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  • Cyprinus carpio
  • Common carp (Photo: Konrad Schmidt, General College and James Ford Bell Museum of Natural History, University of Minnesota)
  •  Mirror  form of common carp (Photo: Konrad Schmidt, General College and James Ford Bell Museum of Natural History, University of Minnesota)
  • Painting of Cyprinus carpio  (Image: USFWS National Image Library)
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Common name
escarpo (French, France), fancy carp (English), German carp (English), Japanese domesticated carp (English), Europäischer Karpfen (German), grass carp (English, Russian Federation), king carp (English), grivadi (Greek), feral carp (English, Australia), ikan mas (Malay, Indonesia), kapoor-e-maamoli (Farsi), Oriental carp (English, Australia), kapor (Slovak), karp (Afrikaans), karp (Polish), karp (Russian), karp (Swedish), kapr obecný (Czech), sharan (Bulgarian), karpfen (German), lei ue (Cantonese, Hong Kong), karp (Ukrainian), karp dziki a. sazan (Polish), karpa (Tagalog, Philippines), karpar (Icelandic), karpe (Danish), Karpe (Norwegian), karpen (German), karper (Dutch), karpion (Hebrew), karppi (Finnish), kerpaille (French), koi (English), korop (Ukrainian), krapi (Albanian), kyprinos (Greek), lauk mas (Malay), leather carp (English), leekoh (Malay), mas massan (Malay), mirror carp (English), olocari (Romanian), pba ni (Lao), pla nai (Thai), ponty (Hungarian), punjabe gad (Kashmiri, India), rata pethiya (Sinhalese), saran (Romanian), Saran (Serbian), sazan (Russian), sazan baligi (Turkish), scale carp (English), soneri masha (Marathi), spejlkarpe (Danish), suloi (Romanian), tikure (Amharic, Ethiopia), trey carp samahn (Khmer), trey kap (Khmer), ulucari (Romanian), wild carp (English), European carp (English), koi carp (English), wildkarpfen (German), sulari (Romanian), pa nai (Lao), carpa (Spanish), carpat (French, France), carpe (French, Switzerland), carpe (French, Canada), carpe commune (French, France), carpeau (French, France), carpo (French, France), ciortan (Romanian), ciortanica (Romanian), carp (English), weißfische (German), ciortocrap (Romanian), ciuciulean (Romanian), crapcean (Romanian), cyprinos (Greek), cerpyn (Welsh), common carp (English), Cá Chép (English, Vietnam), skælkarpe (Danish), læderkarpe (Danish), sarmão (Portuguese)
Synonym
Carpio flavipinna , Valenciennes, 1842
Cyprinus vittatus , Valenciennes, 1842
Cyprinus angulatus , Heckel, 1843
Cyprinus thermalis , Heckel, 1843
Cyprinus fossicola , Richardson, 1846
Cyprinus acuminatus , Richardson, 1846
Cyprinus atrovirens , Richardson, 1846
Cyprinus conirostris , Temminck & Schlegel, 1846
Cyprinus flamm , Richardson, 1846
Cyprinus haematopterus , Temminck & Schlegel, 1846
Cyprinus melanotus , Temminck & Schlegel, 1846
Cyprinus sculponeatus , Richardson, 1846
Carpio vulgaris , Rapp, 1854
Cyprinus chinensis , Basilewsky, 1855
Carpio carpio gibbosus , (Kessler, 1856)
Cyprinus bithynicus , Richardson, 1857
Cyprinus acuminatus , Heckel & Kner, 1858
Cyprinus carpio elongatus , Walecki, 1863
Cyprinus carpio monstrosus , Walecki, 1863
Cyprinus tossicole , Elera, 1895
Cyprinus carpio oblongus , Antipa, 1909
Cyprinus carpio anatolicus , Hanko, 1924
Cyprinus carpio aralensis , Spiczakow, 1935
Cyprinus carpio fluviatilis , Pravdin, 1945
Cyprinus carpio brevicirri , Misik, 1958
Cyprinus carpio longicirri , Misik, 1958
Cyprinus nordmannii , Valenciennes, 1842
Cyprinus festetitsii , Bonaparte, 1845
Similar species
Carassius auratus, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinidae
Summary
The introduction of fish as a source of protein for human consumption into tropical and subtropical lake systems is continuing apace. The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) has been cultured for 2500 years and is also a popular angling and ornamental fish; is the third most frequently introduced species in the world. Its method of feeding churns up the sediments on the bottom of the water and uproots macrophytes, making it an keystone ecosystem engineer that altering habitats for native fish and other native aquatic species.
Species Description
Carp can grow up to 120 cm in length and weigh up to 60 kg (Allen 1989, in Pinto et al. 2005), however in Australia they commonly reach 3 to 5 kg (Brumley 1996, in Pinto et al. 2005). The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) may be recognised by its small eyes, thick lips, two barbels at each corner of the mouth, large scales, and strongly serrated spines in the dorsal and anal fins (NSW Department of Primary Industries 2005). The colour of carp varies; in the wild, they are usually olive green to bronze or silvery in colour with a paler underside (NSW Department of Primary Industries 2005). Koi carp are an ornamental strain which are brightly coloured with orange, yellow, white and black markings; if they escape into the wild, however, koi carp soon revert to the wild colouring (NSW Department of Primary Industries 2005). Some variants, known as mirrored carp, are only partly scaled, with a few very large scales in patches or along the midline; all strains belong to the same species (Cyprinus carpio) (NSW Department of Primary Industries 2005).
\"Dorsal spines (total): three to four; Dorsal soft rays (total): 17 to 23; Anal spines: two to three; Anal soft rays: five to six; Vertebrae : 36 to 37. Pharyngeal teeth 1, 1, 3:3, 1,1, robust, molar-like with crown flattened or somewhat furrowed. Scales large and thick. `Wild carp ' is generally distinguished by its less stocky build with height of body 1:3.2 to 4.8 in standard length. Very variable in form, proportions, squamation, development of fins, and colour. Caudal fin with three spines and 17 to 19 rays. Last simple anal ray bony and serrated posteriorly; four barbles; 17 to 20 branched dorsal rays; body grey to bronze.\" (FishBase 2003)
Notes
The common carp (C. carpio) is one of the first fish species whose distribution was widely extended by human introduction; in the first centuary AD carp gradually spread across Europe with the assistance of the Romans, who would have found carp in the Danube River (Koehn, Brumely & Gehrke 2000; Balon 1995, in Saikia & Das 2009). Other Cyprinids that have been introduced outside their natural range include goldfish (Carassius auratus), roach (Rutilus rutilus) and tench (Tinca tinca).
The common carp is divided into two subspecies, C. c. carpio from Europe and C. haematopterus from Asia, as reviewed by population genetic data (Flajšhans & Hulata 2007); populations of the Asian subspecies may be further subdivided into Central Asian and East/Southeast Asian ones.
Carp can typically be found in small schools, although larger carp often lead a solitary existence (Smith 1991, in Chumchal 2002).\n\n\n\n
Lifecycle Stages
Hatching of carp eggs is rapid (2 days at 25°C) and larval growth is very\nrapid, enabling them to quickly escape predation pressure (Adamek 1998, in Koehn 2004). Over portions of its native range, common carp may be sexually mature as early as by the end of its first year, but three to four years is more common. Male carp mature before female carp (Pinto et al. 2005). They have a typical lifespan of 13 to 20 years in the wild with a reported specimen of 47 years in captivity (Chumchal 2002; Kuliyev & Agayarova 1984). The largest fish collected on one Australian study was (765 millimeters FL and 8.5 kg) and was estimated at 29 years old, which is consistent with the known life-span for common carp in Australia (Brown et al. 2005, in Jones & Stuart 2009). Over their natural range, carp live up to 15 years, with reports of individuals living up to 24 years. Males live longer than females.
Uses
China began cultivating carp for human consumption 3000 years ago and in 1997 produced more than 250 000 tonnes of Carp for human consumption (Li & Moyle 1993, in Koehn, Brumley & Gehrke 2000; Environment ACT Undated). At least 80 species of cyprinids are used as a fishery resource today, and many species are now exploited as a source of protein around the world. C. carpio production is the second highest farmed fish production in the world, mainly in Asia (Milstein 1992, in Saikia & Das 2009). Carp have long been the main aquaculture production system used in southern Asia and are often cultured in rice fields (Miah et al. 1997, Kanak et al. 1999, Reddy et al. 2002, in Rahman et al. 2008; Saikia & Das 2009).
Cyprinids are important in aquarium culture as companion or show species, including ornamental varieties known as \"koi\" which fetch high prices on the market (Balon 1995, in Saikia & Das 2009).
Cyprinids are also important for commericial wild harvesting and as recreational fishing species. Common carp are highly appreciated by many recreational fisheries, particularly in Europe including the United Kingdom, the Czech Republic and Germany (Linfield 1980, Vacha 1998, Wedekind et al. 2001, in Arlinghaus & Mehner 2003). For catch and aquaculture statistics for the common carp in Europe please see GenImpact.
Habitat Description
Carp are usually found in still or slowly flowing waters, lakes and permanent wetlands, commonly with silt bottoms (Environment ACT Undated). They are found at low altitudes (up to 500-m elevation; Reynolds 1983, Driver et al. 2005, in Jones & Stuart 2006), especially in areas where there is abundant aquatic vegetation; they are also found in brackish lower reaches of some rivers and coastal lakes (NSW Department of Primary Industries 2005). Common carp occupy many microenvironments (Pflieger 1975, in DeVaney et al. 2009); they typically inhabit the benthopelagic zone of fresh to brackish waters within a pH range of 7.0 to 7.5 and temperates of 3°C to 32°C within latitudes of 60°N to 40°N. For global potential ecological niche models for the common carp see DeVaney and colleagues (2009).
Part of the reason why common carp are successful freshwater invaders is their ability to exploit a range of available habitats (Jones & Stuart 2009) and take advantage of degraded habitats. They have a greater tolerance of low oxygen levels, pollutants and turbidity than most native fish, and are often associated with degraded habitats, including stagnant waters (NSW Department of Primary Industries 2005). They are most abundant in streams enriched with sewage or substantial runoff from agricultural land and are rarer in clear, cold waters and streams of high gradient. In fact, they are cultured in rural southern Asia in rice fields, which are reported to be the richest habitats of aquatic organisms (Saikia & Das 2009). Changes to water flows, declining water quality and other changes to river habitats over the past few decades have negatively affected many native fish while favouring carp (NSW Department of Primary Industries 2005). Gehrke and colleagues (1995, in Brown et al. 2005) have suggested that exotic species such as carp benefit from floodplain inundation.
Although stenohaline, carp are tolerant of relatively high salinities. They are known to make excursions to brackish water (up to 17 500 mg L–1) throughout the world including Australia, Canada and southern France (Kuliyev & Agayarova 1984; Barraclough and Robinson 1971, Geddes 1987, Crivelli 1981, in Whiterod & Walker 2006). Adult carp from the Lower Murray are known to survive direct transfer to a salinity of 12 500 mg L–1, or 15 000 mg L–1 with acclimation (Geddes 1979, in Whiterod & Walker 2006). Similar limits are implied by tests on acclimated carp in Iraq, and by reports of carp from estuaries in Canada and France (Al-Hamed 1971, Barraclough and Robinson 1971, Crivelli 1981, in Whiterod & Walker 2006). Larvae and juvenile fish are less tolerant (e.g. Hassan et al. 1998, Karimov and Keyser 1998, in Whiterod & Walker 2006), however, and sub-lethal effects on carp of all ages are apparent at comparatively low salinities (e.g. De Boeck et al. 2000a 2000b, in Whiterod & Walker 2006). Under experimental conditions, feeding rates and growth rates of fingerlings decline at higher salinities (Wang et al. 1997).
Reproduction
The life-history of carp is one characterised by flexibility, with long breeding seasons (up to 9 months) and the ability to spawn multiple times each year (Smith & Walker 2004, in Jones & Stuart 2009). Common carp are portional spawners, spawning two or three times over a 14 day interval. Mating groups of one female and several males swim actively before spawning. Temperature required for spawning is 18 C (Cowx 2001, in Hickley et al. 2004) and the carp is not selective in its choice of substratum for attachment of eggs (Petr 2000, in Hickley et al. 2004). Floodplains, slow flowing pools, and other shallow habitats with dense macrophyte cover appear to be preferred sites. Males externally fertilize eggs and females spread them over aquatic plants. They spawn seasonally during the spring and summer in temperate conditions and year round in tropical conditions. Eggs vary from 1.2 to 1.4 millimeters in diameter, are yellowish-green in color and usually hatch within four days. They have a relative fecundity of 100 000 to 300 000 eggs per kilogram with reports of as many as 360 000 to 599 000 eggs per female and over a million eggs produced by a female in one season/ C. carpio has a polytypic plasticity that has resulted from genetic varieties, or “races” through selective breeding in response to environmental influences. In their native range they may reach sexual maturity within their first year (FishBase 2009, Chumchal 2002, Balon 1995, Aguirre and Poss 2000, Kuliyev & Agayarova 1984, Jones & Stuart 2009).
Nutrition
Adult common carp are benthivores, feeding in sediments to a depth of about 12 centimeters by sucking up mud from the bottom, ejecting it and selectively consuming items while they are suspended; the feeding galleries of carp are easily recognised in shallow waters as depressions in the sediment (Chumchal 2002; Driver et al. 2005; Saikia & Das 2009). Common carp are omnivores; their diet therefore varies between locations and from season to season, depending on food availability (Lammens and Hoogenboezem 1991, in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000). In one study microcrustaceans, for example, were common in the water and diet in spring and summer; molluscs were only eaten when they were available in large numbers; aquarium experiments indicate that chironomids are a preferred food item(Hume et al 1983a, in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000). Hume and colleagues (1983a in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000) found that carp in aquaria preferred to feed on chironomids, and only ate plant material such as pieces of plant tissue, seeds and filamentous green algae in the absence of chironomids. Shifting to a planktivorous diet may occur if zooplankton is limited (Saikia & Das 2009). Rieradevall (1991, in Saikia & Das 2009) also observed a shift of feed items of common carp to amphipod and phantom ridge larvae from chironomids and molluscs due to their higher availability in lake systems. This plasticity in diet may account for some of the invasiveness of common carp. Introduced carp may feed upon food resources previously unexploited by the native fish community (Britton et al. 2007); the common carp’s specialist feeding mechanism of sieving through the substrate allows them take advantage of potentially under-utilised resources, including detritus at a base level of the food chain (Koehn 2004).
In studies, common carp were shown to feed mainly on algae and zooplankton as juveniles (<150 mm), on benthic insects, macroinvertebrates (e.g. chrionomids) and detritus as young fish (150mm to <400mm) and on the occasional extra plant matter as adults (400mm+) (Hume et al. 1983b, in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000). The larvae of C. carpio forage on planktonic organisms, specifically zooplankton taxa (e.g. Arcella, Diflugia, Colurella, Bosminopsis, Bosmina, small rotifers (Lecane and Monostyla), copepods, diatoms (e.g. Bacillariophyceae) algae (e.g. Chlorophyceae) and Cyanobacteria (HHRI 1976, Li et al. 1995, in Jia et al. 2008; Saikia & Das 2009). Young common carp feed on a variety of macro-invertebrates including, aquatic insect larvae (chironomids, corixids/water boatman, caddis fly larvae), copepods, cladocerans, molluscs (e.g. snails), ostracods, microcrustaceans, tubificids, zooplankton and zooperiphyton (Sigler 1958, Matlak & Matlak 1976, Zur & Sarig 1980, Hume et al. 1983a, in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000; Sibbing 1988, in Saikia & Das 2009). Adult common carp are known to eat a wide variety of organisms including, insects (e.g. beetles), crustaceans (cladocerans, copepods, ostracods, decapods) (Crivelli 1981, Vilizzi 1998, in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000), annelids, mollusks, fish eggs, fish remains, aquatic plants and seeds. Seeds contain carbohydrates and carp feeding on seeds may be preferentially seeking carbohydrate-rich high-energy food (Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000). In studies, benthic insects are consistently important dietary items both in wild and cultured carp (USA: Sigler 1958; USSR: Guziur and Weilgosz 1975; Israel: Kugler and Chen 1968; Zur and Sarig 1980; Indonesia: Vaas and Vaas Van Oven 1959, in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000). Common carp are also known to feed on the soft exposed roots of Typha latifolia and Chara aspera (Miller 2004, in Miller & Provenza 2007).
Pathway
Carp have been introduced into Australia both deliberately, in an attempt to imitate the European environment, and accidentally, through the escape of ornamental or aquaculture fish (NSW Department of Primary Industries 2005). The importation of carp was probably because of the desire of some of the colonists to imitate a European environment in Victoria. The Acclimatisation Society of Victoria (1861) which was established from the short-lived Zoological Society of Victoria (1857) aimed to offer salmon, trout, carp and other fish for anglers (Gillbank 1980, in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000).It has been introduced as a food fish, into temperate freshwaters, throughout the world. (Aguirre and Poss, 2000)Introduced into many places for angling/sport. (FishBase, 2003)It has been introduced as an ornamental fish, into temperate freshwaters, throughout the world. (Aguirre and Poss, 2000)Carp have been introduced into Australia both deliberately, in an attempt to imitate the European environment, and accidentally, through the escape of ornamental or aquaculture fish (NSW Department of Primary Industries 2005). The importation of carp was probably because of the desire of some of the colonists to imitate a European environment in Victoria. The Acclimatisation Society of Victoria (1861) which was established from the short-lived Zoological Society of Victoria (1857) aimed to offer salmon, trout, carp and other fish for anglers (Gillbank 1980, in Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000).

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review:

Publication date: 2010-10-04

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Cyprinus carpio. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=60 on 27-09-2016.

General Impacts
For a detailed account of the impacts of Cyprinus carpio please read: Cyprinus carpio (Common Carp) Impacts Information. The information in this document is summarised below.

C. carpio is the third most frequently introduced species world-wide (Welcomme 1992, in Saikia & Das 2009). On every continent where it has been introduced it has reduced water quality and degraded aquatic habitats (McCrimmon 1968, Roberts et al. 1995, King et al. 1997, Koehn et al. 2000, in Jones & Stuart 2006).
Ecosystem Change: In shallow aquatic ecosystems, common carp can be considered “ecosystem engineers” or “keystone modifiers” (Jones et al. 1994, Mills et al. 1993, in Parkos Santucci & Wahl 2003) in that they have strong effects on benthic communities.
Aquatic macrophytes are integral to ecosystem functioning (Stansfield et al. 1997, in Nunn et al. 2007). Carp are known to damage aquatic macrophytes.
Macrophytes are keystone species in aquatic ecosystems (Scheffer 1998, Scheffer et al. 2001, in Shin-ichiro et al 2009). Shin-ichiro and colleagues (2009) found carp significantly influenced benthic macroinvertebrates.
Habitat Alteration: Carp may pose a threat to wetlands that are used by many fish as spawning and nursery habitats (Parkos Santucci & Wahl 2003).\n
Modification of natural benthic communities: Carp are believed to stimulate algal bloom formation by increasing nutrient release from sediments and decreasing algal grazing by cladocerans (which the juvenile carp prey upon) (Pinto et al. 2005).
Modification of nutrient regime: Carp increase nutrients in the water column in two ways: by sediment resuspension and by excretion (Lamarra 1975, Brabrand et al. 1990, in Chumchal 2002).
Reduction in native biodiversity: In California, USA, carp have been implicated in the gradual disappearance of native fishes (Moyle 1976a, in Nico Maynard & Schofield 2009).
Data from Miller and Crowl (2006) suggests that carp can significantly affect species abundance and diversity of macrophytes and some macroinvertebrates. Common carp negatively affected macrophyte abundance by reduction of light availability, increase of siltation rates, ingestion of plant matter and uprooting during feeding activity (Parkos Santucci & Wahl 2003).
The loss of rooted macrophytes due to carp activity is intuitively likely to lead to a decline in biological diversity, in endemic fish, amphibians, and reptiles in Mexico (Crowder & Painter 1991, in Zambrano et al. 1999) and elsewhere.
Physical disturbance: Carp stir up bottom sediments during feeding, resulting in increased siltation and bioturbidity (Arlinghaus & Mehner 2003; Parkos Santucci & Wahl 2003; Lee et al. 1980, in Nico Maynard & Schofield 2009).
Threat to endangered species: Non-native fish can drive native species to local extinction (Zambrano et al. 2006).Predation: Carp prey on macroinvertebrtes (Parkos Santucci & Wahl 2003). There is also evidence that common carp prey on the eggs of other fish species (Moyle 1976a, Taylor et al. 1984, Miller & Beckman 1996, in Nico Maynard & Schofield 2009).
Competition: Laird and Page (1996, in Nico Maynard & Schofield 2009) stated that common carp may compete with ecologically similar species such as carp suckers and buffalo fish.
Economic/Livelihoods: Growth rates and stocks of other fish may be impacted by competition with carp (Arlinghaus & Mehner 2003), including perch. Carp provide an important source of protein in some third world countries (FishBase 2009).
Human nuisance: By stirring up river substrate and reducing aquatic vegetation carp can makes waterways unattractive and can render the water unsuitable for swimming or for drinking by livestock (NIWA 2003).

Management Info
Preventative measures: The use of potentially invasive alien species for aquaculture and their accidental release/or escape can have negative impacts on native biodiversity and ecosystems. Hewitt et al, (2006) Alien Species in Aquaculture: Considerations for responsible use aims to first provide decision makers and managers with information on the existing international and regional regulations that address the use of alien species in aquaculture, either directly or indirectly; and three examples of national responses to this issue (Australia, New Zealand and Chile). The publication also provides recommendations for a ‘simple’ set of guidelines and principles for developing countries that can be applied at a regional or domestic level for the responsible management of Alien Species use in aquaculture development. These guidelines focus primarily on marine systems, however may equally be applied to freshwater.

Copp et al, (2005) Risk identification and assessment of non-native freshwater fishes presents a conceptual risk assessment approach for freshwater fish species that addresses the first two elements (hazard identification, hazard assessment) of the UK environmental risk strategy. The paper presents a few worked examples of assessments on species to facilitate discussion. The electronic Decision-support tools- Invasive-species identification tool kits that includes a freshwater and marine fish invasives scoring kit are made available on the Cefas (Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science) page for free download (subject to Crown Copyright (2007-2008)).

Please follow this link for detailed information on the management of Cyprinus carpio. The information in this document is summarised below.

Potential carp control techniques include harvesting, barriers, biomanipulation, exclusion with screens or barriers, poisoning, biological control, bioacoustics, bubble barriers, immunocontraception and genetic manipulation. The latter two approaches represent a range of options that may become more practical with advances in biotechnology.

Physical Control: Methods include barriers, harvesting, traps and water level manipulation. Electric barriers, bubble curtains and sonic barriers have been used in various countries to exclude fish from structures such as industrial cooling water intakes (Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000).

Harvesting may be useful where the common carp is appreciated by fisheries, such as in parts of Europe (Linfield 1980, Vacha 1998, Wedekind et al. 2001, in Arlinghaus & Mehner 2003). In other regions angling may not be a practical means of control and may not reduce numbers of carp sufficiently (to below 10% of pre-harvest levels) (Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000).

Chemical Control: Widespread use of pesticides is not possible in aquatic habitats because species-specific poisons for carp are not available (Marking 1992). Rotenone is a non-selective natural chemical that is relatively safe and has been used with success in the USA (Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000, Dawson & Kohlar 2003, in Sorensen & Stacey 2004, Fajt and Grizzle 1993 in Baldry, Undated).

Pheromones modulate behaviour of fish and are broken down in natural waters so that their application can be regulated (Sorensen & Stacey 2004). The acceptance of the use of pheromones is likely to be greater than that towards persistent toxicants (Sorensen & Stacey 2004). Migratory pheromones, alarm pheromones and sex hormones may all have roles in the integrated management of carp (Sorensen & Stacey 2004).

Biological Control: Bio-control of carp using the Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus (SVCV) (Rhabdovirus carpio) has been suggested since the 1970 however “Intense scrutiny would be given to the release of viral control agents [in Australia], especially those which may be water-borne” (Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000).

Biomanipulation (Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000): This is the concept of manipulating the interrelationships among plants, animals and their environment to achieve a new ecological balance, for example, reducing populations of zooplanktivorous fish to low levels and stocking the system with predators. This method is ecologically controversial.

Immunocontraception (Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000): This approach involves the delivery of a gene which blocks reproduction mechanisms when the host is infected by a recombinant virus.

Molecular approaches (Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000): Inducible Fatality Genes (IFG) involve breeding carp with a fatal genetic weakness to a trigger substance, such as zinc. The fatal gene technology appears to be a potentially viable and long-term strategy for the environmentally benign control of carp.

Sterile ferals (Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000): This concept is based on an inducible sterility gene that renders individuals within a population sterile.

Research: A broad investigation is underway to provide biological information on carp as a precursor to developing effective pest control strategies (Brown et al. 2005).

Integrated Pest Management (IPM): It is doubtful whether any single management approach on its own could eradicate established carp; the answer may lie in the use of integrated techniques (Sorensen & Wyatt 2001, in Sorensen & Stacey 2004).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Cyprinus carpio
ALIEN RANGE
NATIVE RANGE
  • amudar'ya river
  • amur river
  • aral sea
  • armenia
  • austria
  • azerbaijan
  • bulgaria
  • caspian sea
  • china
  • czech republic
  • danube river
  • euphrates river
  • ex-yugoslavia
  • georgia
  • hungary
  • kazakhstan
  • liberia
  • macedonia, the former yugoslav republic of
  • moldova, republic of
  • mongolia
  • norway
  • russian federation
  • serbia and montenegro
  • slovakia
  • tigris river
  • ukraine
  • united states
  • uzbekistan
  • viet nam
Informations on Cyprinus carpio has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
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Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Cyprinus carpio in information
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Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
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Impact information
For a detailed account of the impacts of Cyprinus carpio please read: Cyprinus carpio (Common Carp) Impacts Information. The information in this document is summarised below.

C. carpio is the third most frequently introduced species world-wide (Welcomme 1992, in Saikia & Das 2009). On every continent where it has been introduced it has reduced water quality and degraded aquatic habitats (McCrimmon 1968, Roberts et al. 1995, King et al. 1997, Koehn et al. 2000, in Jones & Stuart 2006).
Ecosystem Change: In shallow aquatic ecosystems, common carp can be considered “ecosystem engineers” or “keystone modifiers” (Jones et al. 1994, Mills et al. 1993, in Parkos Santucci & Wahl 2003) in that they have strong effects on benthic communities.
Aquatic macrophytes are integral to ecosystem functioning (Stansfield et al. 1997, in Nunn et al. 2007). Carp are known to damage aquatic macrophytes.
Macrophytes are keystone species in aquatic ecosystems (Scheffer 1998, Scheffer et al. 2001, in Shin-ichiro et al 2009). Shin-ichiro and colleagues (2009) found carp significantly influenced benthic macroinvertebrates.
Habitat Alteration: Carp may pose a threat to wetlands that are used by many fish as spawning and nursery habitats (Parkos Santucci & Wahl 2003).\n
Modification of natural benthic communities: Carp are believed to stimulate algal bloom formation by increasing nutrient release from sediments and decreasing algal grazing by cladocerans (which the juvenile carp prey upon) (Pinto et al. 2005).
Modification of nutrient regime: Carp increase nutrients in the water column in two ways: by sediment resuspension and by excretion (Lamarra 1975, Brabrand et al. 1990, in Chumchal 2002).
Reduction in native biodiversity: In California, USA, carp have been implicated in the gradual disappearance of native fishes (Moyle 1976a, in Nico Maynard & Schofield 2009).
Data from Miller and Crowl (2006) suggests that carp can significantly affect species abundance and diversity of macrophytes and some macroinvertebrates. Common carp negatively affected macrophyte abundance by reduction of light availability, increase of siltation rates, ingestion of plant matter and uprooting during feeding activity (Parkos Santucci & Wahl 2003).
The loss of rooted macrophytes due to carp activity is intuitively likely to lead to a decline in biological diversity, in endemic fish, amphibians, and reptiles in Mexico (Crowder & Painter 1991, in Zambrano et al. 1999) and elsewhere.
Physical disturbance: Carp stir up bottom sediments during feeding, resulting in increased siltation and bioturbidity (Arlinghaus & Mehner 2003; Parkos Santucci & Wahl 2003; Lee et al. 1980, in Nico Maynard & Schofield 2009).
Threat to endangered species: Non-native fish can drive native species to local extinction (Zambrano et al. 2006).Predation: Carp prey on macroinvertebrtes (Parkos Santucci & Wahl 2003). There is also evidence that common carp prey on the eggs of other fish species (Moyle 1976a, Taylor et al. 1984, Miller & Beckman 1996, in Nico Maynard & Schofield 2009).
Competition: Laird and Page (1996, in Nico Maynard & Schofield 2009) stated that common carp may compete with ecologically similar species such as carp suckers and buffalo fish.
Economic/Livelihoods: Growth rates and stocks of other fish may be impacted by competition with carp (Arlinghaus & Mehner 2003), including perch. Carp provide an important source of protein in some third world countries (FishBase 2009).
Human nuisance: By stirring up river substrate and reducing aquatic vegetation carp can makes waterways unattractive and can render the water unsuitable for swimming or for drinking by livestock (NIWA 2003).

Mechanism
[16] Competition
[9] Predation
[1] Hybridisation
[4] Disease transmission
[2] Grazing/Herbivory/Browsing
[2] Other
Outcomes
[70] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [14] Modification of hydrology/water regulation, purification and quality /soil moisture
  • [5] Modification of nutrient pool and fluxes
  • [9] Modification of natural benthic communities
  • [24] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [3] Unspecified ecosystem modification
  • [5] Habitat degradation
  • [10] Habitat or refugia replacement/loss
[6] Environmental Species - Population
  • [1] Alteration of genetic resources
  • [4] Plant/animal health
  • [1] other
[22] Socio-Economic
  • [2] Damage on aquaculture/mariculture/fishery
  • [6] Damage to infrastructures
  • [2] Damage to ornamentals
  • [12] Other livelihoods
Management information
Preventative measures: The use of potentially invasive alien species for aquaculture and their accidental release/or escape can have negative impacts on native biodiversity and ecosystems. Hewitt et al, (2006) Alien Species in Aquaculture: Considerations for responsible use aims to first provide decision makers and managers with information on the existing international and regional regulations that address the use of alien species in aquaculture, either directly or indirectly; and three examples of national responses to this issue (Australia, New Zealand and Chile). The publication also provides recommendations for a ‘simple’ set of guidelines and principles for developing countries that can be applied at a regional or domestic level for the responsible management of Alien Species use in aquaculture development. These guidelines focus primarily on marine systems, however may equally be applied to freshwater.

Copp et al, (2005) Risk identification and assessment of non-native freshwater fishes presents a conceptual risk assessment approach for freshwater fish species that addresses the first two elements (hazard identification, hazard assessment) of the UK environmental risk strategy. The paper presents a few worked examples of assessments on species to facilitate discussion. The electronic Decision-support tools- Invasive-species identification tool kits that includes a freshwater and marine fish invasives scoring kit are made available on the Cefas (Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science) page for free download (subject to Crown Copyright (2007-2008)).

Please follow this link for detailed information on the management of Cyprinus carpio. The information in this document is summarised below.

Potential carp control techniques include harvesting, barriers, biomanipulation, exclusion with screens or barriers, poisoning, biological control, bioacoustics, bubble barriers, immunocontraception and genetic manipulation. The latter two approaches represent a range of options that may become more practical with advances in biotechnology.

Physical Control: Methods include barriers, harvesting, traps and water level manipulation. Electric barriers, bubble curtains and sonic barriers have been used in various countries to exclude fish from structures such as industrial cooling water intakes (Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000).

Harvesting may be useful where the common carp is appreciated by fisheries, such as in parts of Europe (Linfield 1980, Vacha 1998, Wedekind et al. 2001, in Arlinghaus & Mehner 2003). In other regions angling may not be a practical means of control and may not reduce numbers of carp sufficiently (to below 10% of pre-harvest levels) (Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000).

Chemical Control: Widespread use of pesticides is not possible in aquatic habitats because species-specific poisons for carp are not available (Marking 1992). Rotenone is a non-selective natural chemical that is relatively safe and has been used with success in the USA (Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000, Dawson & Kohlar 2003, in Sorensen & Stacey 2004, Fajt and Grizzle 1993 in Baldry, Undated).

Pheromones modulate behaviour of fish and are broken down in natural waters so that their application can be regulated (Sorensen & Stacey 2004). The acceptance of the use of pheromones is likely to be greater than that towards persistent toxicants (Sorensen & Stacey 2004). Migratory pheromones, alarm pheromones and sex hormones may all have roles in the integrated management of carp (Sorensen & Stacey 2004).

Biological Control: Bio-control of carp using the Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus (SVCV) (Rhabdovirus carpio) has been suggested since the 1970 however “Intense scrutiny would be given to the release of viral control agents [in Australia], especially those which may be water-borne” (Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000).

Biomanipulation (Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000): This is the concept of manipulating the interrelationships among plants, animals and their environment to achieve a new ecological balance, for example, reducing populations of zooplanktivorous fish to low levels and stocking the system with predators. This method is ecologically controversial.

Immunocontraception (Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000): This approach involves the delivery of a gene which blocks reproduction mechanisms when the host is infected by a recombinant virus.

Molecular approaches (Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000): Inducible Fatality Genes (IFG) involve breeding carp with a fatal genetic weakness to a trigger substance, such as zinc. The fatal gene technology appears to be a potentially viable and long-term strategy for the environmentally benign control of carp.

Sterile ferals (Koehn Brumley & Gehrke 2000): This concept is based on an inducible sterility gene that renders individuals within a population sterile.

Research: A broad investigation is underway to provide biological information on carp as a precursor to developing effective pest control strategies (Brown et al. 2005).

Integrated Pest Management (IPM): It is doubtful whether any single management approach on its own could eradicate established carp; the answer may lie in the use of integrated techniques (Sorensen & Wyatt 2001, in Sorensen & Stacey 2004).

Bibliography
101 references found for Cyprinus carpio

Managment information
Alien Species in Poland 2006 Cyprinus carpio
Summary: Available from: http://www.iop.krakow.pl/ias/Gatunek.aspx?spID=206 [Accessed 18 March 2010]
Aquatic Invaders of Belarus., 2007. Alien Species Database Cyprinus carpio
Summary: This database is of alien aquatic animals inhabiting waterbodies of the Republic of Belarus. It allows to search the species by scientific taxonomy and to get information on their origin, distribution and potential ecological impacts. The database was composed in result of the analysis of literature published during the last century and authors unpublished data. One can find some general information on Belarusian waterbodies, history of construction and functioning of the interbasin shipping canals, links to related sites, etc. The site is under testing and only an English version is available, a Russian version is expected shortly.
The database is available from: http://www.aliensinbelarus.com/content/view/12/28/.
This page is available from: http://www.aliensinbelarus.com/index.php?option=com_database&Itemid=27&id=42&task=one_dat [Accessed 28 May 2007]
Arlinghaus, Robert and Mehner, Thomas. 2003. Socio-economic characterisation of specialised common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) anglers in Germany, and implications for inland fisheries management and eutrophication control. Fisheries Research Volume 61, Issues 1-3, March 2003, Pages 19-33.
Barrett, J. Australia�s national management strategy for carp control.
Summary: Available from: http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/PF14barrett.pdf [Accessed 2 December 2009]
Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.
Summary: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
The decision support tools are available from: http://cefas.defra.gov.uk/our-science/ecosystems-and-biodiversity/non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx [Accessed 13 October 2011]
The guidance document is available from http://www.cefas.co.uk/media/118009/fisk_guide_v2.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009].
Champion, P. Clayton, J. and Rowe, D. 2002. Alien Invaders Lake Managers� Handbook. Ministry for the Environment.
Summary: Available from: http://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/water/lm-alien-invaders-jun02.pdf [Accessed 3 February 2005]
Coates, D. and Ulaiwi, W.K. 1995. A simple model for predicting ecological impacts of introduced aquatic organisms: a case study of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., in the Sepik-Ramu River Basin, Papua New Guinea. Fisheries Management and Ecology, Volume 2 Issue 3, Pages 227 - 242.
Copp, G.H., Garthwaite, R. and Gozlan, R.E., 2005. Risk identification and assessment of non-native freshwater fishes: concepts and perspectives on protocols for the UK. Sci. Ser. Tech Rep., Cefas Lowestoft, 129: 32pp.
Summary: The discussion paper presents a conceptual risk assessment approach for freshwater fish species that addresses the first two elements (hazard identification, hazard assessment) of the UK environmental risk strategy The paper presents a few worked examples of assessments on species to facilitate discussion.
Available from: http://www.cefas.co.uk/publications/techrep/tech129.pdf [Accessed 1 September 2005]
DeVaney, S., McNyset, K.M., Williams, J., Peterson, A.T., Wiley, E.O. 2009. A Tale of Four ��Carp��: Invasion Potential and Ecological Niche Modeling. May 2009 | Volume 4 | Issue 5 |e5451. pg 1-10.
Hewitt, C.L, Campbell, M.L. and Gollasch, S. 2006. Alien Species in Aquaculture. Considerations for responsible use. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. viii + 32 pp.
Summary: This publication aims to first provide decision makers and managers with information on the existing international and regional regulations that address the use of alien species in aquaculture, either directly or indirectly; and three examples of national responses to this issue (New Zealand, Australia and Chile).
Available from: http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/2006-036.pdf [Accessed 22 September 2008]
Industry & Investment NSW (Department of Industry and Investment) 2009. NSW Draft Control Plan for the noxious fish carp: Cyprinus carpio.
Summary: Available from: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/306010/Draft-NSW-carp-control-plan.pdf [Accessed 30 November 2009]
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Jones, M. J. and Stuart, I.G. 2006. Movement of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, in a regulated lowland Australian river: implications for management. Fisheries Management & Ecology. 13(4). AUG 2006. 213-219.
Koehn, J., Brumley, A.. & Gehrke, P. 2000. Managing the Impacts of Carp. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra.
Summary: Available from: http://www.feral.org.au/feral_documents/Impacts_of_Carpv1.pdf [Accessed 2 December 2009]
Kroon, F.J., Gehrke, P.C., Kurwie, T. 2005. Weeds & Feral Animal Issues & Solutions. Ecological Management and Restoration Vol 6 No 3 December 2005, 228-229.
Lloyd, Sandy. December 14, 2002. Personal communication.
Summary: Email providing information on some management techniques in Australia.
Mendoza, R.E.; Cudmore, B.; Orr, R.; Balderas, S.C.; Courtenay, W.R.; Osorio, P.K.; Mandrak, N.; Torres, P.A.; Damian, M.A.; Gallardo, C.E.; Sanguines, A.G.; Greene, G.; Lee, D.; Orbe-Mendoza, A.; Martinez, C.R.; and Arana, O.S. 2009. Trinational Risk Assessment Guidelines for Aquatic Alien Invasive Species. Commission for Environmental Cooperation. 393, rue St-Jacques Ouest, Bureau 200, Montr�al (Qu�bec), Canada. ISBN 978-2-923358-48-1.
Summary: In 1993, Canada, Mexico and the United States signed the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) as a side agreement to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The NAAEC established the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) to help the Parties ensure that improved economic efficiency occurred simultaneously with trinational environmental cooperation. The NAAEC highlighted biodiversity as a key area for trinational cooperation. In 2001, the CEC adopted a resolution (Council Resolution 01-03), which created the Biodiversity Conservation Working Group (BCWG), a working group of high-level policy makers from Canada, Mexico and the United States. In 2003, the BCWG produced the �Strategic Plan for North American Cooperation in the Conservation of Biodiversity.� This strategy identified responding to threats, such as invasive species, as a priority action area. In 2004, the BCWG, recognizing the importance of prevention in addressing invasive species, agreed to work together to develop the draft CEC Risk Assessment Guidelines for Aquatic Alien Invasive Species (hereafter referred to as the Guidelines). These Guidelines will serve as a tool to North American resource managers who are evaluating whether or not to introduce a non-native species into a new ecosystem. Through this collaborative process, the BCWG has begun to implement its strategy as well as address an important trade and environment issue. With increased trade comes an increase in the potential for economic growth as well as biological invasion, by working to minimize the potential adverse impacts from trade, the CEC Parties are working to maximize the gains from trade while minimizing the environmental costs.
Available from: English version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5516_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_en.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010]
French version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5517_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_fr.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010]
Spanish version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5518_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_es.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010].
Miller, S.A. and Provenza, F.D. 2007. Mechanisms of resistance of freshwater macrophytes to herbivory by invasive juvenile common carp. Freshwater Biology (2007) 52, 39�49.
National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). Home � Our Science � Freshwater � Management Tools � NIWA Atlas of NZ Freshwater Fishes � Koi Carp
Summary: Available from: http://www.niwa.co.nz/our-science/freshwater/tools/fishatlas/species/koi_carp [Accessed 28 November 2009]
Parkos, Joe & Wahl, David,. 2000. Center for Aquatic Ecology; Victor Santucci, Jr., Max McGraw Wildlife Foundation. Illinois Natural History Survey (INHS).
Summary: An article exploring the experiments carried out by Parkos & Wahl (2000), which investigated the actual impacts carp have on a benthic community. The article also explores the uses of plastic mesh substrate covers in helping to control the impacts of the carp.
Available from: http://www.inhs.uiuc.edu/chf/pub/surveyreports/jan-feb00/fish.html [Accessed 23 August 2003]
Pinto, L., Chandrasena, N., Pera, J., Hawkins, P., Eccles, D., Sim, R. 2005. Managing invasive carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) for habitat enhancement at Botany Wetlands, Australia. Aquatic Conserv: Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst. 15: 447�462 (2005)
Rowe, D.K and Graynoth, E, 2002. Lake Managers Handbook- Fish in New Zealand Lakes. Ministry for the Environment, Wellington.
Summary: Available from: http://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/water/lm-fish-in-nz-lakes-jun02.pdf
Rutherfurd, Ian D., Kathryn Jerie and Nicholas Marsh, 2000. A Rehabilitation Manual for Australian Streams. Cooperative Research Centre for Catchment Hydrology Land and Water Resources Research and Development Corporation.
Summary: A paper on the rehabilitation techniques for Australian streams.
Sorensen, P.W., Stacey, N.E. 2004. Brief review of fish pheromones and discussion of their possible uses in the control of non-indigenous teleost fishes. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 2004, Vol. 38: 399�417
Stuart, I. . G. and Jones, M. J. 2006. Movement of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, in a regulated lowland Australian river: implications for management. Fisheries Management & Ecology. 13(4). AUG 2006. 213-219.
Whiterod, N.R. & K.F. Walker A. 2006. Will rising salinity in the Murray�Darling Basin affect common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)?, Marine and Freshwater Research 57(8): 817-823.
General information
Aguirre, W., and Poss, S. G., 2000. Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758. Non-Indigenous Species in the Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem - Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC).
Summary: Small online article with some general information on carp.
Available from: http://www.gsmfc.org/nis/nis/Cyprinus_carpio.html [Accessed 24 August 2003].
Australian Museum Online, 2003. Australian Museum fish site � 1998 - 2003.
Summary: Available from: http://www.amonline.net.au/fishes/fishfacts/fish/ccarpio.htm [Accessed 2 September].
Badiou, Pascal H. T., Goldsborough, L. Gordon. 2006. Northern range expansion and invasion by the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, of the Churchill river system in Manitoba. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 120(1). JAN-MAR 2006. 83-86.
Summary: Recent fisheries data from northern Manitoba indicates that the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) has extended the northern limit of its range. Additionally, it also appears that carp have invaded and established viable populations in the Manitoba portion of the Churchill River. Habitat degradation and altered flow regimes as result of hydroelectric development in northern Manitoba may have facilitated the expansion of carp in the region.
Badiou, P.H.J.a b , Goldsborough, L.G. 2007. Northern range expansion and invasion by the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, of the Churchill River system in Manitoba.Canadian Field Naturalist Volume 120, Issue 1, January 2006, Pages 83-86.
Summary: Recent fisheries data from northern Manitoba indicates that the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) has extended the northern limit of its range. Additionally, it also appears that carp have invaded and established viable populations in the Manitoba portion of the Churchill River. Habitat degradation and altered flow regimes as result of hydroelectric development in northern Manitoba may have facilitated the expansion of carp in the region.
Bajer, P.G. and Sullivan, G. 2009. Effects of a rapidly increasing population of common carp on vegetative cover and waterfowl in a recently restored Midwestern shallow lake. Hydrobiologia (2009) 632:235�245.
Baldry, Ian. Effect of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) on Aquatic Restorations. University of Minnesota � Department of Horticultural Science.
Summary: Effect of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) on Aquatic Restorations.
Available from: http://www.hort.agri.umn.edu/h5015/00papers/baldry.htm [Accessed 24 August 2003].
Barton, D. R., Kelton, N., Eedy, R. I. 2000. The effects of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) on sediment export from a small urban impoundment. Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Stress & Recovery. 8(2). December, 2000. 155-159.
Britton, J.R., Boar, R.R., Grey, J., Foster, J., Lugonzo, J., Harper, D.M. 2007. From introduction to fishery dominance: the initial impacts of the invasive carp Cyprinus carpio in Lake Naivasha, Kenya, 1999 to 2006. Journal of Fish Biology (2007) 71 (Supplement D), 239�257.
Britton, J. R., Shepherd, J. S., Toms, S., Simpson, V. 2005. Presence of carp, Cyprinus carpio, in the diet of the otter, Lutra lutra. Fisheries Management & Ecology. 12(3). JUN 05. 221-223.
Brown, P., Sivakumaran, K.P., Stoessel, D., Giles, A. 2005. Population biology of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the mid-Murray River and Barmah Forest Wetlands, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research, 2005, 56, 1151-1164.
Casal, personal communication, March 7, 2003. Casal, Christine (WorldFish).
Summary: Email providing distribution notes from Christine Casal from Fishbase.
Chumchal, M. 2002. Cyprinus carpio (On-line), Animal Diversity Web.
Summary: Available from: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Cyprinus_carpio.html [Accessed September 21 2009]
Chumchal, Matthew, 2002. The University of Michigan - Museum of Zoology.
Summary: An educational resource on carp written largely by and for college students.
Available from: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/cyprinus/c._carpio [Accessed 24 August 2003].
CONABIO. 2008. Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras en M�xico. Especies invasoras - Peces. Comisi�n Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Fecha de acceso.
Summary: English:
The species list sheet for the Mexican information system on invasive species currently provides information related to Scientific names, family, group and common names, as well as habitat, status of invasion in Mexico, pathways of introduction and links to other specialised websites. Some of the higher risk species already have a direct link to the alert page. It is important to notice that these lists are constantly being updated, please refer to the main page (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), under the section Novedades for information on updates.
Invasive species - fish is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Peces [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Spanish:
La lista de especies del Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras de m�xico cuenta actualmente con informaci�n aceca de nombre cient�fico, familia, grupo y nombre com�n, as� como h�bitat, estado de la invasi�n en M�xico, rutas de introducci�n y ligas a otros sitios especializados. Algunas de las especies de mayor riesgo ya tienen una liga directa a la p�gina de alertas. Es importante resaltar que estas listas se encuentran en constante proceso de actualizaci�n, por favor consulte la portada (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), en la secci�n novedades, para conocer los cambios.
Especies invasoras - Peces is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Peces [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Department of Conservation (DOC), New Zealand, undated. Conservation > Threats & impacts > Animal pests > Animal pests A - Z > Fish > Facts > Koi carp
Summary: Available from: http://www.doc.govt.nz/conservation/threats-and-impacts/animal-pests/animal-pests-a-z/fish/facts/koi-carp/ [Accessed 30 November 2009]
Environment ACT (Australian Capital Territory). Undated. Introduced fish information sheet: Carp (Cyprinus carpio).
Summary: Available from: http://www.environment.act.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/152043/carpinfosheet.pdf [Accessed 30 November 2009]
FishBase, 2003. Species profile Cyprinus carpio carpio Common carp
Summary: FishBase is a global information system with all you ever wanted to know about fishes . FishBase on the web contains practically all fish species known to science. FishBase was developed at the WorldFish Center in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and many other partners, and with support from the European Commission (EC). Since 2001 FishBase is supported by a consortium of seven research institutions. You can search on Search FishBase
This species profile is available from: http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/SpeciesSummary.cfm?genusname=Cyprinus&speciesname=carpio%20carpio [Accessed 21 March, 2005]
Fishbase, 2009. Cyprinus carpio carpio. Common Names
Summary: Available from: http://www.fishbase.org/comnames/CommonNamesList.php?ID=1450&GenusName=Cyprinus&SpeciesName=carpio+carpio&StockCode=1643 [Accessed September 21 2009]
Fishbase, 2009. Cyprinus carpio carpio. Conutries list
Summary: Available from: http://www.fishbase.org/Country/CountryList.php?ID=1450&GenusName=Cyprinus&SpeciesName=carpio+carpio [Accessed September 21 2009]
Fishbase, 2009. Cyprinus carpio carpio. Ecology
Summary: Available from: http://www.fishbase.org/Ecology/FishEcologySummary.php?StockCode=1643&GenusName=Cyprinus&SpeciesName=carpio+carpio [Accessed September 21 2009]
Fishbase, 2009. Cyprinus carpio carpio. Introductions
Summary: Available from: http://www.fishbase.org/Introductions/IntroductionsList.cfm?ID=1450&GenusName=Cyprinus&SpeciesName=carpio+carpio&fc=122&StockCode=1643 [Accessed September 21 2009]
Fishbase, 2009. Cyprinus carpio carpio. Species Summary
Summary: Available from: http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?ID=1450&genusname=Cyprinus&speciesname=carpio+carpio [Accessed September 21 2009]
Fishbase, 2009. Cyprinus carpio carpio. Synonyms
Summary: Available from: http://www.fishbase.org/Nomenclature/SynonymsList.php?ID=1450&SynCode=49418&GenusName=Cyprinus&SpeciesName=carpio+carpio [Accessed September 21 2009]
FishBase, 2009. Species profile Cyprinus carpio carpio Common carp
Summary: Available from: http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/SpeciesSummary.php?id=1450 [Accessed 29 November 2009]
Flaj�hans, M. & G. Hulata. 2007. Common Carp Cyprinus carpio. GenImpact.
Summary: Available from: http://genimpact.imr.no/__data/page/7650/common_carp.pdf [Accessed 30 November 2009]
Fletcher, A.R., Morison, A.K., Hume, D.J. 1985. Effects of Carp, Cyprinus carpio L., on Communities of Aquatic Vegetation and Turbidity of Waterbodies in the Lower Goulburn River Basin. Australian J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 1985, 36, 311-27.
Freshwater Biodata Information System New Zealand (FBIS), 2005
Summary: The Freshwater Biodata Information System (FBIS) contains fish, algae, aquatic plant and invertebrate data and metadata gathered from New Zealand s freshwater streams, rivers and lakes. FBIS provides different ways to search for biodata: choose a predefined search from a list of common searches; use the map view to draw a box on a map and search for biodata; or create your own search for maximum search flexibility. FBIS is offered as a nationally available resource for the New Zealand public, institutions and companies who need access to a well-maintained long-term data repository.
Available from: https://secure.niwa.co.nz/fbis/validate.do?search=common [Accessed 5 August 2005]
Hesthagen, T. and Sandlund, O. 2007. Non-native freshwater fishes in Norway: history, consequences and perspectives. Journal of Fish Biology (2007) 71 (Supplement D), 173�183.
Hickley, P., Muchiri, S. M., Britton, J. R., Boar, R. R. 2004. Discovery of carp, Cyprinus carpio, in the already stressed fishery of Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Fisheries Management & Ecology. 11(2). April 2004. 139-142.
Hinojosa-Garro, Demian, Zambrano, Luis. 2004. Interactions of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with henthic crayfish decapods in shallow ponds. Hydrobiologia. 515(1-3). March 1, 2004. 115-122.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2004. Online Database Cyprinus carpio
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/next?v_tsn=163344&taxa=&p_king=every&p_string=containing&p_ifx=plglt&p_lang= [Accessed December 31 2004]
Jia, Yanju, Chen, Yifeng, Xie, Shouqi, Yang, Yunxia. 2008. Physiological advantages may contribute to successful invasion of the exotic Cyprinus carpio into the Xingyun Lake, China. Environmental Biology of Fishes. 81(4). APR 2008. 457-463.
Jones, M.J. and Stuart, I.G. 2007. Movements and habitat use of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) juveniles in a large lowland Australian river. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 2007: 16: 210�220.
Jones, M. J. and Stuart, I. G. 2009. Lateral movement of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in a large lowland river and floodplain. Ecology of Freshwater Fish. 18(1). MAR 2009. 72-82.
Kalas, Steinar and Johansen, Rune. 1995. The common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Norway. Fauna Norvegica Series A. 16(1). 1995. 19-28.
Summary: Attempts have been made to introduce common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to at least 35 sites in Norway during the last 250 years up to 1992. At least twelve introductions occurred before 1930, but the populations were believed to be extinct in the sixties and seventies. However, natural reproduction has occurred in three of these populations during the last hundred years. Common carp have also been introduced during the last decades and is now found in about 30 lakes and ponds in southern Norway. The origin of most of the earlier introductions was Germany. Later introductions from Sweden are known and further spreading from Norwegian populations has occurred. Common carp and crucian carp (Carassius carassius) hybridize in the two lakes in Norway where they occur together.
Kartal, Kuersat and Ozturk, Mehmet Oguz. 2009. Investigations of Ectoparasite Fauna of Some Fish Species (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758; Cobitis simplicispinna Hanko, 1924) from Lake Aksehir (Konya) Aksehir Golu (Konya) ndeki Bazi Baliklarin (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758; Cobitis simplicispinna Hanko, 1924) Ektoparazit Faunasi Uzerinde Arastirmalar. Turkiye Parazitoloji Dergisi. 33(1). 2009. 101-106.
Keith, P. 2002. Freshwater fish and decapod crustacean populations on Reunion island, with an assessment of species introductions. bull. Fr. P�che Piscic,, 364, 97-107.
Summary: Cet article propose un bilan de la connaissance des esp�ces de poissons et des crustac�s d�capodes pr�sents dans les eaux douces de La R�union avec une synth�se des esp�ces introduites.
Keith, P. 2002. Revue des introductions de poissons et de crustac�s d�capodes d eau douce en Polyn�sie fran�aise. Bull. Fr. P�che Piscic, 364, 147-160.
Summary: Cet article fait le bilan des introductions d esp�ces dul�aquicoles en Polyn�sie fran�aise.
Keith, P. 2005. Revue des introductions de poissons et de crustac�s d�capodes d eau douce en Nouvelle-Cal�donie. Revue d Ecologie (La Terre et la vie), 60, 45-55.
Summary: Cet article propose un bilan complet et actualis� des introductions d esp�ces de poissons et de crustac�s d�capodes dans les eaux douces de Nouvelle-Cal�donie.
Keith, P., Marquet, G., Valade, P., Bosc, P. & Vigneux, E. 2006. Atlas des poissons et crustac�s d�eau douce des Comores, Mascareignes et Seychelles. MNHN, Patrimoines naturels, vol. 67, Paris, 158p.
Keith, P., Vigeux, E. & P. Bosc. 1999. Atlas des poissons et crustac�s d�eau douce de la R�union. Patrimoines Naturels (M.N.H.N./S.P.N.), 39 : 136pp.
Keith P., Vigneux E. et G. Marquet. 2002. Atlas des poissons et crustac�s d�eau douce de la Polyn�sie fran�aise. Patrimoines naturels, (MNHN), 55 :1-175.
Koehn, John D. 2004. Carp (Cyprinus carpio) as a powerful invader in Australian waterways. Freshwater Biology. 49(7). July 2004. 882-894.
Kuznetsov, Yu.A., Aminova, I.M. and Kuliev, Z. M., 2002. Caspian Sea Biodiversity Database.
Summary: An online fact sheet on Cyprinus carpio with reference to the Caspian Sea.
Available from: http://www.caspianenvironment.org/biodb/eng/fishes/Cyprinus%20carpio/main.htm [Accessed 24 August 2003]
Leonardos, I.D., Kagalou, I., Tsoumani, M., Economidis, P.S. 2007. Fish fauna in a Protected Greek lake: biodiversity, introduced fish species over a 80-year period and their impacts on the ecosystem. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 2008: 17: 165�173.
Marquet, G., Keith, P., Vigneux, E. 2003. Atlas des poissons et des crustac�s d eau douce de Nouvelle-Cal�donie. Paris, Mus�um national d�histoire naturelle, Collection Patrimoines Naturels 58, 282 p
Matsuzaki, Shin-ichiro S., Usio, Nisikawa, Takamura, Noriko, Washitani, Izumi. 2009. Contrasting impacts of invasive engineers on freshwater ecosystems: an experiment and meta-analysis. Oecologia (Berlin). 158(4). JAN 2009. 673-686.
Miller, S. A. and Crowl, T. A. 2006. Effects of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) on macrophytes and invertebrate communities in a shallow lake. Freshwater Biology. 51(1). JAN 2006. 85-94.
Morgan, D., Gill, H., Maddern, M., Beatty, S. 2004. Distribution and impacts of introduced freshwater fishes in Western Australia. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 2004. Vol. 38: 511-523.
New South Wales (NSW) Department of Primary Industries: Fishing and Aquaculture. 2005. Home � Fishing and aquaculture � Pests & diseases � Freshwater pests � Carp (Cyprinus carpio)
Summary: Available from: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/fisheries/pests-diseases/freshwater-pests/species/carp [Accessed 29 November 2009]
Nico, L., 1999. Cyprinus carpio Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL.
Summary: Available from: http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.asp?speciesID=4 [Accessed 21 March 2005]
Nico, Leo, Erynn Maynard and Pamela J. Schofield. 2009. Cyprinus carpio. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL.
Summary: Available from: http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.asp?speciesID=4 [Accessed 28 November 2009]
Nicol, S., Lieschke, J., Lyon, J., Koehn, J. 2004. Observations on the distribution and abundance of carp and native fish, and their responses to a habitat restoration trial in the Murray River, Australia. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 2004, Vol. 38: 541�551.
Nunn, A., Bolland, J.D., Harvey, J.P., Cowx, I.G. 2007. Establishment of self-sustaining populations of non-native fish species in the River Trent and Warwickshire Avon, UK, indicated by the presence of 0+ fish. Aquatic Invasions (2007) Volume 2, Issue 3: 190-196.
Parkos, J., Santucci, V.J., Wahl, D. 2003. Effects of adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) on multiple trophic levels in shallow mesocosms. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 60: 182�192 (2003)
Pascal, M., Barr�, N., De Garine-Wichatitsky, Lorvelec, O., Fr�tey, T., Brescia, F., Jourdan, H. 2006. Les peuplements n�o-cal�doniens de vert�b�br�s : invasions, disparitions. Pp 111-162, in M.-L. Beauvais et al., : Les esp�ces envahissantes dans l�archipel n�o-cal�donien, Paris, IRD �ditions, 260 p.+ c�d�rom
Summary: Synth�se des introductions d esp�ces de vert�br�s en Nouvelle-Cal�donie et �valuation de leurs impacts.
Penne, C.R. and Pierce, C.L. 2008. Seasonal Distribution, Aggregation, and Habitat Selection of Common Carp in Clear Lake, Iowa. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 2008; 137: 1050-1062.
Summary: The common carp Cyprinus carpio is widely distributed and frequently considered a nuisance species outside its native range. Common carp are abundant in Clear Lake, Iowa, where their presence is both a symptom of degradation and an impediment to improving water quality and the sport fishery. We used radiotelemetry to quantify seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of adult and subadult common carp in Clear Lake during 2005�2006 in an effort to guide future control strategies. Over a 22-month period, we recorded 1,951 locations of 54 adults and 60 subadults implanted with radio transmitters. Adults demonstrated a clear tendency to aggregate in an offshore area during the late fall and winter and in shallow, vegetated areas before and during spring spawning. Late-fall and winter aggregations were estimated to include a larger percentage of the tracked adults than spring aggregations. Subadults aggregated in shallow, vegetated areas during the spring and early summer. Our study, when considered in combination with previous research, suggests repeatable patterns of distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection that should facilitate common carp reduction programs in Clear Lake and similar systems.
PIRSA (Primary Industries and Resources South Australia). 2009. PIRSA Home / Fisheries / Aquarium & Ornamental Fish / Prohibited (noxious) fish list
Summary: Available from: http://www.pir.sa.gov.au/fisheries/archived_content/aquarium_and_ornamental_fish/prohibited_noxious_fish_list [Accessed 30 November 2009]
Polednik, Lukas, Rehulka, Jiri, Kranz, Andreas, Polednikova, Katerina, Hlavac, Vaclav, Kazihnitkova, Hana. 2008. Physiological responses of over-wintering common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to disturbance by Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra). Fish Physiology & Biochemistry. 34(3). SEP 2008. 223-234.
Rahman, M. M., Jo, Q., Gong, Y. G., Miller, S. A., Hossain, M. Y. 2008. A comparative study of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and calbasu (Labeo calbasu Hamilton) on bottom soil resuspension, water quality, nutrient accumulations, food intake and growth of fish in simulated rohu (Labeo rohita Hamilton) ponds. Aquaculture. 285(1-4). DEC 7 2008. 78-83.
Republisque Algerienne Democratique et Populaire: Ministere de L Agriculture et du Developpement Rural Direction Generale Des Forets. 2003. Fiche descriptive sur les zones humides Ramsar: R�serve Int�grale du Lac Oube�ra, Wilaya d�El Tarf.
Roberts, J., Chick, A., Oswald, L., Thompson, P. 1995. Effect of Carp, Cyprinus carpio L., an Exotic Benthivorous Fish, on Aquatic Plants and Water Quality in Experimental Ponds. Marine: Freshwater Res., 1995,46, 1171-80.
Saikia, S. K. and Das, D. N. 2009. Feeding ecology of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in a rice-fish culture system of the Apatani plateau (Arunachal Pradesh, India). Aquatic Ecology. 43(2). JUN 2009. 559-568.
South Australia Government: Department for Enviroment and Heritage. Undated. Supporting Native Fish: Backyards for Wildlife Fact Sheet.
Summary: Available from: http://www.backyards4wildlife.com.au/uploads/BFW%20FS%20-%20Native%20Fish.pdf [Accessed 30 November 2009]
Tekin-Oezan, Selda, Kir, Ismail, Barlas, Murat. 2008. Helminth Parasites of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) in Beysehir Lake and Population Dynamics Related to Month and Host Size. Turkish Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences. 8(2). NOV 2008. 201-205.
Treer, T., Varga, B., Safner, R., Anicic, I., Piria, M., Odak, T. 2003. Growth of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) introduced into the Mediterranean Vransko Lake. Journal of Applied Ichthyology. 19(6). December 2003. 383-386.
Unmack, P.J, 2003. Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758. Australian desert fishes.
Summary: Small bit of information on its presence in Australia.
Available from: http://www.desertfishes.org/australia/fish/cyprcarp.shtml [Accessed 24 August 2003].
Zambrano, L. and Hinojosa, D. 1999. Direct and indirect effects of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) on macrophyte and benthic communities in experimental shallow ponds in central Mexico. Hydrobiologia 408/409: 131�138, 1999.
Zambrano, L., Perrow, M.R., Macias-Garcia, C., Aguirre-Hidalgo, V. 1999. Impact of introduced carp (Cyprinus carpio) in subtropical shallow ponds in Central Mexico. Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Stress and Recovery 6: 281�288, 1999.
Zambrano, Luis, Martinez-Meyer, Enrique, Menezes, Naercio, Peterson, A. Townsend. 2006. Invasive potential of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in American freshwater systems. Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences. 63(9). SEP 2006. 1903-1910.
Zhukov P I, 1988. Encyclopedia on ecology of freshwater fishes. Minsk, Nauka i tekhnika Press
Contact
The following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Cyprinus carpio
Chapman,
Duanne
Duane Chapman�s research interests include: Invasive carps, especially bighead, silver, grass and black carps, as well as tilapias. He is currently working on: Modelling populations of Asian carps in the United States; habitat selection and behaviour of bighead and silver carps in the Missouri River; Establishing, through stable isotopes and diet analysis, the trophic status of Asian carps and relationship to potential native competitors; Capture methods for Asian carps in rivers; Market development for wild Asian carp fisheries, including animal and human foods; Contaminants, including microcystins as well as directly anthropogenic contaminants in tissues of Asian carps in USA; Affects of bighead and silver carps on plankton in US rivers.
He is also currently working with Chinese collaborators to develop a review, in English, of the Chinese literature on bighead and silver carps, as well as working on a tilapia eradication attempt in the Galapagos.
Organization:
Research Fisheries Biologist
Address:
USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center 4200 New Haven Road Columbia, MO 65201
Phone:
573-876-1866
Fax:
573-876-1904