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  • Winged stems of Euonymus�alata (Photo: � Barry A Rice/The Nature Conservancy)
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Common name
burning bush (English), winged euonymus (English), winged burning bush (English)
Synonym
Euonymus alatus , (Thunb.) Siebold
Celastrus alatus , (Thunb.)
Similar species
Summary
Euonymus alata is a deciduous shrub native to Asia that has been introduced to the United States from New England to the Gulf Coast. Euonymus alata becomes a nuisance because of the ease with which its seeds are spread; the readiness of germination; its adaptability to various soils and its tolerance of full shade. Euonymus alata is a threat to natural areas because it shades out native herbs and crowds out native shrubs. Birds relish the fruit of Euonymus alata and provide a means for dispersal.
Species Description
Euonymus alata is a deciduous shrub that is slow growing but can reach 4.6-6.1 metres in height (and width). The bark is gray-brown and the stems have prominent, corky wings running along both sides. The leaf-buds are brownish-green and strongly divergent. The leaves are opposite, elliptic, and measure 2.5-7.6cm long and 1.3-3.2cm wide with fine, sharp serrations on the margin. In autumn the dark green leaves turn a brilliant purplish red to scarlet colour before dropping to the ground (Martin, 2002).
Uses
The bright red fall foliage of E. alata makes this shrub a popular ornamental, and it is commonly planted along interstate highways as hedges, and in foundation plantings (Martin, 2002).
Habitat Description
Populations of E. alata have been found in mature, white oak upland forest and open, second growth lowland forest. Other populations have been found dominating pastures, the understory of shady hillsides, small ravines in valley floor forests, and glacial drift hill prairies. E. alata is adaptable to various environmental conditions; it grows well in different soil types and pH levels and is tolerant of full shade (Martin, 2002).
Reproduction
According to Martin (2002), seed production is prodigious; many germinate where they fall close to the mother plant creating dense beds of seedlings.
Nutrition
DCR (2003) suggests that supplemental water and fertilizer can make this slow-growing shrub increase its growth rate significantly.
Pathway
According to Martin (2002), E. alata was introduced into the USA from northeastern Asia around 1860 for use as an ornamental shrub. The bright red fall foliage of E. alata makes this shrub a popular ornamental.

Principal source: Euonymus alatus Martin, 2002

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Anon

Publication date: 2005-01-24

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Euonymus alata. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=574 on 09-12-2016.

General Impacts
According to DCR (2003), the threat to natural areas from E. alata is that it shades out native herbs and crowds out native shrubs. Unfortunately, birds relish the 6mm to 8mm (1/4 to 1/3-inch) long red fruit and consequently distribute the seeds across the countryside where plants readily sprout and establish themselves, enhancing the extent of the plant's distribution. The shrub becomes a nuisance because of the ease with which its seeds are spread, the readiness of germination, its adaptability to various soils, and its tolerance of full shade.
Management Info
Physical: The control of Euonymus alata is difficult because it produces a tremendous amount of seed. Seedlings up to 60cm (2 feet) tall can be easily hand-pulled, especially when the soil is moist. Larger plants and their root systems can be dug out with a spading fork or pulled with a weed wrench. The stump must be ground out or the re-growth clipped.

Chemical: Cut stumps can be painted with glyphosate immediately after cutting. Where populations are so large that cutting is impractical, herbicide (glyphosate) may be applied as a foliar spray. This is most effective during the early summer months.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Euonymus alata
ALIEN RANGE
NATIVE RANGE
  • china
  • japan
  • korea, democratic people's republic of
Informations on Euonymus alata has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Euonymus alata in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
According to DCR (2003), the threat to natural areas from E. alata is that it shades out native herbs and crowds out native shrubs. Unfortunately, birds relish the 6mm to 8mm (1/4 to 1/3-inch) long red fruit and consequently distribute the seeds across the countryside where plants readily sprout and establish themselves, enhancing the extent of the plant's distribution. The shrub becomes a nuisance because of the ease with which its seeds are spread, the readiness of germination, its adaptability to various soils, and its tolerance of full shade.
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
Mechanism
[1] Competition
Outcomes
[1] Environmental Species - Population
  • [1] Reduces/inhibits the growth of other species
Management information
Physical: The control of Euonymus alata is difficult because it produces a tremendous amount of seed. Seedlings up to 60cm (2 feet) tall can be easily hand-pulled, especially when the soil is moist. Larger plants and their root systems can be dug out with a spading fork or pulled with a weed wrench. The stump must be ground out or the re-growth clipped.

Chemical: Cut stumps can be painted with glyphosate immediately after cutting. Where populations are so large that cutting is impractical, herbicide (glyphosate) may be applied as a foliar spray. This is most effective during the early summer months.

Bibliography
5 references found for Euonymus alata

Managment information
General information
DCR (Department of Conservation and Recreation). 2003. Invasive Species of Virginia: Winged Burning Bush. Virginia Natural Heritage Program.
Summary: A detailed report that includes information on the impacts of E. alata.
Available from: http://www.vnps.org/invasive/invfseual.htm [Accessed 5 August 2003]
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Euonymus alata
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/taxastep?king=every&p_action=containing&taxa=Euonymus+alata&p_format=&p_ifx=plglt&p_lang= [Accessed March 2005]
Martin, T. 2002. Euonymus alatus. The Nature Conservacy.
Summary: A detailed report on all aspects of E. alata, including biology, ecology and distribution.
Available from: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/alert/alrteuon.html [Accessed 5 August 2003]
USDA, ARS, 2003. Euonymus alatus. National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland
Summary: An information network that provides geographic distribution information on E. alata.
Available from: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?16247 [6 August 2003]
USDA-NRCS (United States Department of Agriculture). 2002. Euonymus alata. The Plants Database. Natural Resource Conservation Service.
Summary: A database that provides links and information on E. alata.
Available from: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=EUAL13 [Accessed 5 August 2003]
Contact
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Euonymus alata