Global invasive species database

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Common name
green anole (English), Carolina anole (English), rotkehlanolis (German), anole vert (French), anolis verde (Spanish), northern green anole (English)
Synonym
Anolis carolinensis , (Voigt 1832)
Lacerta principalis , Linnaeus 1758 (fide Dumeril & Bibron 1837: 121)
Anolis bullaris , Daudin 1802: 69 (part.)
Dactyloa (Ctenocercus) carolinensis , Fitzinger 1843: 68
Anolis principalis , Gray 1845: 202
Anolis carolinensis , Dumeril & Bibron 1837: 120
Anolis carolinensis , Boulenger 1885: 43
Anolis principalis , Loennberg 1894
Anolis carolinensis , Liner 1994
Anolis carolinensis , Mckeown 1996
Anolis carolinensis , Nicholson et al. 2005
Anolis carolinensis seminolus , Vance 1991
Anolis carolinensis seminolus , Collins & Taggart 2009
Similar species
Summary
The green anole, Anolis carolinensis is a moderate sized arboreal lizard native to the southeastern United States. Most likely spread through unintentional transport, alien populations have managed to establish on numerous islands in the Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean, including the Ogasawara Islands, Japan. Here A. carolinensis is thought to have played a significant role in the extinctions and population declines of many species of endemic insects through predation. Projects are underway to manage this species through use of adhesive traps and exclusion fencing, with preventing the spread of A. carolinensis to uninvaded nearby islands having priority.
Species Description
Anolis carolinensis is a moderately sized anole with introduced populations on Hawaiian islands ranging from 51 - 76 mm SVL (snout to vent length) (Muensch et al., 2006). On the Ogasawara Islands, males reached a maximum length of 74 mm SVL while females grew up to 60 mm SVL with a tail length about double the individual SVL length (Toda et al., 2010).
Notes
Two subspecies are recognised Anolis carolinensis carolinensis (Voigt, 1832) and Anolis carolinensis seminolus Vance, 1991 (Reptiles Database 2010).

A. carolinensis is preyed upon by numerous taxa in its home range (Schaefer et al., 2009) including feral pigs (Sus scrofa) (Jolley et al., 2010). The invasive brown anole (Norops sagrei) also competes with A. carolinensis.

Habitat Description
Anolis carolinensis is arboreal and generally uses any type of forested habitat; it can be found in vegetation around urban and suburban areas (Wiles & Guerrero, 1996; Mount, 1975; in Gates & Gates, 2006). It has also been observed using vegetation around water or in wetland situations with Gates & Gates (2006) making an observation of A. carolinensis travelling across floating alligator weed, perhaps to feed on invertebrates on the plants or the water surface. A higher shrub density in its native range has been associated with higher A. carolinensis abundance (Schaefer et al., 2009).
Reproduction
Ten female Anolis carolinensis individuals from Chichijima, in the Ogasawara Islands laid 138 eggs from May to October with the average number of eggs laid per season per female being 13.8 (Noriyuki Komatsu, pers. Comm.; in Toda et al., 2010). Incubation lasts about 40 days (Hasegawa, 2004; in Toda et al., 2010), with the first hatchings strating to appear in June and seen most frequently in September (Toda et al., 2010). The breeding season on the Ogasawaras is thus estimated to extend from April to October, with a maturation period of about 1 year (Toda et al., 2010). The potential longevity of this species is estimated to exceed 7-8 years (Toda et al., 2010).
Nutrition
Anolis carolinensis like other anoles is primarily insectivorous (Muensch et al., 2006). On Chichijima and Hahajima, Ogasawara Islands, a stomach content analysis undertaken by the Japan Forest Technology Association 2005; in Toda et al., 2010) revealed that A. carolinensis preyed most frequently on Hemiptera and Coleoptera, as well as Lepidoptera (mainly larvae) and Hymenoptera (mainly ants).

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review:

Publication date: 2010-09-09

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2020) Species profile: Anolis carolinensis. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=604 on 18-09-2020.

General Impacts
Anolis carolinensis has had the largest impact on the Ogasawara Islands, where increased predation pressure on endemic insect species has played a significant role in the extinctions of species such as the tricolored tiger longhorn (Xylotrechus takakuwai), the Ogasawara tumbling flower beetle (Glipa ogasawarensis) and the Ogasawara carabid beetle (Colpodes boninensis) as well as contributued to the decline of insect pollinators (Abe et al., 2008), endemic odonates (Yoshimure & Okochi, 2005) and diurnal longicorn beetles (Makihara et al., 2004).
Management Info
Please follow this link for a more detailed information on the management of Anolis carolinensis. A summary can be found below.

Preventative measures: A. carolinensis is likely to be difficult to control in areas where it is widespread and abundant such as the islands of Chichijima and Hahajima in the Ogasawara Islands of Japan (Toda et al., 2010). As such, priority should be given to preventing its spread to nearby islands which still have healthy endemic insect populations (Yoshimura & Okochi, 2005). The chances of A. carolinensis finding its way onto ships travelling to these islands has been attempted by intensive trapping at piers and surrounding residential areas (Toda et al., 2010). While a reduction of density was achieved in the area, rapid increases occurred through immigration and highlighted the need for exclusion fencing in key areas (Toda et al., 2010).

Use of Teflon coverings on steel mesh fences have shown to be effective in blocking the movement of A. carolinensis in both indoor and field trials, with a number of sites on Hahajima showing positive results from their use (Toda et al., 2010).

Monitoring: The use of 1 x 1m pieces of burlap fabric tied to tree trunks has been shown to be an effective and non-destructive sampling method for A. carolinensis and other reptile species in its home range (Horn & Hanula, 2006).

Physical: The primary method used on invaded Ogasawara Islands is the use of adhesive traps placed on tree trunks (Toda et al., 2010). While not as efficient a method such as angling, they are able to provide longer-term continuous pressure on A. carolinensis populations; they also do not require the use of food or attractant baits as trunks of trees are frequently used to travel between the tree crown and the ground (Toda et al., 2010).

Chemical: While consumer reptile sprays for use against habu vipers were trialled against A. carolinensis, these were not implemented as the risks of negative environmental impacts were too high (Toda et al., 2010).

Integrated management: The exclusion of A. carolinensis from specific areas by intensive trapping using Teflon covered fences is necessary to fragment their dispersal range and allow the restoration of endemic species in key locations (Toda et al., 2010).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Anolis carolinensis
NATIVE RANGE
  • united states
Informations on Anolis carolinensis has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Anolis carolinensis in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
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Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Anolis carolinensis has had the largest impact on the Ogasawara Islands, where increased predation pressure on endemic insect species has played a significant role in the extinctions of species such as the tricolored tiger longhorn (Xylotrechus takakuwai), the Ogasawara tumbling flower beetle (Glipa ogasawarensis) and the Ogasawara carabid beetle (Colpodes boninensis) as well as contributued to the decline of insect pollinators (Abe et al., 2008), endemic odonates (Yoshimure & Okochi, 2005) and diurnal longicorn beetles (Makihara et al., 2004).
Red List assessed species 0:
Mechanism
[1] Competition
[1] Predation
Outcomes
[4] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Modification of food web
  • [1] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [1] Habitat degradation
  • [1] Habitat or refugia replacement/loss
Management information
Please follow this link for a more detailed information on the management of Anolis carolinensis. A summary can be found below.

Preventative measures: A. carolinensis is likely to be difficult to control in areas where it is widespread and abundant such as the islands of Chichijima and Hahajima in the Ogasawara Islands of Japan (Toda et al., 2010). As such, priority should be given to preventing its spread to nearby islands which still have healthy endemic insect populations (Yoshimura & Okochi, 2005). The chances of A. carolinensis finding its way onto ships travelling to these islands has been attempted by intensive trapping at piers and surrounding residential areas (Toda et al., 2010). While a reduction of density was achieved in the area, rapid increases occurred through immigration and highlighted the need for exclusion fencing in key areas (Toda et al., 2010).

Use of Teflon coverings on steel mesh fences have shown to be effective in blocking the movement of A. carolinensis in both indoor and field trials, with a number of sites on Hahajima showing positive results from their use (Toda et al., 2010).

Monitoring: The use of 1 x 1m pieces of burlap fabric tied to tree trunks has been shown to be an effective and non-destructive sampling method for A. carolinensis and other reptile species in its home range (Horn & Hanula, 2006).

Physical: The primary method used on invaded Ogasawara Islands is the use of adhesive traps placed on tree trunks (Toda et al., 2010). While not as efficient a method such as angling, they are able to provide longer-term continuous pressure on A. carolinensis populations; they also do not require the use of food or attractant baits as trunks of trees are frequently used to travel between the tree crown and the ground (Toda et al., 2010).

Chemical: While consumer reptile sprays for use against habu vipers were trialled against A. carolinensis, these were not implemented as the risks of negative environmental impacts were too high (Toda et al., 2010).

Integrated management: The exclusion of A. carolinensis from specific areas by intensive trapping using Teflon covered fences is necessary to fragment their dispersal range and allow the restoration of endemic species in key locations (Toda et al., 2010).

Management Category
Bibliography
27 references found for Anolis carolinensis

Managment information
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
General information
Abe, Tetsuto; Makino, Shun ichi; Okochi, Isamu, 2008. Why have endemic pollinators declined on the Ogasawara Islands? Biodivers Conserv (2008) 17:1465�1473
Eaton, J.M., K.G. Howard, and R. Powell. 2001. Anolis carolinensis. Geographic distribution. Herpetol. Rev. 32:118.
Gates, William R.; Gates, Anna R., 2006. Anolis carolinensis carolinensis (Northern green anole). Behavior. Herpetological Review. 37(3). SEP 2006. 344
Hayashi, Fumio; Shima, Akina; Suzuki, Tadashi, 2009. Origin and Genetic Diversity of the Lizard Populations, Anolis carolinensis, Introduced to the Ogasawara Islands, Japan. Biogeography. 11 AUG 20 2009. 119-124.
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), 2010. Anolis carolinensis Voigt, 1832
Summary: Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=173885 [Accessed 2 July 2010]
Jolley, D. Buck; Ditchkoff, Stephen S.; Sparklin, Bill D.; Hanson, Laura B.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Grand, James B., 2010. Estimate of herpetofauna depredation by a population of wild pigs. Journal of Mammalogy. 91(2). APR 16 2010. 519-524.
Karube, Haruki, 2010. Chapter 20 Endemic Insects in the Ogasawara Islands: Negative Impacts of Alien Species and a Potential Mitigation Strategy. K. Kawakami and I. Okochi (eds.), Restoring the Oceanic Island Ecosystem, 2010; 133 Translated from the Japanese original, Karube H (2009) Global Environmental Research 14:33�38, with permission of the Association of International Research Initiatives for Environmental Studies.
Losos, Jonathan B.; Jane C. Marks; Thomas W. Schoener, 1993. Habitat use and ecological interactions of an introduced and a native species of Anolis lizard on Grand Cayman, with a review of the outcomes of anole introductions. Oecologia (1993) 95:525-532
Makihara, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Hiroshi; Goto, Hideaki; Kato, Toru; Makino, Shun ichi, 2004. An evaluation of predation impact of the introduced lizard Anolis carolinensis on the endemic insect fauna of the Ogasawara Islands based on insect collection records and feeding experiments, with special reference to longicorn beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Bulletin of the Forestry & Forest Products Research Institute. 3(2). June 2004. 165-183.
McCoid, Michael James, 1994. Eggs, hatchling sizes, and oviposition sites of lizards on Guam, Mariana Islands. Herpetological Review. 25(3). 1994. 98-100.
Michael, John H. Jr., 2005. Anolis carolinensis (green anole). Behavior. Herpetological Review. 36(2). JUN 2005. 170-171.
Powell, Robert, 2002. Anolis carolinensis (Green anole). Herpetological Review. 33(4). December 2002. 321.
Reptiles Database, 2010. Anolis carolinensis Voigt, 1832
Summary: Available from: http://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species.php?genus=Anolis&species=carolinensis [Accessed September 8 2010]
Robison, Henry W.; Rader, Janet, 2005. Anolis carolinensis carolinensis (Northern Green Anole). Herpetological Review. 36(4). DEC 2005. 466.
Schaefer, Richard R., Robert R. Fleet, D. Craig Rudolph, and Nancy E. Koerth, 2009. Habitat Selection by Anolis carolinensis (Green Anole) in Open Pine Forests in Eastern Texas
Shafer, Valerie, 2000. Anolis carolinensis (green anole) Herpetological Review. 31(2). June, 2000. 112.
Toda, Mitsuhiko; Hiroo Takahashi; Naomi Nakagawa and Naozumi Sukigara, 2010. Ecology and Control of the Green Anole (Anolis carolinensis), an Invasive Alien Species on the Ogasawara Islands. In Restoring the Oceanic Island Ecosystem
Toda, Mitsuhiko; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi, 2005. Issues and perspectives regarding invasive alien species of amphibians and reptiles in Japan. Bulletin of the Herpetological Society of Japan.(2). 2005. 139-149.
Wiles, Gary J.; Guerrero, Jesse P., 1996. Relative abundance of lizards and marine toads on Saipan, Mariana Islands. Pacific Science. 50(3). 1996. 274-284.
Summary: Available from: http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/2900/1/v50n3-274-284.pdf [Accessed 2 July 2010]
Contact
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Anolis carolinensis
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