylommatophora-Achatinidae) in Venezuela, Memoria 68(169): 93-106.
Meyer, W.M., K.A. Hayes & A.L. Meyer. 2008. Giant African snail, Achatina fulica, as a snail predator, American Malacological Bulletin 24(1): 117-119.
Mus�um national d Histoire naturelle [Ed]. 2005 . Achatina fulica Inventaire national du Patrimoine naturel
Summary: Base de donn�es en ligne sur le patrimoine naturel fran�ais.
Available from: http://inpn.mnhn.fr/isb/servlet/ISBServlet?action=Espece&typeAction=10&pageReturn=ficheEspeceDescription.jsp&numero_taxon=433017 [Accessed 26 March 2008]
Neuhauss, E., M. Fitarelli, J. Romanzini & C. Graeff-Teixeira. 2007. Low susceptibility of Achatina fulica from Brazil to infection with Angiostrongylus costaricensis and A. cantonensis, Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 102(1).
Ohbayashi, T., I. Okochi, H. Sato, T. Ono & S. Chiba. 2007. Rapid decline of endemic snails in the Ogasawara Islands, Western Pacific Ocean, Appl. Entomol. Zool. 42(3): 479-485.
Paraguay Biodiversidad -PyBio.org 2010. Gastropoda
Summary: Available from: http://www.pybio.org/?p=201 [Accessed 9 March 2010]
Simbiken, N. 2006. Personal Communication. Senior Entomologist, PNG Coffee Research Institute.
Summary: Email communication from PestNet.
Thiengo, S.C., M.A. Fernandeza, E.J.L. Torresb, P.M. Coelhoa & R.M. Lanfredib. 2008. First record of a nematode Metastrongyloidea (Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae) in Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica (Mollusca, Achatinidae) in Brazil, Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 98(1): 34-39.
Vermeij, G.J. 2005. Invasion and evolution: Why do herbivorous and carnivorous land snails invade but not originate on islands?, American Malacological Bulletin 20(1-2).
Contact
The following 7 contacts offer information an advice on Achatina fulica
Barthelat,
Fabien
Organization:
Assistant Technique Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature Initiative Cara�bes
Address:
C/O Parc National de Guadeloupe Habitation Beausoleil, Mont�ran 97120 Saint-Claude, Guadeloupe
Phone:
(+590) (0)590 80 86 00
Fax:
(+590) (0)590 80 05 46
Brescia,
Fabrice
Geographic region: Pacific
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Institut Agronomique n�o-Cal�donien
Address:
Institut Agronomique n�o-Cal�donien. Axe 2: Diversit�s biologique et fonctionnelle des �cosyst�mes.BP 73. 98 890 Pa�ta
Phone:
687 43 74 28
Fax:
Cowie,
Dr. Robert H.
Pacific biodiversity and nonmarine snails (land and freshwater).
Webpage
Organization:
University of Hawaii
Address:
Center for Conservation Research and Training,
University of Hawaii,
3050 Maile Way, Gilmore 409, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA
Phone:
+1 808 9564909
Fax:
(808) 956 2647/9608
Gargominy,
Olivier
Geographic region: Pacific, French Overseas Territories
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Mus�um National d Histoire Naturelle
Email:
Address:
Service du Patrimoine naturel, Mus�um National d Histoire Naturelle, Paris
Phone:
Fax:
Meyer,
Jean-Yves
Geographic region: Pacific, Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Expert in the botany of French Polynesia and the Pacific Islands, and has worked on ecology and biological control of Miconia calvescens in French Polynesia.
Organization:
D�l�gation � la Recherche
Address:
D�l�gation � la Recherche, Gouvernement de Polyn�sie fran�aise. B.P. 20981, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, Polyn�sie fran�aise
Phone:
689 47 25 60
Fax:
Murray,
Jim
Studies of Partula, including Achatina and Euglandina
Organization:
Department of Biology, University of Virginia
Address:
Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22901
Phone:
+1 434-982-5771
Fax:
Triolo,
Julien
Geographic region: Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Office National des For�ts
Address:
ONF. Domaine Forestier de la Providence, 97488 Saint Denis cedex
Phone:
692345283
Fax: