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  • Line drawing of Bromus rubens (USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Hitchcock, A.S. (rev. A. Chase). 1950. Manual of the grasses of the United States. USDA Misc. Publ. No. 200. Washington, DC)
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Common name
foxtail chess (English), red brome (English), foxtail brome (English)
Synonym
Anisantha rubens , (L.) Nevski
Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens , (L.) Husnot
Similar species
Summary
Bromus rubens is a tufted, cool-season annual bunchgrass commonly found growing on shallow dry soil or poor textured, clayey soil. It becomes extremely competitive with other grasses and displaces native species. Red brome can produce large amount of biomass that increase the amount and continuity of fine fuels. The lack of a soil seed bank provides one avenue of control for this species.
Species Description
Red brome is a tufted, cool-season annual bunchgrass which characteristically reaches a height of 20cm to 50cm. Its annual growth pattern is a dense panicle with a purplish tinge and pubescent culm (Newman, 2001). The culms vary from 10-70cm tall. The inflorescence is a panicle, 3-11cm tall, with long awns (Simonin, 2001).
Notes
The spread pattern of B. rubens is similar to that explained by the intermediate disturbance hypothesis: At intermediate levels of disturbances, certain species are able to exist at increased levels. These same species usually have reduced numbers of individuals in areas without disturbances or in areas with intense or frequent disturbances (Camp and Knight, 1998).
Lifecycle Stages
Simonin (2001) states that, \"B. rubens's initiation and establishment is a direct response to fall rains. Initial growth is relatively slow, followed by a rapid increase in vegetative growth coinciding with warming spring temperatures. Flowering and fruiting generally occur in April and May. Seeds are disseminated in summer.\"
Uses
Bromus rubens may provide a source of forage for livestock. Desert cottontails prefer B. rubens with the heaviest use occurring in winter (Simonin, 2001).
Habitat Description
Bromus rubens is commonly found growing on shallow dry soil or poor textured, clayey soil. It grows on south facing slopes, and is a common constituent in steppe regions. Newman (2001) states that, \"B. rubens occurs at low to medium elevations below 1,524m, in deserts and chaparral hillsides, and various places where competition from established herbaceous plants is minimal. It is common along roadsides, waste places, rangelands, and cultivated fields. It is a dominant species on some rangeland that, previous to the destruction of the vegetation, were abundant in perennial native grasses.
Reproduction
Newman (2001) states that, \"Less than 2% of B. rubens seeds maintain their viability over a one year period. Wind carries florets of B. rubens a few metres from the parent plant. Rodent excavation may also be a means of disseminating the seeds. Other common mechanisms of seed dispersion, such as flood sediment transport and scattering by animals, most likely aid in the dissemination of B. rubens seeds.\" The authors also state that, \"B. rubens is a prolific seed producer: an average of 76 seeds per plant in natural populations, 142 seeds per plant in experimental mixed stand plots, or 83,600 seeds per square metre of densely spaced plants.\" Salo (2004) reports that, \"Unlike native annuals, B. rubens does not produce dormant seed and does not maintain a soil seed bank\". Red brome exhibits nearly uniform germination under the cool, moist conditions that characterise winters in these regions. These characteristics cause the periodical decimation of populations of red brome and allow red brome to dominate annual communities in some years.
Nutrition
Simonin (2001) states that, \"B. rubens prefers disturbed sites in Mediterranean climates. In California, B. rubens prefers areas receiving less than 250mm of annual rainfall. It is a dominant species in California valley grasslands receiving less than 190mm of rainfall.\" The authors also state that, \"B. rubens commonly occurs in small patches on shallow soils, growing best where there is little competition from other annuals. In southern Nevada, B. rubens occupies blackbrush communities with coarse-textured soils, showing best growth under shrubs and peripheries of shrub canopies. Upland clay and sandy loam ranges and rolling sandy hills receiving 203-305mm of precipitation promote good growth in southern Utah.\" The authors note that, B. rubens is often found in areas with relatively high levels of sulfur dioxide pollution.\"
Pathway

Principal source: Element Stewardship Abstract for Bromus rubens (Newman, 2001)
Index of Species: Bromus madritensis (Simonin, 2001)

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Lucinda F. Salo, US Geological Survey, Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Snake River Field Station, Boise, ID, USA

Publication date: 2005-08-01

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2018) Species profile: Bromus rubens. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=596 on 20-01-2018.

General Impacts
In the North American region red brome is reported to be invasive because it faces low herbaceous competition. Once established, it has the potential to compete with other grasses (Newman, 2001). The accumulation of litter and necromass has the potential to increase fire frequency in the desert south-west (Huxman et al. 1999). Red brome-fuelled fires result in the loss of native perennial species in invaded areas, resulting in disturbed areas that are ideal for increased growth of red brome (Esque and Schwalbe, 2002)}. According to Salo (2004), the germination requirements of B. rubens seem to be less demanding than those of native Sonoran and Mojave Desert annuals. This grass appears to be able to germinate following a precipitation event of 1cm, whereas native Mohave Desert annuals appear to require twice that amount, suggesting that red brome may be able to germinate before native annuals in years when early precipitation events are relatively small. The fact that they are excellent dispersers and early germinators makes them the first species to colonise distubed sites. Yoder and Nowak (2000) in their study associate the decrease in biodiversity with B. rubens establishment. Studies report that nitrogen additions increased Bromus yields and led to competitive suppression of the native bunchgrass Agropyron spicatum (Wilson et al. 1966). The awns and florets are a direct threat to livestock and native fauna. The vegetation change from perennial grasses to this species and other annual introduced species influences the density of rabbits, grasshoppers, and kangaroo rats.
Management Info
Physical: Annual removal of seed heads will significantly decrease the amount of red brome. Reduction in the number of weed seeds will produce available sites for native seeds to germinate and become established. Encouraging germination of native seeds will decrease the reproductive success of red brome. It is not competitive on vegetated sites and established native plants will out-compete the remaining seedlings. Removal of this annual weed, can be accomplished by hoeing the plants. Plants will not reach maturity if the seedlings are uprooted and thus no seed source for the following year will be produced. This repetitive task is time consuming, especially since seeds of red brome germinate from fall through spring. An alternate approach would be to remove all the red brome plants at one time during the spring before the majority of flowering occurs. Red brome plants are shallow rooted and can be easily removed from the soil by hand or with tools. Fire hazard from red brome biomass can be reduced with spring raking of the dead stems. Although this method disturbs the land, the number of plants and the seed source for the following year can be decreased. Grazing and burning may increase the amount of red brome by clearing vegetation and providing adequate sites for the seeds to germinate. Because seeds of annual species have a short dormancy period, they can utilise optimum conditions to germinate and complete their rapid life-cycle during the same period that disturbed perennials are slowly recovering. While burning can increase the invasiveness of red brome, Newman (2001) states that, \"If burning comes at a time that will prevent seed production and if native perennial plants are encouraged to grow, burning may help in changing the balance of the plant community\", he continues on to state that, \"burning increases the abundance of red brome, especially in areas where the land had previously undergone disturbances. A reduction in the amount of available nitrogen in burned plots may have a greater detrimental effect on the native perennial plants than on the introduced annuals; no deleterious effects of these fires were observed on red brome.

Chemical: Newman (2001) states that, \"due to the annual growth cycle of B. rubens, the most effective chemical control would be from pre-emergence herbicides\". Pre-emergent herbicides now available do not kill seeds, but prevent emergence by interfering with root growth at germination or early seedling growth (Cindy Salo, pers.comm., 2004). Impacts of herbicides on native plants may counter the benefits from killing B. rubens. The soil-active herbicide atrazine is effective in reducing the amount of competition by annual brome species, as seen by an increased yield of range forage crops and sagebrush in California and Nevada (Kay 1971, Evans and Young 1977).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Bromus rubens
ALIEN RANGE
NATIVE RANGE
  • afghanistan
  • algeria
  • azerbaijan
  • cyprus
  • egypt
  • france
  • greece
  • iran, islamic republic of
  • iraq
  • israel
  • italy
  • jordan
  • libyan arab jamahiriya
  • morocco
  • nicaragua
  • portugal
  • russian federation
  • spain
  • syrian arab republic
  • tunisia
  • turkey
  • turkmenistan
  • uzbekistan
Informations on Bromus rubens has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Bromus rubens in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
In the North American region red brome is reported to be invasive because it faces low herbaceous competition. Once established, it has the potential to compete with other grasses (Newman, 2001). The accumulation of litter and necromass has the potential to increase fire frequency in the desert south-west (Huxman et al. 1999). Red brome-fuelled fires result in the loss of native perennial species in invaded areas, resulting in disturbed areas that are ideal for increased growth of red brome (Esque and Schwalbe, 2002)}. According to Salo (2004), the germination requirements of B. rubens seem to be less demanding than those of native Sonoran and Mojave Desert annuals. This grass appears to be able to germinate following a precipitation event of 1cm, whereas native Mohave Desert annuals appear to require twice that amount, suggesting that red brome may be able to germinate before native annuals in years when early precipitation events are relatively small. The fact that they are excellent dispersers and early germinators makes them the first species to colonise distubed sites. Yoder and Nowak (2000) in their study associate the decrease in biodiversity with B. rubens establishment. Studies report that nitrogen additions increased Bromus yields and led to competitive suppression of the native bunchgrass Agropyron spicatum (Wilson et al. 1966). The awns and florets are a direct threat to livestock and native fauna. The vegetation change from perennial grasses to this species and other annual introduced species influences the density of rabbits, grasshoppers, and kangaroo rats.
Red List assessed species 0:
Mechanism
[6] Competition
[1] Disease transmission
[2] Flammability
Outcomes
[9] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [5] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [2] Habitat degradation
  • [2] Modification of fire regime
[3] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Damage to agriculture
  • [1] Reduce/damage livestock and products
  • [1] Limited access to water, land and other
Management information
Physical: Annual removal of seed heads will significantly decrease the amount of red brome. Reduction in the number of weed seeds will produce available sites for native seeds to germinate and become established. Encouraging germination of native seeds will decrease the reproductive success of red brome. It is not competitive on vegetated sites and established native plants will out-compete the remaining seedlings. Removal of this annual weed, can be accomplished by hoeing the plants. Plants will not reach maturity if the seedlings are uprooted and thus no seed source for the following year will be produced. This repetitive task is time consuming, especially since seeds of red brome germinate from fall through spring. An alternate approach would be to remove all the red brome plants at one time during the spring before the majority of flowering occurs. Red brome plants are shallow rooted and can be easily removed from the soil by hand or with tools. Fire hazard from red brome biomass can be reduced with spring raking of the dead stems. Although this method disturbs the land, the number of plants and the seed source for the following year can be decreased. Grazing and burning may increase the amount of red brome by clearing vegetation and providing adequate sites for the seeds to germinate. Because seeds of annual species have a short dormancy period, they can utilise optimum conditions to germinate and complete their rapid life-cycle during the same period that disturbed perennials are slowly recovering. While burning can increase the invasiveness of red brome, Newman (2001) states that, \"If burning comes at a time that will prevent seed production and if native perennial plants are encouraged to grow, burning may help in changing the balance of the plant community\", he continues on to state that, \"burning increases the abundance of red brome, especially in areas where the land had previously undergone disturbances. A reduction in the amount of available nitrogen in burned plots may have a greater detrimental effect on the native perennial plants than on the introduced annuals; no deleterious effects of these fires were observed on red brome.

Chemical: Newman (2001) states that, \"due to the annual growth cycle of B. rubens, the most effective chemical control would be from pre-emergence herbicides\". Pre-emergent herbicides now available do not kill seeds, but prevent emergence by interfering with root growth at germination or early seedling growth (Cindy Salo, pers.comm., 2004). Impacts of herbicides on native plants may counter the benefits from killing B. rubens. The soil-active herbicide atrazine is effective in reducing the amount of competition by annual brome species, as seen by an increased yield of range forage crops and sagebrush in California and Nevada (Kay 1971, Evans and Young 1977).

Locations
Management Category
None
Bibliography
39 references found for Bromus rubens

Managment information
Corbineau, F.; Belaid, D. and Come, D. 1992. Dormancy of Bromus rubens L. seeds in relation to temperature light and oxygen effects. Weed research. 32(4). 1992. 303-310
Summary: Study into the dormancy patterns of B. rubens.
Dyer, William E. 1995. Exploiting weed seed dormancy and germination requirements through agronomic practices. Weed Science. 43(3). 1995. 498-503
Summary: Discussion into how weeds can be managed using good cultural practices.
Esque, T. C. & C. R. Schwalbe. 2002. Alien annual grasses and their relationship to fire and biotic change in Sonoran Desertscrub. In Tellman, B. (ed.) Invasive Exotic Species in the Sonoran Region. Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum Studies in Natural History. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona: 165-194.
Summary: An excellent review of the effect of the invasive species on Sonoran Desert plant and animal communities.
Forcella, F. & Gill, A. M. 1986. Manipulation of buried seed reserves by timing of soil tillage in Mediterranean-type pastures. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 26: 71-77
Summary: A research paper that documents effects of soil tillage at different times to control weeds, including the invasive species, in Australia.
Fulton, M and Furness, G. 1988. Low volume applications of herbicides sprayed on to soil crop or pasture with a bluff plate sprayer. Plant Protection Quarterly. 3(3). 1988. 108-111
Summary: The use of a bluff plate on a herbicide sprayer allowed it to be more effective in lower volumes.
Huxman, Travis E.; Hamerlynck, Erik P.; Jordan, Dean N.; Salsman, Katrina J. and Smith, Stanley D. 1998. The effects of parental CO2 environment on seed quality and subsequent seedling performance in Bromus rubens. Oecologia. 114(2). April, 1998. 202-208
Summary: Experiment to determine whether elevated CO2 levels would have an effect on the growth of Bromus rubens seeds and seedlings.
General information
Beatley, J. C. 1966. Ecological Status of Introduced Brome Grasses (Bromus spp.) in Desert Vegetation of Southern Nevada. Ecology 47(4): 548-554. [Accessed 30 June 2004]
Summary: A dated study that gives historical background on the species invasion, and also suggestions for further research
Beatley, J. C. 1974. Phenological events and their triggers in Mojave Desert ecosystems. Ecology 55: 856 863.
Summary: A research paper that documents phenology of growth of Mojave Desert USA plants, including the invasive species.
Brooks, Matthew L. 2002. Peak fire temperatures and effects on annual plants in the Mojave Desert. Ecological Applications. 12(4). August 2002. 1088-1102
Summary: Report into the effect of fire increases on the desert ecosystem.
Brooks, Matthew L. and Esque, Todd C. 2002. Alien plants and fire in desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) habitat of the Mojave and Colorado deserts. Chelonian Conservation & Biology. 4(2). December 2002. 330-340
Summary: Report into the effects that alien plants have on the desert tortoise habitat.
Brooks, M. L. 2003. Effects of increased soil nitrogen on the dominance of alien annual plants in the Mojave Desert. Journal of Applied Ecology 40: 344-353.
Summary: A research paper that documents growth and development of the species, and tests different nitrogen levels in order to determine health and reproduction viability.
Brown, D.E. and Minnich R.A. 1986. Fire and changes in Creosote bush scrub of the Western Sonoran Desert California USA. American Midland Naturalist. 116(2). 1986. 411-422
Summary: Report into the effects of fire damage on the desert s floral composition.
Camp, R. J., & R. L. Knight. 1998. Effects of Rock Climbing on Cliff Plant Communities at Joshua Tree National Park, California. Conservation Biology 12(6):1302-1306. [Accessed 04 January 2004]
Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
CONABIO. 2008. Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras en M�xico. Especies invasoras - Plantas. Comisi�n Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Fecha de acceso.
Summary: English:
The species list sheet for the Mexican information system on invasive species currently provides information related to Scientific names, family, group and common names, as well as habitat, status of invasion in Mexico, pathways of introduction and links to other specialised websites. Some of the higher risk species already have a direct link to the alert page. It is important to notice that these lists are constantly being updated, please refer to the main page (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), under the section Novedades for information on updates.
Invasive species - Plants is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Plantas [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Spanish:
La lista de especies del Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras de m�xico cuenta actualmente con informaci�n aceca de nombre cient�fico, familia, grupo y nombre com�n, as� como h�bitat, estado de la invasi�n en M�xico, rutas de introducci�n y ligas a otros sitios especializados. Algunas de las especies de mayor riesgo ya tienen una liga directa a la p�gina de alertas. Es importante resaltar que estas listas se encuentran en constante proceso de actualizaci�n, por favor consulte la portada (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), en la secci�n novedades, para conocer los cambios.
Especies invasoras - Plantas is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Plantas [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Fenni, M. 1996. Seed longevity of Bromus rubens L. and Bromus rigidus Roth. In Brighton Crop Protection Conference: Weeds. Brighton, England, 20-23 November, 1995. British Crop Protection Council, Surrey: 775-780.
Summary: A research paper that documents germination of seed of two Bromus species, including the invasive species, after storage.
Hamal, A.; Benbella, M.; Msatef, Y.; Bouhache, M. and Rzozi, S.B. 1998. Biological aspects of Bromus rigidus Roth, a weed of cereals in sais area of Morocco. Mededelingen Faculeit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen Universiteit Gent. 63(3A). 1998. 813-815
Summary: Research into the ecology of the Bromus species.
Hamal, A.; Benbella, M.; Rzozi, S.B.; Bouhache, M. and Msatef, Y. 2001. Carthography and geographical spread of the weedy bromes (Bromus spp.) of cereals in the Sais area of Morocco. Mededelingen (Rijksuniversiteit Te Gent. Fakulteit van de Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Bologische Wetenschappen). 66(2B). 2001. 761-768
Summary: Study into the abundance and presence of B. rubens in the Sais area of Morocco.
Hunter, R. 1991. Bromus invasions on the Nevada USA test site present status of Bromus rubens and Bromus tectorum with notes on their relationship to disturbance and altitude. Great Basin Naturalist. 51(2). 1991. 176-182
Summary: Study into the growing abundance and spread of B. rubens and its implications.
Huxman, T. E., E. P. Hamerlynck, and S. D. Smith. 1999. Reproductive allocation and seed production in Bromus madritensis spp. rubens at elevated atmospheric CO2. Functional Ecology 13: 769-777. [Accessed 30 June 2004]
Summary: Research project documenting the response of species to CO2 and its reproductive and seed production output.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2004. Online Database Bromus rubens
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=40518 [Accessed December 31 2004]
Laude, H. M. 1956. Germination of freshly harvested seed of some western range species. Journal of Range Management 9: 126-129.
Summary: A research paper that documents germination rates of native and alien grasses, including the invasive speices, common on western USA rangelands.
Martin, Brent E. and Van Devender, Thomas R. 2002. Seasonal diet changes of Gopherus agassizii (desert tortoise) in desert grassland of southern Arizona and its behavioural implications. Herpetological Natural History. 9(1). 2002. 31-42
Summary: Report into the diet of the desert tortoise.
McCrary, M. D. & P. H. Bloom. 1984. Lethal effects of introduced grasses on red-shouldered hawks, Journal of Wildlife Management 48: 1005-1008.
Summary: A scientific study of injuries to a native California USA raptor from seeds of alien grasses, including the invasive species.
Mock, I.T. 1987. Distribution and severity of brome grass in barley crops in the Victorian Mallee Australia. Plant Protection Quarterly. 2(3). 1987. 135-136
Summary: Report into the increase of this weed in Victoria in Australia.
Newman, Dara. 2001. Element Stewardship Abstract for Bromus rubens The Nature Conservancy, 1815 North Lynn Street, Arlington, VA.
Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
Available from: http://www.conserveonline.org/2000/12/b/en/bromrub.PDF [Accessed 04 January 2004]
Pake, C. E. & D. L. Venable. 1996. Seed banks in desert annuals: Implications for persistence and coexistence in variable environments. Ecology 77: 1427-1435.
Summary: A research paper that uses 10 years of soil seed bank data for Sonoran Desert USA winter annuals, including the invasive species, to test theoretical models of species coexistence in variable climates.
Preston, K. P. 1993. Selection for Sulfur Dioxide and Ozone tolerance in Bromus rubens along the South Central coast of California. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 83(1): 141-155.
Summary: A study conducted that documented the effects of excess levels of ozone and sulfer dioxide on development of species.
Roy J., M. L. Navas, & L. Soni�. 1991. Invasion by annual brome grasses: a case study challenging the homoclime approach to invasions. In Groves, R. & F. DiCastri F (eds.) Biogeography of Mediterranean invasions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 207-224.
Summary: A scientific study that includes information on the distribution and spread of the invasive species around the world
Salo, L. F. 2004. Population dynamics of red brome (Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens): times for concern, opportunities for management. Journal of Arid Environments. 57(3):291-296.
Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
Simonin, Kevin A. 2001. Bromus madritensis. Fire Effects Information System, [Online Database]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory.
Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
Available from: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/graminoid/bromad/ [Accessed 04 January 2004]
Stylinski, C. D., and E. B. Allen. 1999. Lack of native species recovery following severe exotic disturbance in southern Californian shrublands. Journal of Applied Ecology 36: 544-554.
Summary: A study that documents the spread of invasives in southern California and explains the reasoning behind their invasiveness.
USDA-GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network). 2003. Bromus rubens. National Genetic Resources Program [Online Database] National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Summary: Information on common names, synonyms, and the distributional range of species.
Available from: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl?bromus+rubens [Accessed 04 January 2004]
Van Buren, Renee and Harper, K.T. 2003. Demographic and environmental relations of two rare Astragalus species endemic to Washington County, Utah: Astragalus holmgreniorum and A. ampullarioides. Western North American Naturalist. 63(2). April 2003. 236-243
Summary: Report into the state of two native plants affected by the spread of B. rubens.
Vanstone, Vivien A. and Russ, Michelle H. 2001. Ability of weeds to host the root lesion nematodes Pratylenchus neglectus and P. thornei. I. grass weeds. Australasian Plant Pathology. 30(3). 2001. 245-250
Summary: Experiment where nine different weed species were rated in their abilites to host root lesion nematodes.
Westbrooke, M.E. and Miller, J.D. 1995. The vegetation of Mungo National Park, Western New South Wales. Cunninghamia, 4(1). 63-80
Summary: Study into the vegetation that was present in Mungo National Park
Wilson, A. M., G. A. Harris, and D. H. Gates. 1966. Fertilization of mixed cheatgrass-bluebunch wheatgrass stands. Journal of Range Management 19: 134-137.
Summary: A research paper that documents growth of Bromus tectorum L., a related invasive species, and tests different nitrogen levels in order to determine vigor, relative to a native bunchgrass in southeastern Washington state, USA.
Available from: http://jrm.library.arizona.edu/data/1966/193/8wils.pdf [Accessed 10 August 2004]
Yoder, C. K., and R. S. Nowak. 2000. Phosphorus acquisition by Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens from soil interspaces shared with Mojave Desert shrubs. Functional Ecology 14: 685-692.
Summary: A scientific study that collected data on phosphorous uptake abilities of species.
Contact
The following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Bromus rubens
Salo,
Lucinda F
Organization:
Research Ecologist USGS Snake River Field Station
Address:
970 Lusk St. Boise ID 83706
Phone:
208-426-2893
Fax:
208-426-5210