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  • Cinchona in the Fern-Sedge Zone of Santa Cruz island (Photo: Heinke J�ger)
  • Cinchona flowers in the Fern-Sedge Zone of Santa Cruz island (Photo: Heinke J�ger)
  • Cinchona flowers in the Fern-Sedge Zone of Santa Cruz island (Photo: Heinke J�ger)
  • Cinchona pubescens (Photo: Heinke J�ger)
  • Stand of Cinchona pubescens  (Photo: Heinke J�ger)
  • Chemical control of Cinchona pubescens  (Photo: Heinke J�ger)
  • Fruits of Cinchona pubescens (Photo: Heinke J�ger)
  • Cinchona pubescens seedlings (Photo: Jean-Yves Meyer, D�l�gation � la Recherche, Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia)
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Common name
Roter Chinarindenbaum (German), red cinchona (English), quinquina (French), cascarilla (Spanish, Ecuador), hoja ahumada (Spanish, Ecuador), hoja de zambo (Spanish, Ecuador), quinoa (Spanish, Ecuador), roja (Spanish, Ecuador), rosada (Spanish, Ecuador), quinine (English), chinarindenbaum (German), arbre à quinine (French)
Synonym
Cinchona chomeliana , (Weddell)
Cinchona cordifolia , (Mutis)
Cinchona decurrentifolia , (Pav�n in Howard)
Cinchona hirsuta , (Ruiz & Pav�
Cinchona lechleriana , (Schlechtendal)
Cinchona lutea , (Pav�n in Howard)
Cinchona microphylla , (Mutis ex Lamb)
Cinchona ovata , (Ruiz & Pav�
Cinchona pelalba , (Pav�n ex DC)
Cinchona pelletieriana , (Weddell)
Cinchona platyphylla , (Weddell)
Cinchona purpurascens , (Weddell)
Cinchona purpurea , (Ruiz & Pav�
Cinchona rosulenta , (Howard ex Weddell)
Cinchona rotundifolia , (Pav�n ex Lambert)
Cinchona rufinervis , (Weddell)
Cinchona succirubra , (Pav�n ex Klotzsch)
Similar species
Cinchona calisaya, Cinchona ledgeriana, Cinchona officinalis
Summary
Cinchona pubescens is a widely cultivated tropical forest tree which invades a variety of forest and non-forest habitats. It spreads by wind-dispersed seeds and vegetatively via multiple suckers up to several metres away from original tree once it is established. C. pubescens replaces and outshades native vegetation.
Species Description
Cinchona pubescens is a small to rather large tree up to 10m high. Its bark tends to turn reddish when cut. Leaves are shaped from broadly elliptic or oval to broadly oblong, are rather thin, conspicuously veined, somewhat pubescent beneath and turn red with age while persisting on the tree. Flowers are in large panicles, pink and fragrant (white to light pink in Galápagos); capsules ovoid fusiform, 2-3cm long, walls firm (PIER, 2002).
Lifecycle Stages
In the Galápagos, Cinchona pubescens flowers and fruits almost all year round with peak flowering from August to October and peak fruiting from December to March. Experiments have shown that seeds are viable in the soil for less than a year (Rentería, 2002).
Uses
The bark of Cinchona pubescens is used for extraction of quinine compounds.In Galápagos, poles from large trees are used for construction. However, it is not used to make boards (Heinke Jager, pers. Comm., 2005).
Habitat Description
In its native range in Ecuador, Cinchona pubescens grows in volcanic soil rich in organic matter but also in very rocky areas, where the roots are exposed to the air. It grows best in disturbed habitats, especially in areas where vegetation was burnt (Acosta-Solís 1945)
Reproduction
Cinchona pubescens spreads rapidly by wind-dispersed seeds. It grows fast (1-2m per year) and produces seed from the age of 4 years. C. Pubescens also produces suckers from roots, and re-sprouts readily from damaged stems. Enormous quantities of small seeds are produced. In Galápagos, saplings grow about 1 metre per year, adult trees however show less growth. Seed production has been observed in small trees of 1.8m height, 1.5cm DBH and 2 years old (H. Jäger, unpubl. Data). Experiments in Galápagos have shown that most seeds do not spread more than about 15m (rarely up to 30m) from the mother plant (Rentería 2002). Despite these findings, the actual distribution suggests a greater rate of spread, considering its original point distribution in 1946 and current distribution of 11000 ha, which represents a likely rate of expansion of 95m or more per year (assuming circular area of occupation).
Nutrition
Cinchona pubescens exhibits an association with arbuscular mycorrhizae. It grows well on acid volcanic soils.
Pathway
Introduced as a medicinal plant to Galapagos by private farmers, as cash crop.

Principal source: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk (PIER), 2002. Cinchona pubescens Vahl, Rubiaceae
Jean-Yves Meyer, Délégation à la Recherche, Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group
Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review:

Publication date: 2010-10-04

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Cinchona pubescens. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=63 on 24-08-2016.

General Impacts
Rapid spread, fast growth and growth habit (tree with dense canopy) of C. pubescens result in fast invasion and replacement of native vegetation in naturally treeless environments. Shrub and herb layers experience dramatic loss of species diversity, with very few species able to grow below canopy.
Management Info
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of \r\r\nCinchona pubescens for Hawai‘i and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The alien plant screening system is derived from Pheloung et al. (1999) with minor modifications for use in Pacific islands (Daehler et al. 2004). The result is a score of 9 and a recommendation of: \"Likely to cause significant ecological or economic harm in Hawai‘i and on other Pacific Islands as determined by a high WRA score, which is based on published sources describing species biology and behaviour in Hawai‘i and/or other parts of the world.\"

Physical: Manual methods, including felling adults and pulling out (\"grubbing\") of stumps and saplings, have mixed success. This option is reasonably effective if all roots greater than 2cm in diameter are removed. Removal of saplings is effective, but adult trees can resprout from cut stumps. De-barking is ineffective, even if bark removed from up to 1m of stem: bark regrows and repairs wound, and tree survives.

Chemical: Buddenhagen et al. (2004) undertook a review of control methods used to manage C. pubescens in the Galapagos National Park over three decades; a variety of herbicides and application methods were tested. The study found that a mixture of picloram and metsulfuron (240 and 15g ai/L, respectively) killed 73 to 100% of trees when applied to connecting machete cuts around the circumference of tree trunks (‘hack and squirt’) at concentrations of 5, 10 and 25% in water, with large trees requiring higher concentrations. The authors indicate that although this mixture was effective when applied using other methods, ‘hack and squirt’ was the least labour intensive. The authors suggest that this treatment plan could be used effectively in other locations like Hawaii and Tahiti where C. pubescens is invasive and being controlled.

The Weed Control Methods Handbook provides you with detailed information about the tools and techniques available for controlling invasive plants, or weeds, in natural areas. This Handbook is divided into eight chapters, covering a range of different control methods: manual, mechanical, promoting competition from native plants, grazing, biocontrol, herbicides, prescribed fire, solarization, flooding, and other, more novel, techniques. Each control method has advantages and disadvantages in terms of its effects against the target weed(s), impacts to untargeted plants and animals, risks to human health and safety, and costs.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Cinchona pubescens
ALIEN RANGE
NATIVE RANGE
  • bolivia
  • colombia
  • costa rica
  • ecuador
  • panama
  • peru
  • venezuela
Informations on Cinchona pubescens has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Cinchona pubescens in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Rapid spread, fast growth and growth habit (tree with dense canopy) of C. pubescens result in fast invasion and replacement of native vegetation in naturally treeless environments. Shrub and herb layers experience dramatic loss of species diversity, with very few species able to grow below canopy.
Red List assessed species 1: VU = 1;
View more species View less species
Mechanism
[2] Competition
Outcomes
[2] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [2] Unspecified ecosystem modification
[1] Environmental Species - Population
  • [1] Reduces/inhibits the growth of other species
Management information
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of \r\r\nCinchona pubescens for Hawai‘i and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The alien plant screening system is derived from Pheloung et al. (1999) with minor modifications for use in Pacific islands (Daehler et al. 2004). The result is a score of 9 and a recommendation of: \"Likely to cause significant ecological or economic harm in Hawai‘i and on other Pacific Islands as determined by a high WRA score, which is based on published sources describing species biology and behaviour in Hawai‘i and/or other parts of the world.\"

Physical: Manual methods, including felling adults and pulling out (\"grubbing\") of stumps and saplings, have mixed success. This option is reasonably effective if all roots greater than 2cm in diameter are removed. Removal of saplings is effective, but adult trees can resprout from cut stumps. De-barking is ineffective, even if bark removed from up to 1m of stem: bark regrows and repairs wound, and tree survives.

Chemical: Buddenhagen et al. (2004) undertook a review of control methods used to manage C. pubescens in the Galapagos National Park over three decades; a variety of herbicides and application methods were tested. The study found that a mixture of picloram and metsulfuron (240 and 15g ai/L, respectively) killed 73 to 100% of trees when applied to connecting machete cuts around the circumference of tree trunks (‘hack and squirt’) at concentrations of 5, 10 and 25% in water, with large trees requiring higher concentrations. The authors indicate that although this mixture was effective when applied using other methods, ‘hack and squirt’ was the least labour intensive. The authors suggest that this treatment plan could be used effectively in other locations like Hawaii and Tahiti where C. pubescens is invasive and being controlled.

The Weed Control Methods Handbook provides you with detailed information about the tools and techniques available for controlling invasive plants, or weeds, in natural areas. This Handbook is divided into eight chapters, covering a range of different control methods: manual, mechanical, promoting competition from native plants, grazing, biocontrol, herbicides, prescribed fire, solarization, flooding, and other, more novel, techniques. Each control method has advantages and disadvantages in terms of its effects against the target weed(s), impacts to untargeted plants and animals, risks to human health and safety, and costs.

Management Category
Prevention
Control
Unknown
Bibliography
26 references found for Cinchona pubescens

Managment information
Buddenhagen, C., and Y�nez, P. 2005. The cost of quinine Cinchona pubescens control on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. Galapagos Research 63:32-36.
Summary: Analysis of the cost of controlling the invasive quinine tree Cinchona pubescens Vahl in the highlands of Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos.
Buddenhagen, C.E., Renter�a, J.L., Gardener, M., Wilkinson, S.R., Soria M., Y�nez, P., Tye, A., and Valle, R. 2004. The Control of a Highly Invasive Tree Cinchona pubescens in Gal�pagos. Weed Technology 18:1194-1202. Weed Science Society of America, Lawrence, Kansas, USA.
Summary: A review of past efforts to control C. pubescens in the Galapagos Islands and a discussion on the results of a test of a variety of herbicides and selective application methods.
Daehler, C.C; Denslow, J.S; Ansari, S and Huang-Chi, K., 2004. A Risk-Assessment System for Screening Out Invasive Pest Plants from Hawaii and Other Pacific Islands. Conservation Biology Volume 18 Issue 2 Page 360.
Summary: A study on the use of a screening system to assess proposed plant introductions to Hawaii or other Pacific Islands and to identify high-risk species used in horticulture and forestry which would greatly reduce future pest-plant problems and allow entry of most nonpests.
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
J�ger, H. 1999. Impact of the introduced tree Cinchona pubescens Vahl on the native flora of the highlands of Santa Cruz Island (Galapagos Islands). Diplomarbeit, Univ. Oldenburg, Germany.
Summary: Evaluates the impact on native vegetation in the Miconia and Fern-sedge Zones. Reveals drastic reduction in species diversity under canopy of quinine trees, including severe effects on many endemic plant species.
PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk), 2002. Cinchona pubescens
Summary: Ecology, synonyms, common names, distributions (Pacific as well as global), management and impact information.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/cinchona_pubescens.htm [Accessed 5 February 2003].
Renter�a, Jorge Luis; Rachel Atkinson, Ana Mireya Guerrero, Johanna Mader 2006. Manual de Identification y Manejo de Malezas en las Islas Gal�pagos. Segunda edici�n, Fundaci�n Charles Darwin, Santa Cruz, Gal�pagos, Ecuador.
Summary: An illustrated guide providing practical information for the effective control of the worst invasive plant species in Galapagos. Designed for farmers and other land managers, it describes manual and chemical control methods. It also includes 8 species that are potential problems for Galapagos. Language: Spanish
Una gu�a con ilustraciones que provee informaci�n para el control efectivo de las peores plantas invasoras en Gal�pagos. Esta dise�ada para los agricultores y personas involucradas en conservaci�n. De una forma clara y simple se describe los m�todos de control manuales y qu�micos; tambi�n incluye 8 especies que potencialmente podr�an ser un problema para Gal�pagos. Lenguaje: Espa�ol.
Renteria, J. L. 2002. Ecolog�a y manejo de la cascarilla (Cinchona pubescens Vahl), en Santa Cruz, Galapagos. �rea Agropecuaria y de Recursos Naturales Renovables. Loja, Ecuador: Universidad Nacional de Loja. Pp. 1-89.
Summary: Gives information on the distribution, density, phenology, seed dispersal and seed longevity of C. pubescens in the Gal�pagos National Park and the agricultural zone. Furthermore, it gives results of chemical control experiments, using different control techniques and different herbicides.
Soria, M., Taylor, U., Tye, A. and Wilkinson, S. 2002. Identifaci�n y Manejo de melaxas en las islas Gal�pagos. Parque Nacional Gal�pagos y Fundaci�n Charles Darwin, Puerto Ayora, Gal�pagos, Ecuador.
Starr, F., Starr, K., and Loope, L. 2003. Cinchona pubescens. Report for the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/starr/hiplants/reports/html/cinchona_pubescens.htm
General information
Acosta-Solís, M. 1945. Las Cinchonas en el Ecuador. Flora 6, Instituto Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales, Quito, Ecuador, pp. 257.
Andersson, L. and Taylor, C. M. 1994. Rubiaceae-Cinchoneae-Coptosapelteae. Flora of Ecuador, part 50. Dept of Systematic Botany, University of Goteborg.
Summary: Revision of the group, identification keys, full descriptions and synonymy.
Florence J., Chevillotte H., Ollier C. & Meyer J.-Y. 2007. Cinchona pubescens Base de donn�es botaniques Nadeaud de l Herbier de la Polyn�sie fran�aise (PAP).
Summary: Base de donn�es sur le flore de Polyn�sie Fran�aise.
Available from: http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf/Selection_Taxonomie.php?id_tax=20156 [Accessed 26 March 2008]
Fosberg, F. R., Sachet, M. H. and Oliver, R. L. 1993. Flora of Micronesia. Part 5. Bignoniaceae-Rubiaceae. Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 81:54.
Hamann, O. 1974. Contributions to the flora and vegetation of the Galapagos Islands. III. Five new floristic records. Botanisk Notiser 127: 309-316.
Hamann, O. 1984. Changes and threats to the vegetation. In Perry R. (ed.) Key Environments: Galapago. Pergamon Press, Oxford: 115-131.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2004. Online Database Cinchona pubescens
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=501523 [Accessed December 31 2004]
Lawesson, J. E. 1990. Alien plants in the Galapagos Islands: A summary. Monogr. Sys. Bot. Missouri Botanical Garden 32: 15-20.
MacDonald, J. A. W., Ortiz, L. and Lawesson, J. E. 1988. The invasion of Highlands in Galapagos by the Red Quinine-tree Cinchona succirubra. Environmental Conservation 15: 215-220.
P�tard, P. 1964. Essais de culture d�arbres � quinquina � Tahiti. Rev. Int. Bot. Appl. and Agr. Trop., nov-d�c, pp. 289-290.
P�tard, P. 1986. Quelques plantes utiles de Polyn�sie fran�aise et raau Tahiti. Edition revue augment�e et illustr�e, Editions Haere Po No Tahiti, Papeete, pp. 287-293.
Shimizu, Y. 1997. Competitive relationships between tree species of Salesia (S. pedunculata, S. cordata, S. microcephala) and introduced plants (Cinchona succirubra, Psidium guava, Lantana camara) with reference to regeneration mechanism of Scalesia forests in the Galapagos Islands. Regional Views - Komazawa University Tokyo 11: 23-172.
Tomic, S. 2001. Chemical analysis of plants: The case of cinchona. Annals of Science 58: 287-309.
Vanquin, V. 2006. Ecologie et dynamique de l invasion de l arbre � quinine Cinchona pubescens (Rubiac�es) dans les for�ts humides de l �le de Tahiti (Polyn�sie fran�aise). Rapport de stage de licence 2006-2006. Universit� Paul Verlaine, Metz & D�l�gation � la Recherche, Papeete (Responsable scientifique : Dr. Jean-Yves MEYER).
Summary: Dissertation: Vanquin. V, on a study of the ecology and invasion dynamics of the quinine tree Cinchona pubescens in rainforests of Tahiti.
Contact
The following 5 contacts offer information an advice on Cinchona pubescens
Buddenhagen,
Chris
Chris s current employment involves weed control, pig control, rodent control, documentation of rare species distributions, fence building. All his work is documented in databases and GIS. His unpaid work involves writing up studies about invasive plant management done previously in the Galapagos Islands.
Organization:
Hawaii Invasive Species Council Coordinator
Address:
1151 Punchbowl Street, Room 325. Honolulu, HI 96813.
Phone:
808 587 4154
Fax:
J�ger,
Heinke
Heinke s main research focus is evaluating the impact of Cinchona pubescens (red quinine tree) on the native flora, soil and microclimate parameter of Santa Cruz Island, Gal�pagos, Ecuador. This also includes the impact of chemical and manual control of Cinchona pubescens on the native flora and an evaluation of methods applied.
Organization:
PhD. student (plant ecology) Technical University of Berlin
Address:
Technische Universit�t Berlin Institut f�r �kologie FG �kosystemkunde/Pflanzen�kologie Rothenburgstr.12 12165 Berlin Germany
Phone:
+ 49 (0) 30/ 314 71365
Fax:
+ 49 (0) 30/ 314 71355
Meyer,
Jean-Yves
Geographic region: Pacific, Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Expert in the botany of French Polynesia and the Pacific Islands, and has worked on ecology and biological control of Miconia calvescens in French Polynesia.
Organization:
D�l�gation � la Recherche
Address:
D�l�gation � la Recherche, Gouvernement de Polyn�sie fran�aise. B.P. 20981, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, Polyn�sie fran�aise
Phone:
689 47 25 60
Fax:
Triolo,
Julien
Geographic region: Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Office National des For�ts
Address:
ONF. Domaine Forestier de la Providence, 97488 Saint Denis cedex
Phone:
692345283
Fax:
Tye,
Alan
Head of Botany Dept., Charles Darwin Research Station
Study of rare and threatened taxa, as well as invasive control and eradication programmes
Organization:
Charles Darwin Research Station
Address:
AP 17-01-3891, Quito, Ecuador
Phone:
+593 5 526147
Fax:
+593 5 526651