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  • Ligustrum lucidum flowers (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service)
  • Ligustrum lucidum (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service)
  • Ligustrum lucidum (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr (USGS))
  • Ligustrum lucidum fruits (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service)
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Common name
glossy privet (English), tree privet (English), privet (English), large leaf privet (English), broadleaf privet (English), ligustrum privet (English)
Synonym
Faulia verrucosa , Raf.
Ligustrum esquirolii , H.Lev.
Ligustrum hookeri , Decne.
Ligustrum nepalense , Wall.var. glabrumHook.
Ligustrum roxburghii , Blume
Olea clavata , G.Don
Phillyrea paniculata , Roxb.
Visiania paniculata , (Roxb.)DC.
Esquirolia sinensis , H.Lev.
Ligustrum lucidum , Aiton f.var. esquirolii(H.Lev.) H.Lev.
Similar species
Cinnamomum camphora, Acmena smithii, Backhousia myrtifolia
Summary
Ligustrum lucidum (tree privet) is a native of Asia and has been introduced to many different locations, mainly for gardens and hedges. Its ability to grow in different habitats has made it an extremely noxious weed in several places, including Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Mozambique and some parts of Continental America.
Species Description
Tree privet is a fast-growing evergreen tree approximately 8m to 14m in height with a 8m to 12m spread. It has a dense canopy of bending branches composed of glossy green leaves which have narrow, translucent margins, (Gilman & Watson, 1993). Leaves are dark green, with a paler green undersurface. Flowers are produced in large clusters and are small, cream-coloured and strongly scented (Environment B.O.P). After pollination by insects fruits ripen into bunches of small, oblong, 1cm long, purplish black berries.
Both leaves and fruit are poisonous to humans, (South Coast Weeds, Eurobodalla Shire Council).
Uses
Since ancient times, ligustrum berries have been employed as a 'yin' tonic in traditional Chinese medicine. Ligustrum was used for a wide range of conditions, including premature aging and ringing in the ears, (FredMeyer, Health guide).
Habitat Description
L. lucidum survive easily in dry, moist, and wet forests, forest margins, forest remnants, farm hedgerows, shrublands, open areas, gardens, roadsides, wasteland, riverbanks, wetlands, coastal dunes and coastal cliffs, (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998, Batcher, 2000 and Auckland Regional Council, 1999). L. lucidum grows up to at least 6000 ft (2000m.) elevation in Hawai‘i, (PIER, 2002).
Reproduction
Flowering occurs in the summer months (varies depending on location). Strongly scented flowers attract pollinating insects, (Auckland Regional Council, 1999). The fruits ripen and are dispersed by frugiferous birds (PIER, 2002). Annual seed production is enormous. Root suckers can also come up after the parent plant is removed, (South Coast Weeds, Eurobodalla Shire Council).
Pathway
Introduced to New Zealand as ornamental plants and widely grown as hedging. (Auckland Regional Council, 1998)

Principal source: Pacific Island Ecosystem at Risk (PIER), 2004. Ligustrum spp.

Compiler: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Terrestrial and Freshwater Biodiversity Information System (TFBIS) Programme (Copyright statement)

Review: Expert review underway: Dr Richard Milne. University of St Andrews UK

Publication date: 2006-06-15

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2017) Species profile: Ligustrum lucidum. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=621 on 29-05-2017.

General Impacts
L. lucidum has the potential to replace mid-canopy trees in forests and completely dominate an area of forest or forest fragments if not controlled (New Zealand Weeds Web Site 1999, in Batcher, 2000). Tree privet often displaces native species in regenerating communities and if left undisturbed, may eventually dominate an area of forest (Auckland Regional Council, 1999). It is widely believed to contribute to allergies and asthma, though it does not produce any wind-blown pollen as the plant is insect-pollinated,, (Common Weeds of New Zealand).
Management Info
Physical: Small plants may be hand pulled; older individuals need to be dug out.

Chemical: For overall spray application, the following herbicides are suitable: Glyphosate (e.g. Roundup G2): knapsack: 100ml per 10 litres of water handgun: 1 litre per 100 litres of water NB: The addition of Pulse penetrant at a rate of 100ml per 100 litres water is recommended to improve herbicide uptake. Escort: knapsack: 5g per 10 litres of water handgun: 20g per 100 litres of water NB: The addition of Pulse, Boost or Freeway at 100ml per 100 litres of water will improve herbicide uptake. Tordon Brushkiller: knapsack: 100ml per 10 litres of water handgun: 1 litre per 100 litres of water. The stem cut and inject method is suitable for privet plants with a stem diameter of 50mm or more. Ring bark the base of the stem with downward axe/machete strokes, cutting into the sap wood. Apply herbicide to the point of runoff into each downward cut immediately after cuts have been made. Suitable herbicides and dilution rates for cut and inject treatment are: Glypohosate (e.g. Roundup G2): Use neat (i.e. undiluted) Escort: 20 g (+ 10ml Pulse penetrant) per litre of water Stump treatment Cut plant off about 50mm above ground level. Apply herbicide mixtures to top and sides of the stump. Pulse penetrant will aid uptake of the herbicide. Suitable herbicides and dilution rates for stump treatment of Privet are: Glyphosate: 2 litres (+10ml Pulse) per 10 litres of water Escort: 5g (+10ml Pulse) per 10 litres of water NB: Herbicide must be applied immediately after stumps have been cut. Herbicide is most effective when applied during Privet's active growing season - spring or autumn in fine weather. If using Escort, avoid use over or nearby desirable plants, or in areas where their roots may extend. (Environment B.O.P. 1998).

Biological: An investigation of possible biological control agents is under way on La Réunion. (Environment B.O.P. 1998)

Please see 'The Nature Conservancy's' Stewardship Abstract for detailed information on control methods.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Ligustrum lucidum
NATIVE RANGE
  • china
  • japan
  • korea, democratic people's republic of
  • korea, republic of
Informations on Ligustrum lucidum has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Ligustrum lucidum in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
L. lucidum has the potential to replace mid-canopy trees in forests and completely dominate an area of forest or forest fragments if not controlled (New Zealand Weeds Web Site 1999, in Batcher, 2000). Tree privet often displaces native species in regenerating communities and if left undisturbed, may eventually dominate an area of forest (Auckland Regional Council, 1999). It is widely believed to contribute to allergies and asthma, though it does not produce any wind-blown pollen as the plant is insect-pollinated,, (Common Weeds of New Zealand).
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
UNITED STATES
Outcomes
[2] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [1] Modification of successional patterns
Management information
Physical: Small plants may be hand pulled; older individuals need to be dug out.

Chemical: For overall spray application, the following herbicides are suitable: Glyphosate (e.g. Roundup G2): knapsack: 100ml per 10 litres of water handgun: 1 litre per 100 litres of water NB: The addition of Pulse penetrant at a rate of 100ml per 100 litres water is recommended to improve herbicide uptake. Escort: knapsack: 5g per 10 litres of water handgun: 20g per 100 litres of water NB: The addition of Pulse, Boost or Freeway at 100ml per 100 litres of water will improve herbicide uptake. Tordon Brushkiller: knapsack: 100ml per 10 litres of water handgun: 1 litre per 100 litres of water. The stem cut and inject method is suitable for privet plants with a stem diameter of 50mm or more. Ring bark the base of the stem with downward axe/machete strokes, cutting into the sap wood. Apply herbicide to the point of runoff into each downward cut immediately after cuts have been made. Suitable herbicides and dilution rates for cut and inject treatment are: Glypohosate (e.g. Roundup G2): Use neat (i.e. undiluted) Escort: 20 g (+ 10ml Pulse penetrant) per litre of water Stump treatment Cut plant off about 50mm above ground level. Apply herbicide mixtures to top and sides of the stump. Pulse penetrant will aid uptake of the herbicide. Suitable herbicides and dilution rates for stump treatment of Privet are: Glyphosate: 2 litres (+10ml Pulse) per 10 litres of water Escort: 5g (+10ml Pulse) per 10 litres of water NB: Herbicide must be applied immediately after stumps have been cut. Herbicide is most effective when applied during Privet's active growing season - spring or autumn in fine weather. If using Escort, avoid use over or nearby desirable plants, or in areas where their roots may extend. (Environment B.O.P. 1998).

Biological: An investigation of possible biological control agents is under way on La Réunion. (Environment B.O.P. 1998)

Please see 'The Nature Conservancy's' Stewardship Abstract for detailed information on control methods.

Bibliography
15 references found for Ligustrum lucidum

Managment information
Environment B.O.P. 1998. Plant Pests Control Fact Sheet PP10/98. Privet. Environment B-O-P. 2p.
Summary: Management information.
Available from: http://www.landcare.org.nz/biodiversity/Reference_v.asp?ReferenceID=685 [Accessed 25 February 2003]
Environment Waikato. 2002. Privet (Ligustrum spp.)
Haley, N. 1997. Weeds in New Zealand.
Summary: General information on distribution, management, description and dispersal.
Available from: http://www.boprc.govt.nz/green/weed101.htm [Accessed 25 February 2003]
National Pest Plant Accord, 2001. Biosecurity New Zealand.
Summary: The National Pest Plant Accord is a cooperative agreement between regional councils and government departments with biosecurity responsibilities. Under the accord, regional councils will undertake surveillance to prevent the commercial sale and/or distribution of an agreed list of pest plants.
Available from: http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/pests-diseases/plants/accord.htm [Accessed 11 August 2005]
PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk) 2002. Ligustrum lucidum.
Summary: General information on the Ligustrum spp. distribution, management, and descriptions.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/ligsp.htm [Accessed 25 February 2003]
Royal New Zealand Institute of Horticulture (RNZIH), 2005. Tree privet Ligustrum lucidum
Summary: Available from: http://www.rnzih.org.nz/pages/nppa_086.pdf [Accessed 1 October 2005]
South Coast Weeds. Eurobodalla Shire Council.
Summary: Description, habitats, dispersal, management information, and look-alike plants.
Available from: http://www.esc.nsw.gov.au/Weeds/Sheets/trees/T%20Privets.htm [Accessed 25 February 2003]
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
General information
Batcher, Michael S, 2000. Element Stewardship Abstract for Ligustrum spp. Privet. The Nature Conservancy.
Summary: Nature conservancy report on the Ligustrum spp. Includes descriptions, distributions, impacts, management information, habitat, ecology, and other miscellaneous information.
Available from: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/ligu_sp.html [Accessed 25 February 2003]
Brach, Anthony R. Flora of China.
Summary: Distribution information.
Available from: http://hua.huh.harvard.edu/china/mss/data.htm [Accessed on 26 February 2003]
Common Weeds of New Zealand. Ligustrum lucidum, tree privet. � Royal New Zealand Institute of Horticulture.
Summary: Brief summary of tree privet. A general overview.
Available from: http://www.rnzih.org.nz/pages/ligustrumlucidum.htm [Accessed 25 February 2003]
FredMeyer, Health guide. � Copyright 2003 The Kroger Co.
Summary: Plant uses.
Available from: http://www.fredmeyer.com/HN_Herb/Ligustrum.htm#Botany [Accessed 25 February 2003]
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Ligustrum lucidum
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/taxastep?king=every&p_action=containing&taxa=Ligustrum+lucidum&p_format=&p_ifx=plglt&p_lang= [Accessed March 2005]
S. Csurhes & R. Edwards, 1998. Potential Environmental weeds in Australia. Queensland Department of Natural Resources. Queensland.
Summary: Distribution information.
Contact
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