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  • Black locust (Photo: Jennifer Anderson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database)
  • Black locust (Photo: Larry Allain @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database)
  • Seed pod of Robinia pseudoacacia (Photo: USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database)
  • Line drawing (Photo: USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913.    Illustrated flora of the northern states and Canada. Vol. 2: 375)
  • Line drawing (Photo: USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database)
  • Seed (Photo: USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database)
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Common name
robinia akacjowa (Polish), yellow locust (English), false acacia (English), black locust (English), Post locust (English), robinier faux-acacia (French, France)
Synonym
Robinia pseudoacacia , var. rectissima (L.) Raber
Similar species
Gleditsia triacanthos, Sophora japonica
Summary
Robinia pseudoacacia is a leguminous deciduous tree native to the southeastern United States that has been widely introduced to other parts of North America. It is commonly found in disturbed areas such as old fields, degraded woods, forest edges, and roadsides, but it poses the greatest threat to dry and sand prairies and oak savannas. R. pseudoacacia has been planted on reclaimed land to control erosion and has been used for ornamental purposes. It reproduces vigorously by root suckering and stump sprouting to form groves of trees interconnected by a common root system.
Species Description
R. pseudoacacia is described as a leguminous deciduous tree that grows from 30 to 80 feet tall. Young saplings have smooth, green bark; older trees have deep, furrowed, shaggy, dark bark with flat-topped ridges. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound with 7 to 21 leaflets. Leaflets are thin, elliptical, dark green above, and pale beneath. Flowers are pea-like, fragrant, white to yellow, and born in large, drooping racemes. Seed pods are shiny, smooth, narrow, flat, 5cms to 10cms long, and contain 4 to 8 seeds (DNR, 2003). Smaller branches are armed with a pair of setaceous stipules, or stipular spines, that occur at the base of each petiole. These stipular spines are very pronounced on resprouts, and make working among these plants somewhat hazardous (Gover, pers. comm., 2004).
Lifecycle Stages
According to Converse (1984), R. pseudoacacia is a good seed producer, with heavy seed crops at 1- or 2- year intervals and light crops in the intervening years. Best seed crops occur when the trees are between 15 and 40 years of age, but some trees will bear at 6 years and some as late as 60 years.
Uses
DNR (2003) states that the wood of R. pseudoacacia is valued for its durability and high fuel value, and the tree also provides good forage for bees. R. pseudoacacia is planted on reclaimed land to control erosion and has been used for ornamental purposes.
Habitat Description
R. pseudoacacia is an early successional plant, preferring full sun, well drained soils, and little competition.  It invades dry and sand prairies, oak savannas, and upland forest edges. R. pseudoacacia is commonly found in disturbed areas such as old fields, degraded woods, and roadsides (Weiseler, 1998).
Reproduction
Wieseler (1998) states that R. pseudoacacia reproduces vigorously by root suckering and stump sprouting to form groves (or clones) of trees interconnected by a common fibrous root system.
Pathway
According to OPLIN (2001), R. pseudoacacia is planted on reclaimed land and to control erosion.According to OPLIN (2001), R. pseudoacacia has been used for ornamental purposes.

Principal source: Black Locust (Wieseler, 1998)

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Art Gover, PENNDOT Roadside Vegetation Management Project. Department of Horticulture, The Pennsylvania State University USA

Publication date: 2005-06-17

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Robinia pseudoacacia. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=572 on 03-12-2016.

General Impacts
Once introduced, R. pseudoacacia expands readily into areas where their shade reduces competition from other (sun-loving) plants.  Dense clones of R. pseudoacacia create shaded islands with little ground vegetation.  Lack of ground fuel limits the use of fire in natural disturbance regimes.  The large, fragrant blossoms of R. pseudoacacia compete with native plants for pollinating bees.
Management Info
R. pseudoacacia produces shoots from its root system, so any control effort should be targeted against the roots (Art Gover Aliens-L., 2002).
For details on management of this species, please see management information
Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Robinia pseudoacacia
NATIVE RANGE
  • united states
Informations on Robinia pseudoacacia has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Robinia pseudoacacia in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Once introduced, R. pseudoacacia expands readily into areas where their shade reduces competition from other (sun-loving) plants.  Dense clones of R. pseudoacacia create shaded islands with little ground vegetation.  Lack of ground fuel limits the use of fire in natural disturbance regimes.  The large, fragrant blossoms of R. pseudoacacia compete with native plants for pollinating bees.
Red List assessed species 1: LC = 1;
View more species View less species
Locations
CANADA
CZECH REPUBLIC
FRANCE
ITALY
KOREA, REPUBLIC OF
POLAND
UNITED STATES
Mechanism
[5] Competition
[1] Disease transmission
[1] Poisoning/Toxicity
Outcomes
[10] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Modification of nutrient pool and fluxes
  • [6] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [3] Habitat degradation
[1] Environmental Species - Population
  • [1] Plant/animal health
[2] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Human health
  • [1] Limited access to water, land and other
Management information
R. pseudoacacia produces shoots from its root system, so any control effort should be targeted against the roots (Art Gover Aliens-L., 2002).
For details on management of this species, please see management information
Locations
FRANCE
ITALY
KOREA, REPUBLIC OF
POLAND
UNITED STATES
Management Category
Control
Unknown
Bibliography
25 references found for Robinia pseudoacacia

Managment information
Alien Species in Poland 2006 Robinia pseudoacacia
Summary: Available from: http://www.iop.krakow.pl/ias/Gatunek.aspx?spID=146 [Accessed 18 March 2010]
AME, 2004 Agence M�diterran�enne de l Environnement. Plantes Envahissantes de la Region Mediterraneenne. Robinia pseudoacacia
Gover, et al. 1993. Brush control provided by fall broadcast applications of combinations of Krenite or Accord with Arsenal.
Summary: Available from: http://rvm.cas.psu.edu/1993/AR1993.html [Accessed October 19, 2004]
Gover, et al. 2002a. The effect of basal bark application timing on ailanthus and black locust resprouting.
Summary: Available from: http://rvm.cas.psu.edu/2003/AR2003.html [Accessed October 19, 2004]
Gover, et al. 2002b. The effect of application timing of cut surface treatments on resprouting of black locust.
Summary: Available from: http://rvm.cas.psu.edu/2003/AR2003.html [Accessed October 19, 2004]
Hadjikyriakou, G. and Hadjisterkotis, E. 2002. The adventive plants of Cyprus with new records of invasive species. Zeitschrift Fuer Jagdwissenschaft. 48: 59-71.
Hong, S-K., Song, I-J., Kim, H-O. and Lee, E-K. 2003. Landscape pattern and its effect on ecosystem functions in Seoul Metropolitan area: Urban ecology on distribution of the naturalized plant species. Journal of Environmental Sciences. 15(2): 199-204.
Hunter, J.C. and Mattice, J.A. 2002. The spread of woody exotics into the forests of a northeastern landscape, 1938-1999. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 129 (3): 220-227.
Kodoi, F., Lee, H-S., Uechi, N., and Yukawa, J. 2003. Occurrence of Obolodiplosis robiniae (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Japan and South Korea.
Laiolo, P., Caprio, E. and Rolando, A. 2003. Effects of logging and non-native tree proliferation on the birds overwintering in the upland forests of north-western Italy. Forest Ecology and Management. 179(1-3): 441-454.
Lee, C-S., Cho, H-J., and Yi, Hoonbok. 2004. Stand dynamics of introduced black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) plantation under different disturbance regimes in Korea.
Parolo, G. 2000. Dynamics of Robinia pseudoacacia L. communities in Valtellina. Archivio Geobotanico. 6(2): 133-154.
Reme, V. 2003. Effects of exotic habitat on nesting success, territory density, and settlement patterns in the Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla). Conservation Biology. 17(4): 1127-1133.
Sabo, A. 2000. Robinia pseudoacacia Invasions and Control in North America and Europe in Restoration and Reclamation Review (A Student On-Line Journal).
Summary: Good general information about impacts and effects of the plant on some ecosystems, includes management information.
Swaziland s Alien Plants Database., Undated. Robinia pseudoacacia
Summary: A database of Swaziland s alien plant species.
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
Wieseler, S. 1998. Black Locust. Plant Conservation Alliance.
Summary: Available from: http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/rops1.htm [Accessed 30 July 2003]
Yun, C.W., Oh, S, Lee, Y-G., Hong, S.C., and Kim, J.H. 2001. The study on the invasion of Robinia pseudoacacia into adjacent forest stand according to forest types, stand structures and vegetation units. Journal of Korean Forestry Society. 90 (3): 227-235.
General information
Conservatoire Botanique National De Mascarin (BOULLET V. coord.) 2007. - Robinia pseudoacacia Index de la flore vasculaire de la R�union (Trach�ophytes) : statuts, menaces et protections. - Version 2007.1
Summary: Base de donn�es sur la flore de La R�union. De nombreuses informations tr�s utiles.
Available from: http://flore.cbnm.org/index2.php?page=taxon&num=569ff987c643b4bedf504efda8f786c2 [Accessed 9 April 2008]
Converse, C. 1984. Robinia pseudoacacia. The Nature Conservancy.
Summary: A detailed report on all aspects of R. pseudoacacia.
Available from: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/robipse.html [Accessed 2 August 2003]
DNR (Department of Natural Resources). 2003. Robinia pseudoacacia. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.
Summary: A report on the biology and ecology of R. pseudoacacia.
Available from: http://www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/land/er/invasive/factsheets/locust.htm [Accessed 3 August 2003]
IPANE (Invasive Plant Atlas of New England). 2001.Robinia pseudoacacia. University of Connecticut.
Summary: A report that provides information on similar species to R. pseudoacacia.
Available from: http://webapps.lib.uconn.edu/ipane/browsing.cfm?descriptionid=102 [Accessed 4 July 2003]
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Robinia pseudoacacia
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/taxastep?king=every&p_action=containing&taxa=Robinia+pseudoacacia&p_format=&p_ifx=plglt&p_lang= [Accessed March 2005]
OPLIN (Ohio public library information network). 2001. Black Locust. Ohio Historical Society.
Summary: A short summary of the uses of R. pseudoacacia.
USDA-NRCS (United States Department of Agriculture). 2002. Robinia pseudoacacia. The PLANTS Database. Natural Resource Conservation Service.
Summary: A database that provides links and information on R. pseudoacacia.
Available from: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ROPS [Accessed 1 August 2003]
Contact
The following 2 contacts offer information an advice on Robinia pseudoacacia
Gover,
Art
Organization:
PENNDOT Roadside Vegetation Management Project
Email:
Address:
Department of Horticulture
The Pennsylvania State University
Phone:
(814) 863-1184
Fax:
(814) 863-1184
Lavergne,
Christophe
Geographic region: Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Conservatoire Botanique National de Mascarin
Address:
2 rue du P�re Georges Domaine des Colima�ons 97436 SAINT LEU
Phone:
(33) 02 62 24 92 27
Fax: