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  • Norops sagrei(Photo: Ann V Paterson, Williams Baptist College, USA)
  • Norops sagrei (Photo: Ann V Paterson, Williams Baptist College, USA)
  • Norops sagrei (Photo: Ann V Paterson, Williams Baptist College, USA)
  • Norops sagrei (Photo: Ann V Paterson, Williams Baptist College, USA)
  • Norops sagrei (Photo: Ann V Paterson, Williams Baptist College, USA)
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Common name
Bahamian brown anole (English), Cuban brown anole (English), brown anole (English)
Synonym
Anolis sagrei , (Cocteau in Dum�ril and Bibron, 1837)
Similar species
Anolis carolinensis
Summary
Norops sagrei (brown anole) can be identified by its extensible throat fan that is often coloured yellow or reddish-orange and has a white line down the centre of its back. Norops sagrei is a habitat generalist that prefers the open vegetation of disturbed sites. It is a ground dweller but will venture several feet up into trees and shrubs. Norops sagrei compete with Anolis carolinensis and other introduced congeners. Norops sagre also prey on the hatchlings of Anolis carolinensis.
Species Description
Norops sagrei (brown anole) is a “trunk ground ecomorph” sensu (Williams, 1983). It is described as having an extensible throat fan that can be yellow to red-orange. This species can be between 13 and 21.3cm. It also has enlarged toe pads and a short snout (Campbell, 2002). Brown anoles can erect a dorsonuchal crest when exposed to certain stimuli. The tail may have a crest-like ridge, but this is highly variable between individuals and should not be confused with the dorsonuchal crest. Also, the tail is laterally compressed. Females have a light line down the middle of their backs, but males do not. They tend to have a lighter mid-dorsal stripe that is distinct and often boldly patterned in females and often indistinct in males. Individuals change their colours and patterns throughout this range (Ann Paterson., pers. comm., 2005). Male colour is highly variable, ranging from light grey to nearly jet-black and plain coloured - to covered dorsally with irregular dark patches or chevrons and a network of light lines. Females exhibit a large range of colour, but nearly always have some type of obvious wavy dorsal pattern along the midline of their back (Enature.com Field Guide, undated).
Notes
Tokarz et al. (2001) state that, \"The dewlap of N. sagrei is a relatively large and often brighly coloured throat skin that can be extended and retracted in a variety of visual displays.\" The dewlap is considered to be a sexually dimorphic trait in anoles because males in most species have a larger dewlap than females. Moreover, there is evidence that the sexes differ in at least some neural and other morphological features that are involved in display of the dewlap. The sexes also differ in the social context in which the dewlap is used. Males in agonistic interactions extend their dewlaps more frequently than females and, unlike females, also display the dewlap during courtship. It has been proposed that the display of the dewlap by males may play an important role in species recognition, female mate choice, male-male competition, and even predator deterrence (West -Eberhard, 1983).
Uses
Wardle (2002) reports findings which show that on islands without Norops spp. there is a great magnitude of leaf damage to sea grape (Coccoloba uvifera L.) which is indicative of a lizard-induced trophic cascade.
Habitat Description
Norops sagrei (brown anole) is a ground dweller but will venture up several feet into trees and shrubs and prefers drier areas. Individuals occur primarily on the trunks of trees and on the ground (Rand and Williams, 1969). Campbell (2002) reports that the brown anole is a habitat generalist that generally prefers fairly open vegetation of disturbed sites.
Reproduction
Adult Norops sagrei (brown anoles) breed during the summer months (Lee et al. 1989; Tokarz et al. 1998). It is not clear when they establish territories. Although they become more conspicuous during the breeding season, there have been no empirical tests to determine their degree of territoriality during the non-breeding season. It is not clear whether they cease to defend territories at the end of the breeding season (Ann Paterson., pers. comm., 2005).
Nutrition
Campbell (2002) states that, \"Their native diet consists mainly of small arthropods, annelids, and molluscs.\"

Principal source: Campbell, 2002. The Brown Anole (Anolis sagrei Dumeril and Bibron 1837)

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Ann V. Paterson, Ph.D. Nell Mondy Chair, Department of Natural Sciences, Williams Baptist College USA

Publication date: 2008-05-31

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2017) Species profile: Norops sagrei. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=603 on 20-11-2017.

General Impacts
The successful occupation of different types of habitats by Norops sagrei (brown anole) is attributed partly to its use of thermo-regulatory behaviours such as basking in solar radiation to select acceptable microclimates at different latitudes and altitudes (Rogowitz,1996). It is reported that brown anole when present, reduce the density and diversity of spiders upon which they feed (Wardle, 2002). Greene et al. (2002) state that, brown anole competes successfully with native green anole (see Anolis carolinensis in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) and other introduced congeners. Campbell (2002) observes that without the brown anole, the native green anole occupies perches from ground to crown, but the presence of the brown anole causes the green anole to move higher, occupying trunks and crowns of trees. Brown anole demonstrate intra-guild predation (IGP), which is defined as killing and eating among potential competitors and have been reported to prey on the hatchlings of green anole. N. sagrei have also been observed consuming hatchling brown anoles, although this behaviour is not well understood and it is not known whether this behaviour is common (Nicholson et al. 2000).
Management Info
Campbell (2002) observes that, no control or eradication measures have been implemented for Norops sagrei (brown anole), in Florida (North America) where it has established. He further adds that this species would be very difficult if not impossible to completely eradicate due to its high density, high reproductive potential, and habitat generality.
Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Norops sagrei
ALIEN RANGE
NATIVE RANGE
  • bahamas
  • cayman islands
  • cuba
Informations on Norops sagrei has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Norops sagrei in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
The successful occupation of different types of habitats by Norops sagrei (brown anole) is attributed partly to its use of thermo-regulatory behaviours such as basking in solar radiation to select acceptable microclimates at different latitudes and altitudes (Rogowitz,1996). It is reported that brown anole when present, reduce the density and diversity of spiders upon which they feed (Wardle, 2002). Greene et al. (2002) state that, brown anole competes successfully with native green anole (see Anolis carolinensis in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) and other introduced congeners. Campbell (2002) observes that without the brown anole, the native green anole occupies perches from ground to crown, but the presence of the brown anole causes the green anole to move higher, occupying trunks and crowns of trees. Brown anole demonstrate intra-guild predation (IGP), which is defined as killing and eating among potential competitors and have been reported to prey on the hatchlings of green anole. N. sagrei have also been observed consuming hatchling brown anoles, although this behaviour is not well understood and it is not known whether this behaviour is common (Nicholson et al. 2000).
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
CAYMAN ISLANDS
UNITED STATES
Mechanism
[2] Competition
[2] Predation
Outcomes
[3] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [3] Reduction in native biodiversity
Management information
Campbell (2002) observes that, no control or eradication measures have been implemented for Norops sagrei (brown anole), in Florida (North America) where it has established. He further adds that this species would be very difficult if not impossible to completely eradicate due to its high density, high reproductive potential, and habitat generality.
Bibliography
64 references found for Norops sagrei

Managment information
Bomford, M., 2003. Risk Assessment for the Import and Keeping of Exotic Vertebrates in Australia. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra.
Summary: Available from: http://www.feral.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/PC12803.pdf [Accessed August 19 2010]
Campbell, T. 2002. The Brown Anole (Anolis sagrei Dumeril and Bibron 1837). The Institute for Biological Invasions: The Invader of the Month, February 2001.
Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
Available from: http://invasions.bio.utk.edu/invaders/sagrei.html [Accessed 13 April 2004]
Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary. UNDATED. Brown Anole (exotic) Anolis sagrei sagrei. Audubon Centers and Sanctuaries: Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary s Common Lizards.
Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
Available from: http://www.audubon.org/local/sanctuary/corkscrew/Wildlife/Lizards.html [Accessed 13 April 2004]
eNature.com, 2007. Brown Anole, Anolis sagrei. Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians [Online Database].
Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
Available from: http://www.enature.com/fieldguides/detail.asp?allSpecies=y&searchText=anolis%20sagrei&curGroupID=7&lgfromWhere=&curPageNum=1 [Accessed 11 February 2008]
Frost, D.R. & Hammerson, G.A. 2007. Anolis carolinensis. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Summary: Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/64188/all [Accessed 11 February 2008]
Greene, B. T., D. T. Yorks, J. S. Parmerlee, R. Powell, and R. W. Henderson. 2002. Discovery of Anolis Sagrei in Grenada with Comments on Its Potential Impact on Native Anoles. Carribean Journal of Science 38(3-4): 270-272. College of Arts and Sciences at the University of Puerto Rico.
Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
Available from: http://academic.uprm.edu/publications/cjs/Vol38b/38_270-272.pdf [Accessed 11 February 2008]
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
General information
Bartareau, Tad M.; Leblanc, Lorrie A., 2006. Anolis sagrei (Cuban brown anole). Predation. Herpetological Review. 37(4). DEC 2006. 462.
Calsbeek, Ryan & Erin Marnocha, 2006. Context Dependent Territory Defense: The Importance of Habitat Structure in Anolis sagrei. Ethology 112 (2006) 537�543
Campbell, Todd S., 1996. Northern range expansion of the brown anole (Anolis sagrei) in Florida and Georgia. Herpetological Review. 27(3). 1996. 155-157.
Campbell, Todd S.; Gerber, Glenn P., 1996. Lacertilia: Anolis sagrei (brown anole): Saugrophagy. Herpetological Review. 27(4). 1996. 200.
Campbell T. S. 2003. The introduced brown anole (Anolis sagrei) occurs in every county in peninsular Florida. Herpetol Rev 34:173�174
CONABIO. 2008. Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras en M�xico. Especies invasoras - Reptiles. Comisi�n Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Fecha de acceso.
Summary: English:
The species list sheet for the Mexican information system on invasive species currently provides information related to Scientific names, family, group and common names, as well as habitat, status of invasion in Mexico, pathways of introduction and links to other specialised websites. Some of the higher risk species already have a direct link to the alert page. It is important to notice that these lists are constantly being updated, please refer to the main page (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), under the section Novedades for information on updates.
Invasive species - reptiles is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Reptiles [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Spanish:
La lista de especies del Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras de m�xico cuenta actualmente con informaci�n aceca de nombre cient�fico, familia, grupo y nombre com�n, as� como h�bitat, estado de la invasi�n en M�xico, rutas de introducci�n y ligas a otros sitios especializados. Algunas de las especies de mayor riesgo ya tienen una liga directa a la p�gina de alertas. Es importante resaltar que estas listas se encuentran en constante proceso de actualizaci�n, por favor consulte la portada (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), en la secci�n novedades, para conocer los cambios.
Especies invasoras - Reptiles is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Reptiles [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Eales, J.; Thorpe, R. S., 2010. Revealing the geographic origin of an invasive lizard: the problem of native population genetic diversity. Biological Invasions. 12(1). JAN 2010. 77-86
Franz, Richard, 2001. Lacertilia: Anolis sagrei (Brown anole). Predation. Herpetological Review. 32(4). December, 2001. 252, 253
Fulgar, Charles, M., 1968. The Distributional Status of Anolis sagrei in Central America and Northern South America. Journal of Herpetology, Vol. 1, No. 1/4 (Mar. 29, 1968), pp. 96-98
Gerber, Glenn P.; Echternacht, Arthur C., 2000. Evidence for asymmetrical intraguild predation between native and introduced Anolis lizards. Oecologia (Berlin). 124(4). September, 2000. 599-607.
Gerrut, N., J. J. Mao, H. P. Chu, and L. C. Chen. 2002. A new record of an introduced species, the brown anole (Anolis sagrei) (Dumeril and Bibron, 1837), in Taiwan. Zoological Studies 41(3): 332-336.
Summary: An account of species sighting in Taiwan.
Goldberg R. S., C. R. Bursey, and F. Kraus. 2002. Seasonal Variation in the Helminth Community of the Brown Anole, Anolis sagrei (Sauria: Polychrotidae), from Oahu, Hawaii. American Midland Naturalist 148:409-415.
Summary: A observational study on species
Goldberg, Stephen R. and Charles R. Bursey, 2000. Transport of Helminths to Hawaii via the Brown Anole, Anolis sagrei (Polychrotidae). J. Parasitol., 86(4), 2000, p. 750�755
Goldberg, Stephen R.; Kraus, Fred; Bursey, Charles R., 2002b. Reproduction in an introduced population of the brown anole, Anolis sagrei, from O ahu, Hawai i. Pacific Science. 56(2). April, 2002. 163-168
Greene B.T., Yorks D.T., Parmerlee J.S., Robert Powell and Robert W. Henderson, 2002. Discovery of Anolis sagrei in Grenada with comments on its potential impact on native anoles. Caribb J Sci 38:270�272
Henderson, Robert W.; Powell, Robert, 2005. Anolis sagrei (Brown Anole). Herpetological Review. 36(4). DEC 2005. 467.
Huang, Shao-Chang; Norval, Gerrut; Tso, I-Min., 2008. Predation by an exotic lizard, Anolis sagrei, alters the ant community structure in betelnut palm plantations in Southern Taiwan. Ecological Entomology. 33(5). OCT 2008. 569-576.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Norops sagrei
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/taxastep?king=every&p_action=containing&taxa=Norops+sagrei&p_format=&p_ifx=plglt&p_lang= [Accessed March 2005]
Kolbe, Jason J.; Larson, Allan; Losos, Jonathan B., 2007. Differential admixture shapes morphological variation among invasive populations of the lizard Anolis sagrei. Molecular Ecology. 16(8). APR 2007. 1579-1591.
Kolbe, Jason J.; Richard E. Glor; Lourdes Rodri�guez Schettino; Ada Chamizo Lara; Allan Larson & Jonathan B. Losos., 2004. Genetic variation increases during biological invasion by a Cuban lizard. Nature Vol 431, 9 September 2004
Kolbe, J.J., R.E. Glor, L.R. Schettino, A.C. Lara, A. Larson, and J.B. Losos. 2004. Genetic variation increases during biological invasion by a Cuban lizard. Nature 431:177-181
Landwer, Allan J.; Ferguson, Gary W., 2002. Long-term structural habitat use of male individuals of two native and one introduced Anolis (Iguanidae) species on the north coast of Jamaica. Texas Journal of Science. 54(1). February, 2002. 51-58.
Landwer, Allan J.; Ferguson, Gary W.; Herber, Rick; Brewer, Mark, 1995. Habitat use of introduced and native anoles (Iguanidae: Anolis) along the northern coast of Jamaica. Texas Journal of Science. 47(1). 1995. 45-52.
Lee J. C.; Clayton D.; Eisentein S.; Perez I., 1989. The Reproductive Cycle of Anolis sagrei in Southern Florida USA. Copeia.(4). 1989. 930-937.
Lee, J. C., D. Clayton, S. Eisenstein, and I. Perez. 1989. The reproductive cycle of Anolis sagrei in southern Florida. Copeia 1989:930�937.
Lee, Julian C., 1985. Anolis sagrei in Florida: Phenetics of a Colonizing Species I. Meristic Characters. Copeia, Vol. 1985, No. 1 (Feb. 11, 1985), pp. 182-194
Lee, Julian C., 1987. Anolis sagrei in Florida: Phenetics of a Colonizing Species II. Morphometric Characters, Copeia, Vol. 1987, No. 2 (May 13, 1987), pp. 458-469
Lee, Julian C., 1992. Anolis sagrei in Florida: Phenetics of a Colonizing Species III. West Indian and Middle American Comparisons. Copeia, Vol. 1992, No. 4 (Dec. 18, 1992), pp. 942-954
Losos, Jonathan B.; Jane C. Marks; Thomas W. Schoener, 1993. Habitat use and ecological interactions of an introduced and a native species of Anolis lizard on Grand Cayman, with a review of the outcomes of anole introductions. Oecologia (1993) 95:525-532
McKeown S. 1996. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians in the Hawaiian islands. Diamond Head Publishing Inc, Los Osos
McMann S. 2000. Effects of residence time on displays during territory establishment in a lizard. Animal Behavior 59:513-522.
Summary: A study detailing reproductive aspects of species.
Nicholson, K.E., A.V. Paterson, and P.M. Richards., 2000. Anolis sagrei (brown anole) cannibalism. Herpetological Review 31(3):173-174.
Nicholson, Kirsten E.; Paterson, Ann V.; Richards, Paul M., 2000. Anolis sagrei (Brown Anole). Cannibalism. Herpetological Review. 31(3). September, 2000. 173-174.
Norval, Gerrut, 2007. A report on male Anolis sagrei saurophagy in Chiayi County, Taiwan. Herpetological Bulletin.(102). WIN 2007. 34-37.
Summary: Five hundred and two Brown anoles (Anolis sagrei) were collected for stomach content analysis from an area surrounding a plant nursery (23 degrees 25 51 N, 120 degrees 28 30 E) in Santzepu, Sheishan District, Chiayi County, as part of an ongoing study on this invasive species in Taiwan. The results of this study seem to indicate that male A. sagrei saurophagy is more likely in cleared open habitats, with no ground cover, than in habitats with ground covering. A stomach content study of five hundred and two Brown anoles (Anolis sagrei) in Santzepu, Sheishan District, Chiayi County, Taiwan
Norval, Gerrut; Bursey, Charles R.; Goldberg, Stephen R.; Tung, Chun-Liang; Mao, Jean-Jay, 2009. Norops sagrei (Brown Anole) Pathology and Endoparasite. Herpetological Bulletin.(107). SEP 2009. 42-44.
Norval, Gerrut; Huang, Shao-Chang; Mao, Jean-Jay, 2007. Mountain wolf snake (Lycodon r. ruhstrati) predation on an exotic lizard, Anolis sagrei, in Chiayi County, Taiwan. Herpetological Bulletin.(101). FAL 2007. 13-17.
Summary: The Mountain wolf snake (Lycodon ruhstrati ruhstrati) is a common snake species at low elevations all over Taiwan. Still, it appears to be poorly studied in Taiwan and adjacent areas since little has been reported about this species. On 2611, August 2002 ten L. r. ruhstrati eggs were obtained from an adult female, one of two that were caught a day before, and eight of the eggs hatched successfully on 1411 October 2002. While in captivity all the adults preyed upon A nolis sagrei, which were given to them as prey, while two neonates accepted A. sagrei hatchlings offered to them as food. On February 1811,, 2006, a DOR Mountain wolf snake, with an A. sagrei in its stomach, was found on a tarred road in Santzepu, Sheishan District, Chiayi County. This appears to be the first report from Taiwan of the Mountain wolf snake (L. r. ruhstrati) preying on the exotic introduced lizard A. sagrei.
Pacala, Stephen; John Rummel and Jonathan Roughgarden, 1983. A Technique for Enclosing Anolis Lizard Populations under Field Conditions. Journal of Herpetology, Vol. 17, No. 1 (Mar., 1983), pp. 94-97
Platt, Steven G.; Fontenot, Lance W., 1994. Anolis sagrei (Brown Anole). Herpetological Review. 25(1). 1994. 33
Powell, Robert; Henderson, Robert W., 2007. The St. Vincent (Lesser antilles) herpetofauna: Conservation concerns. Applied Herpetology 4(4). 2007. 295-312.
Reptiles Database, 2010. Anolis sagrei Dumeril & Bibron, 1837
Summary: Available from: http://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species.php?genus=Anolis&species=sagrei [Accessed September 8 2010]
Rodriguez Schettino, Lourdes; De Queiroz, Kevin, 2002. Anolis sagrei sagrei (cuban brown lizard; chino; torito). Habitat use and thermal biology. Herpetological Review. 33(4). December 2002. 305.
Rogowitz, G. L. 1996. Evaluation of Thermal acclimation of Metabolism in Two Eurythermal Lozards, Anolis cristatellus and A. sagrei. Journal of Thermal Biology 21(1): 11-14.
Summary: A research paper that analyzes the adaptive abilities of the species.
Schoener, Thomas W.; Jonathan B. Losos and David A. Spiller, 2005. Island Biogeography of Population: an introduced species transforms survival pattern (Report) Science 310.5755 (Dec 16, 2005): p1807(3).
Skelton, Chris; Parmley, Dennis, 2005. Anolis sagrei: (Brown Anole). Herpetological Review. 36(4). DEC 2005. 467.
Strong, D., B. Leatherman, and B.H. Brattstrom. 1993. Two new methods for catching small fast lizards. Herpetological Review 24:22�23.
Toda, Mitsuhiko & Yoshida Tsuyoshi, 2005. Issues and perspectives regarding invasive alien species of amphibians and reptiles in Japan. Bulletin of the Herpetological Society of Japan Volume 2005; Number. 2; Page.139-149(2005)
Tokarz, R. R. 1995. Importance of androgens in male territorial acquisition in the lizard Anolis sagrei: an experimental test. Animal Behavior 49: 661-669.
Summary: A study containing general information about species
Tokarz, R. R., S. McMann, L. C. Smith, and H. J. Alder. 2002. Effects of Testosterone Treatment and Season on the Frequency of Dewlap Extensions during Male-Male Interactions in the Lizard Anolis sagrei. Hormones and Behavior 41: 70-79.
Summary: A study containing general information about species
Tokarz, R. R., S. McMann, L. Seitz, and H. John-Alder. 1998. Plasma corticosterone and testosterone levels during the annual reproductive cycle of male brown anoles (Anolis sagrei). Physiological Zoology 71:139�146.
Wardle, D. A. 2002. Islands as model system for understanding how species affect ecosystem properties. Journal of Biogeography 29:583-591.
Summary: A study containing general information about species
Williams, E. E., 1983. Ecomorphs, faunas, island size, and diverse endpoints in island radiations of Anolis. In R. B. Huey, E. R. Pianka, and T. W. Schoener (eds.), Lizard Ecology: Studies of A Model Organism. pp. 326-370. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Contact
The following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Norops sagrei
Paterson,
Ann V. Ph.D.
Organization:
Nell Mondy Chair, Department of Natural Sciences, Williams Baptist College
Address:
P.O. Box 3692 Walnut Ridge, AR 72476 Walnut Ridge, AR 72476
Phone:
870-886-7067
Fax: