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  • Strawberry Guava (Photo: Wendy Strahm)
  • Psidium cattleianum flowers (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr)
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  • Psidium cattleianum bark (Photo: Amy Ferriter, State of Idaho, Bugwood.org)
  • Psidium cattleianum fruits (Photo: Forest and Kim Starr)
  • Psidium cattleianum tree (Photo: Forest and Kim Starr)
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Common name
Erdbeer-Guave (German), strawberry guava (English), cattley guava (English), purple strawberry guava (English), cherry guava (English), Chinese guava (English), goyave de Chine (French), kuahpa (English, Pohnpei), waiawi (English, Hawai'i), ngguava (English, Fiji), tuava tinito (English, French Polynesia)
Synonym
Psidium littorale , Raddi
Psidium cattleianum , var. littorale (O. Berg) Fosb.
Similar species
Summary
Psidium cattleianum is native to Brazil, but has been naturalised in Florida, Hawai'i, tropical Polynesia, Norfolk Island and Mauritius for its edible fruit. It forms thickets and shades out native \nvegetation in tropical forests and woodlands. It has had a devastating effect on native habitats in Mauritius and is considered the worst plant pest in Hawai'i, where it has invaded a variety of natural areas. It benefits from feral pigs (Sus scrofa) which, by feeding on its fruit, serve as a dispersal agent for its seeds. In turn, the guava provides favourable conditions for feral pigs, facilitating further habitat degradation.
Species Description
Evergreen shrub or small tree up to 8m tall. Mature branches are gray to reddish-brown with peeling bark and young branches are round and pubescent. Leaves are opposite, simple, entire, glabrous, elliptic to oblong, to 8cm (3 in) long. Flowers to 2.5cm (1.2 in) wide, born singly at leaf axils, with white petals and numerous white and yellow stamens. Fruit is a globose berry, 3-6cm (1.2-2.4 in) long, purple-red, with whitish flesh, usually sweet-tasting when ripe; seeds are numerous.
Uses
The strawberry guava is a shrub naturalised in several subtropical areas. It produces sweet and aromatic fruit, which are appreciated by the inhabitants of La Réunion Island. Processing industries are supplied by fruit gathered from the wild. As strawberry guava thrives in humid areas where the farming potential is low, its cultivation could be a means of providing additional income to farmers, while also establishing a steady supply of fruit to industry and to markets (Normand 2002).
Habitat Description
Psidium cattleianum is found on various Polynesian and Micronesian islands where it occurs as an introduced species on both disturbed land and in native ecosystems. Habitats it is found in include: sub-montane rainforest, montane cloud forest, montane rainforest, moist tropical montane forest, tropical ravine/riperian forest, tropical evergreen forest, deciduous woodland (oak), tropical montane savanna, lowland sub-tropical rainforest, scrub land, grass land, degraded forest, cultivation and agro-forestry (Mauremootoo Dr. J.).
Reproduction
Regeneration of strawberry guava is by seed and by root sprouts, which allow it to undergo expansive vegetative reproduction. Strawberry guava produces an abundance of fruits, the seeds of which are dispersed by birds and mammals.
Strawberry guava is a prolific fruiter, with up to 70 seeds per fruit, though most fruits contain a lower number of seeds. Fruiting is more abundant for stems on the edge of the thickets.
Pathway
Introduced by acclimatisation societies.

Principal source: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk, (PIER, 2002)

Compiler: Dr. John Mauremootoo (Plant Conservation Manager) & Mr. Joseph Rodriguez (Research Assistant on Alien Plant Management). Mauritian Wildlife Foundation & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Dr. John Mauremootoo (Plant Conservation Manager) & Mr. Joseph Rodriguez (Research Assistant on Alien Plant Management). Mauritian Wildlife Foundation.

Publication date: 2010-08-16

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Psidium cattleianum. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=59 on 30-09-2016.

General Impacts
P. cattleianum is a habitat-altering weed that poses a major threat to endemic flora by competing for light and soil nutrients. Today the most serious threat to Seychelles forests is the low regeneration of native trees caused by the invasion of alien plant species such as P. cattleianum (Fleischmann, 1997, 1999, in Fleischmann et al. 2006).
Management Info
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Psidium cattleianum for Hawai‘i and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The alien plant screening system is derived from Pheloung et al. (1999) with minor modifications for use in Pacific islands (Daehler et al. 2004). The result is a score of 18 and a recommendation of: \"Likely to cause significant ecological or economic harm in Hawai‘i and on other Pacific Islands as determined by a high WRA score, which is based on published sources describing species biology and behaviour in Hawai‘i and/or other parts of the world.\"

\r\nPhysical: Because of the huge quantities of seed that are dispersed by feral pigs, and other exotic invasive species, feral species management is a practical and necessary first step in strawberry guava management. Manual and mechanical control measures work reasonably well and are recommended where practical. Seedlings and saplings originating from seed can be uprooted. Uprooted plants may resprout or re-root in areas with greater than 2000mm of rain/year or drier areas after prolonged rain, especially if the plants are set on the ground. Manual and mechanical methods are less effective on root sprouts.

\r\nChemical: A number of effective chemical control measures have been developed. Strawberry guava is sensitive to picloram, dicamba, glyphosate, and triclopyr. It has been shown that undiluted picloram (Tordon 22K) is highly effective on strawberry guava as a cut stump treatment. Tordon 22K was used at Hawai‘i Volcanoes but discontinued because of unfavourable effects on non-target plants. It was replaced by Tordon RTU, which was nearly as effective, but less harmful to surrounding vegetation. Undiluted dicamba (Banvel) proved to be highly effective in a cut surface treatment. Additionally, undiluted glyphosate (Roundup) has proven to be effective using a \"\"hack and squirt\"\" method. Resource Managers in Hawai‘i found undiluted triclopyr ester (Garlon 4) to be effective as a cut-stump treatment, with 80% of plants dead and 90% of treated plants without resprouts after 21 months. A frill application of undiluted triclopyr amine (Garlon 3A) was somewhat less effective, with 11 of 20 stems dead and all trees defoliated after 21 months. Fifty percent Garlon 4 and 3A were about 50% effective. A major drawback of cut-stump treatment methods in very wet areas (>5000mm rainfall/yr) was resprouting of slash from cut stump and wood fragments from felling larger trees. Garlon is recommended because of its lack of mobility and relatively short half-life, 4-6 weeks. In addition, the research is more thorough and definitive on control methods for Garlon than other herbicides.

\r\nBiological: Biological control is the only feasible long-term management strategy for strawberry guava. However, until recently, biological control has been perceived as unfeasible because common guava, grown commercially in Hawai‘i, is a congener of strawberry guava. Biological control is being reexamined. Several insects defoliate strawberry guava in its natural range, it is possible that insect biological control agents could be found that do not attack common guava. Memoranda of agreement has been concluded between the University of Hawai‘i and two Brazilian Universities to locate species attacking strawberry guava and not common guava. It is thought that highly specific insect pests can be found because common guava and strawberry guava are sympatric in their natural range.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Psidium cattleianum
Informations on Psidium cattleianum has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Psidium cattleianum in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
P. cattleianum is a habitat-altering weed that poses a major threat to endemic flora by competing for light and soil nutrients. Today the most serious threat to Seychelles forests is the low regeneration of native trees caused by the invasion of alien plant species such as P. cattleianum (Fleischmann, 1997, 1999, in Fleischmann et al. 2006).
Locations
FRENCH POLYNESIA
MAURITIUS
REUNION
SEYCHELLES
UNITED STATES
Mechanism
[6] Competition
[1] Interaction with other invasive species
Outcomes
[4] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Modification of hydrology/water regulation, purification and quality /soil moisture
  • [1] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [1] Habitat degradation
  • [1] Modification of successional patterns
[2] Environmental Species - Population
  • [2] Reduces/inhibits the growth of other species
Management information
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Psidium cattleianum for Hawai‘i and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The alien plant screening system is derived from Pheloung et al. (1999) with minor modifications for use in Pacific islands (Daehler et al. 2004). The result is a score of 18 and a recommendation of: \"Likely to cause significant ecological or economic harm in Hawai‘i and on other Pacific Islands as determined by a high WRA score, which is based on published sources describing species biology and behaviour in Hawai‘i and/or other parts of the world.\"

\r\nPhysical: Because of the huge quantities of seed that are dispersed by feral pigs, and other exotic invasive species, feral species management is a practical and necessary first step in strawberry guava management. Manual and mechanical control measures work reasonably well and are recommended where practical. Seedlings and saplings originating from seed can be uprooted. Uprooted plants may resprout or re-root in areas with greater than 2000mm of rain/year or drier areas after prolonged rain, especially if the plants are set on the ground. Manual and mechanical methods are less effective on root sprouts.

\r\nChemical: A number of effective chemical control measures have been developed. Strawberry guava is sensitive to picloram, dicamba, glyphosate, and triclopyr. It has been shown that undiluted picloram (Tordon 22K) is highly effective on strawberry guava as a cut stump treatment. Tordon 22K was used at Hawai‘i Volcanoes but discontinued because of unfavourable effects on non-target plants. It was replaced by Tordon RTU, which was nearly as effective, but less harmful to surrounding vegetation. Undiluted dicamba (Banvel) proved to be highly effective in a cut surface treatment. Additionally, undiluted glyphosate (Roundup) has proven to be effective using a \"\"hack and squirt\"\" method. Resource Managers in Hawai‘i found undiluted triclopyr ester (Garlon 4) to be effective as a cut-stump treatment, with 80% of plants dead and 90% of treated plants without resprouts after 21 months. A frill application of undiluted triclopyr amine (Garlon 3A) was somewhat less effective, with 11 of 20 stems dead and all trees defoliated after 21 months. Fifty percent Garlon 4 and 3A were about 50% effective. A major drawback of cut-stump treatment methods in very wet areas (>5000mm rainfall/yr) was resprouting of slash from cut stump and wood fragments from felling larger trees. Garlon is recommended because of its lack of mobility and relatively short half-life, 4-6 weeks. In addition, the research is more thorough and definitive on control methods for Garlon than other herbicides.

\r\nBiological: Biological control is the only feasible long-term management strategy for strawberry guava. However, until recently, biological control has been perceived as unfeasible because common guava, grown commercially in Hawai‘i, is a congener of strawberry guava. Biological control is being reexamined. Several insects defoliate strawberry guava in its natural range, it is possible that insect biological control agents could be found that do not attack common guava. Memoranda of agreement has been concluded between the University of Hawai‘i and two Brazilian Universities to locate species attacking strawberry guava and not common guava. It is thought that highly specific insect pests can be found because common guava and strawberry guava are sympatric in their natural range.

Locations
Management Category
Prevention
Eradication
Unknown
Bibliography
34 references found for Psidium cattleianum

Managment information
Daehler, C.C; Denslow, J.S; Ansari, S and Huang-Chi, K., 2004. A Risk-Assessment System for Screening Out Invasive Pest Plants from Hawaii and Other Pacific Islands. Conservation Biology Volume 18 Issue 2 Page 360.
Summary: A study on the use of a screening system to assess proposed plant introductions to Hawaii or other Pacific Islands and to identify high-risk species used in horticulture and forestry which would greatly reduce future pest-plant problems and allow entry of most nonpests.
Fleischmann, K., Edwards, P.J., Ramseier, D. and Kollmann, J. 2005. Stand structure, species diversity and regeneration of an endemic palm forest on the Seychelles, African Journal of Ecology 43(4).
Hivert, J. 2003. Plantes exotiques envahissantes - Etat des m�thodes de lutte mise en oeuvre par l Office National des For�ts � La R�union. ONF R�union.
Summary: Synth�se des m�thodes de lutte employ�es par l ONF � la R�union contre une vingtaine de plantes exotiques envahissantes.
Huenneke, L.F., Vitousek, P.M. 1990. Seedling and clonal recruitment of the invasive tree Psidium cattleianum: Implications for management of native Hawaiian forests, Biological Conservation 53(3): 199-211.
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Joshi, C., de Leeuwa, J., van Durena, I.C. 2004. Remote Sensing and GIS Applications for Mapping and Spatial Modelling of Invasive Species.
Summary: Available from: http://www.itc.nl/library/Papers_2004/peer_conf/joshi.pdf [Accessed 10th February 2006]
Kueffer, C. and Mauremootoo, J., 2004. Case Studies on the Status of Invasive Woody Plant Species in the Western Indian Ocean. 3. Mauritius (Islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues). Forest Health & Biosecurity Working Papers FBS/4-3E. Forestry Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
Mauremootoo, J. R. unpublished. CBD case study - guava in Mauritius.
Summary: This article reviews the status of Psidium in Mauritius, its impact on native biodiversity, the efforts being made to control the species and possible future avenues for management.
Normand, F. 2002. The Strawberry Guava: a new Fruit Species for Humid Areas in Reunion Island,ISHS Acta Horticulturae 575.
PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk), 2002. Psidium cattleianum
Summary: Ecology, synonyms, common names, distributions (Pacific as well as global), management and impact information.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/psidium_cattleianum.htm [Accessed 5 February 2003].
Stone, C. P., Smith, C. W. and Tunison, J. T. 1992. Alien Plant Invasions in Native Ecosystems of Hawaii. Management and Research. University of Hawaii Cooperative Park Studies Unit: 1-887.
Summary: This large and comprehensive volume covers general features of invasive species biology, case studies of invasive species management in the US, the pest status & autecology of some of the major invasives in Hawaii, methods used for the control.
Strahm, W. A. 1999. Invasive species in Mauritius: examining the past and charting the future. In Invasive Species and Biodiversity Management. Kluwer Academic Publishers: 325-347.
Summary: This article reviews the history of introduced animals and plant in Mauritius and their effects on the indigenous flora & fauna. Management measures are reviewed & illustrated with case studies. Future prospects for invasive species management are discuss
Swaziland s Alien Plants Database., Undated. Psidium cattleianum
Summary: A database of Swaziland s alien plant species.
Tunison, T. 1991. The Nature Conservancy Element Stewardship abstract for Psidium cattleianum.
Summary: Strawberry guava is a very serious habitat-disruptive pest in many parks and preserves in Hawaii because of its tendency to form mono-specific stands. Prolific fruiting, shade tolerance, clonal, regenerative strategy, tolerance of heavy litter fall.
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
General information
Barthelat, F. 2005. Note sur les esp�ces exotiques envahissantes � Mayotte. Direction de l�Agriculture et de la For�t. 30p
Summary: Tableau synth�tique des plantes exotiques de Mayotte class�es en fonction de leur niveau d envahissement.
Conservatoire Botanique National De Mascarin (BOULLET V. coord.) 2007. - Psidium cattleianum Index de la flore vasculaire de la R�union (Trach�ophytes) : statuts, menaces et protections. - Version 2007.1
Summary: Base de donn�es sur la flore de la R�union. De nombreuses informations tr�s utiles.
Available from: http://flore.cbnm.org/index2.php?page=taxon&num=6157966f9b9e2f35d2266675bad8b7f8 [Accessed 9 April 2008]
Harrington R.A., Ewel J.J. 1997. Invasibility of tree plantations by native and non-indigenous plant species in Hawaii, Forest Ecology and Management 99(1).
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Psidium cattleianum
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/taxastep?king=every&p_action=containing&taxa=Psidium+cattleianum&p_format=&p_ifx=plglt&p_lang= [Accessed March 2005]
Langeland, K.A. and Burks, K. C (Eds) 1998. Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida s Natural Areas, University of Florida. Psidium cattleianum
Summary: Information on plants that pose threats to natural resource areas in Florida.
Available from: http://www.fleppc.org/ID_book/psidium%20cattleianum.pdf [Accessed 30 December 2004]
Lorence, D. and Sussman, R. W. 1986. Exotic species invasion into Mauritius wet forest remnants. Journal of Tropical Ecology 2: 147-162.
Summary: Two areas of wet forest were sampled to determine the extent of invasion by weed species. In both cases the canopy was dominated by native species but the seedling layer by introduced species, notably Psidium and Ligustrum.
Macdonald, I.A.W., Th�baud, C., Strahm, W.A., & Strasberg, D. 1991. Effects on alien plant invasions on native v�g�tation remnants on La Reunion (Mascarene Islands, Indian Ocean). Environmental Conservation, 18, 51-61.
Summary: Cet article est le premier � proposer une hi�rarchisation des plantes les plus envahissantes de La R�union. 33 plantes ont �t� ainsi class�es en utilisant une m�thode d�velopp�e en Afrique du Sud. Les bases d une strat�gie de lutte contre les plantes exotiques envahissantes sont �galement formul�es.
Mandon-Dalger, I., Clergeau, P., Tassin, J., Riviere, J., and Gatti, S. 2004. Relationships between alien plants and an alien bird species on Reunion Island. Journal of Tropical Ecology. Vol. 20: 635-642.
Summary: Article focusing on the interaction between alien birds and plants describing many examples and the ecological feedback that takes placce between an introduced bird and plants it unknowingly introduces as food.
Meyer, J.-Y. 2004. Threat of invasive alien plants to native flora and forest vegetation of eastern Polynesia. Pacific Science, 58, 357-375
Summary: Dans cet article, la menace croissante des plantes exotiques envahissantes est discut�e et les esp�ces les plus envahissantes sont d�crites. Des hypoth�ses sur l invasibilit� des �les sont pr�sent�es � la lumi�re des observations et des donn�es r�colt�es.
Meyer, J.-Y., Loope, L., Sheppard, A., Munzinger, J., Jaffre, T. 2006. Les plantes envahissantes et potentiellement envahissantes dans l archipel n�o-cal�donien : premi�re �valuation et recommandations de gestion. in M.-L. Beauvais et al. (2006) : Les esp�ces envahissantes dans l�archipel n�o-cal�donien, Paris, IRD �ditions, 260 p.+ c�d�rom.
Morton, J. F. 1987. Fruits of Warm Climates.
Summary: Psidium cattleianum is cultivated to a limited extent in other areas of South America and Central America and in the West Indies, Bermuda, the Bahamas, southern and central Florida and southern California. It is grown occasionally in subtropical Africa
Motley, T.J. 2005. Tetraplasandra lydgatei (Araliaceae): Taxonomic Recognition of a Rare, Endemic Species from O�ahu, Hawaiian Islands, Pacific Science 59(1):105�110.
Summary: Available from: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/pacific_science/v059/59.1motley.pdf [Accessed 10th February 2006]
Recovery Outline: Norfolk Island Green Parrot. Undated.
Summary: Available from: http://www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/action/birds2000/pubs/ni-green-parrot.pdf [Accessed 10th February 2006]
Shimizu, Y. 1997. Competitive relationships between tree species of Salesia (S. pedunculata, S. cordata, S. microcephala) and introduced plants (Cinchona succirubra, Psidium guava, Lantana camara) with reference to regeneration mechanism of Scalesia forests in the Galapagos Islands. Regional Views - Komazawa University Tokyo 11: 23-172.
Tassin, J., Rivi�re, J.N., Cazanove, M., Bruzzeses, E. 2006. Ranking of invasive woody plant species for management on r�union Island. Weed research 46, 388-403
Summary: L inventaire de 318 esp�ces de plantes ligneuses introduites � la R�union, permet d en identifier 132 comme naturalis�es dans les �cosyst�mes naturels. 26 de ces esp�ces choisies parmi les plus envahissantes ont �t� class�es en fonction de leur impact biologique sur les �cosyst�mes indig�nes.
Contact
The following 5 contacts offer information an advice on Psidium cattleianum
Baret,
St�phane
Geographic region: Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Parc national de La R�union, Charg� de mission flore
Address:
112 rue Ste Marie - 97400 St Denis
Phone:
02 62 90 79 06
Fax:
02 62 90 11 39
Lavergne,
Christophe
Geographic region: Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Conservatoire Botanique National de Mascarin
Address:
2 rue du P�re Georges Domaine des Colima�ons 97436 SAINT LEU
Phone:
(33) 02 62 24 92 27
Fax:
Mauremootoo,
John
Leucaena leucocephala, Ligustrum robustum subsp. walkeri, Lantana camara, Syzigium jambos, Litsea glutinosa, Flacourtia indica, Tabebuia pallida, Ravenala madagascariensis, Rubus alceifolius.
Organization:
Mauritian Wildlife Foundation
Address:
Mauritian Wildlife Foundation, Black River Office, Avenue Bois des Billes, La Preneuse, Mauritius.
Phone:
+230 4835038
Fax:
+230 4835038
Meyer,
Jean-Yves
Geographic region: Pacific, Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Expert in the botany of French Polynesia and the Pacific Islands, and has worked on ecology and biological control of Miconia calvescens in French Polynesia.
Organization:
D�l�gation � la Recherche
Address:
D�l�gation � la Recherche, Gouvernement de Polyn�sie fran�aise. B.P. 20981, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, Polyn�sie fran�aise
Phone:
689 47 25 60
Fax:
Triolo,
Julien
Geographic region: Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Office National des For�ts
Address:
ONF. Domaine Forestier de la Providence, 97488 Saint Denis cedex
Phone:
692345283
Fax: