Global invasive species database

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  • Hedychium gardnerianum in dense stand (Photo: Walter Stahel, Environment B.O.P, NZ)
  • Hedychium gardnerianum tubers (Photo: Auckland Regional Council, N.Z.)
  • Hedychium gardnerianum flower (Photo: Auckland Regional Council, N.Z.)
  • Hillsides covered with Hedychium gardnerianum (conteira) after harvesting of Japanese cryptomeria in the Azores (Photo: Elizabeth Bell)
  • Hedychium gardnerianum (conteira) amongst Acacia, Pittosporum and Cryptomeria species in the Azores (Photo: Elizabeth Bell)
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Common name
longose (French, Reunion), kopi (English, Cook Islands), Girlandenblume (German), cevuga dromodromo (English, Fiji), conteira (Portuguese, Azores), kahili (English, Hawaii), Jin jiang hua (Chinese, China), awapuhi kahili (English, Hawaii), sunkevara (Nepali, Nepal), sinter weitahta (English, Pohnpei), kahila garland-lily (English), kahili ginger (English), wild ginger (English)
Synonym
Similar species
Hedychium flavescens
Summary
Hedychium gardnerianum is a showy ornamental which grows over a metre tall in wet climates and grows from sea level to an altitude of 1700 metres. It displaces native plants, forms vast, dense colonies and chokes the understorey vegetation. It can also block stream edges, altering water flow. It is dispersed by birds over short distances and by man over long distances (in garden waste or via the horticultural industry). Even small root fragments will re-sprout, making it difficult to control.
Species Description
Hedychium gardnerianum is a coarse perennial herb with leafy shoots 1.5-2m tall. It grows from large branching rhizomes (tuberous shoots) of up to 3.5cm in diameter. Rhizomes are internally pale and fragrant (Wagner et al., 1999, in PIER, 2002). Rhizomes grow vertical stems, grow up to 10cm long and form rhizome beds of up to a metre thick (Mather, Environment B.O.P). Leaves are oblong to lanceolate, 20-45 (-60)cm long, 5-10 (-12.5)cm wide, upper surface glabrous, lower surface sparsely pubescent, apex acuminate, sessile, ligules membranous, (1-) 2-4cm long, entire, pubescent, sheaths glabrous. Flowers fragrant, inflorescences erect, basically ovoid, 15-20cm long, ca. 8cm wide, primary bracts green, membranous along margins, loosely imbricate, broadly ovate to elliptic, 5-8cm long, ca. 3.5cm wide, apex usually obtuse, pubescent to glabrate, rachis permanently concealed, cincinni usually 4-flowered, calyx cylindrical, 4-5cm long, pubescent or rarely glabrate; corolla yellow, the tube slender, 8-9cm long, the lobes linear to linear-lanceolate, 4-5cm long; labellum often centrally flushed with dark yellow, broadly obovate, about as long as staminodes, (2.5-) 3-4cm wide, the base tapered into a claw; stamen yellow, about as long as labellum or slightly longer; lateral staminodes white, spatulate to lanceolate, (2.5-) 4-6cm long. Capsules unknown (Wagner et al., 1999, in PIER, 2002)
Notes
A major invader of native forests in New Zealand. Also a problem species in South Africa and La Réunion. (PIER, 2002)
Uses
After kava and noni, the lead Pacific Islands herb products, all produced in small quantities, are wild ginger, coconut, gardenia, red algae, and hibiscus (Keith-Reid 2002).
Habitat Description
Hedychium gardnerianum grows in open light environments, preferring a warm moist climate; however it will readily grow in full shade beneath a forest canopy (Environment B.O.P).
Reproduction
Rhizomes are a primary form of spread; conspicuous, fleshy red seeds are dispersed by fruit-eating birds. The plant also exhibits clonal reproduction, with even small root fragments containing the potential to resprout (Smith, 1985, in PIER, 2002). Seeds are a bright scarlet red, measure 6mm by 4mm, and over 100 seeds may be produced per flower head (Buddenhagen, DOC).
Pathway
Ornamental gingers (Hedychium spp.) are spread via the horticulture industry. For example, Kahili ginger (H. gardnerianum) was spread to Hawaii via this route (Anderson and Gardner 1999).

Principal source: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk (PIER), 2002. Hedychium gardnerianum

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group
Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review: Dr Rob Anderson

Publication date: 2010-10-04

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Hedychium gardnerianum. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=57 on 29-07-2016.

General Impacts
Kahili ginger can form dense growth in native forests, smothering young native seedlings and preventing them from establishing. This may result in the alteration of native forest habitats and ecosystems and in the degradation of native forest communities. In some instances forest regeneration may be completely prevented (Environment B.O.P). \r\n
First collected in 1954 at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (HVNP) (Wester, 1992), populations are now found on all islands in Hawaii (Smith, 1985). It exhibits aggressive growth and shade-tolerance, and forms dense thickets on undisturbed sites in the understory of open and closed-canopy ohia-lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) rain forests as well as in open habitats and forest edges around the National Park. It threatens the viability of such natural forests by preventing their regeneration (Anderson and Gardner 1999).\r\n
Aircraft-based analysis has found that ginger reduces the amount of nitrogen in the Metrosideros forest canopy in Hawaii, a finding later corroborated by ground based sampling (Stanford Report March 9 2005). Such alteration in natural ecosystem processes could alter the type of fauna able to inhabit such a habitat.
Management Info
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Hedychium gardnerianum for Hawai‘i and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The alien plant screening system is derived from Pheloung et al. (1999) with minor modifications for use in Pacific islands (Daehler et al. 2004). The result is a score of 16 and a recommendation of: \"Likely to cause significant ecological or economic harm in Hawai‘i and on other Pacific Islands as determined by a high WRA score, which is based on published sources describing species biology and behaviour in Hawai‘i and/or other parts of the world.\"

Remote sensing techniques and new technologies may help map the potential spread of invasive species such as kahili ginger. Recently, Scientists from Stanford and the Carnegie Institution developed an imaging method based on NASA Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) that detects changes in nitrogen levels and water content (measured from a high altitude sircraft). The detection of the exotic kahili ginger plant (Hedychium gardnerianum) in Hawaii (where the study was conducted) is based on the premise that it has relatively high water content compared with native forest plant species (ie: the native 'ohi'a (Metrosideros polymorpha) trees (Stanford Report March 9 2005). Identifying the actual and potential range of an invasive plant before it dominates a landscape can be an important step in the control of an invasive understory species.

Physical: Manual removal is another option for controlling local infestations (ie: in gardens). Small seedlings can be pulled out by hand. Removing the flower heads from Kahili ginger does not kill the plant but does slow down its spread. If the seeds are not fully formed the flowers can be left on the ground. If the seeds have formed, remove the flowers and put them out for disposal in your rubbish bags. Isolated small plants can be grubbed out and the rhizomes should also be removed. Stalks and roots are hard to burn and should not be composted. Take them to your council dump or transfer station or put them out for domestic rubbish collection.

Chemical: Common herbicides that are suitable include Escort, Roundup and Amitrole. Use the concentrations as recommended by the manufacturer. Apply from spring to late autumn. Spray lightly on the leaves and roots. Do not remove the leaves or stalks until they have gone brown and dried out. This will take three to four months. In terms of chemical control, it is cost effective to use Escort (metsulfuron-methyl) which is the most effective herbicide for use against kahili ginger (Harris et al. 1996, in Anderson and Gardner 1999). However, when large infestations are the case (such as in Hawaii) chemical control is considered environmentally safe only for small intensively managed areas with a high conservation value (Tunison and Stone 1992, in Anderson and Gardner 1999). This is because of the many side effects of Escort (which include soil leaching, ground water contamination and effects on non-target native plants).

In the summer of 1998, kahili ginger was removed from certain parts of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) by the use of Escort with a concentration of 1.5 g/l. The herbicide was applied aerially after epigeal sprouts had been cut down. It is absorbed by the plants through roots and foliage, and inhibits cell division in roots and shoots, which leads to rapid wilting and death. Escort might cause environmental damage, such as soil leaching and ground water contamination and might possibly affect non-target native species (Minden et al 2010)

Biological: Biological control is considered the only practical approach for the long-term management of large kahili ginger infestations in native forests. The ability of the bacterium Ralstonia (=Pseudomonas) solanacearum to cause bacterial wilt in kahili ginger H. gardnerianum in the field, together with its lack of virulence in other ginger species, contributes to its potential as a biological control agent (Anderson and Gardner 1999).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Hedychium gardnerianum
Informations on Hedychium gardnerianum has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Hedychium gardnerianum in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Kahili ginger can form dense growth in native forests, smothering young native seedlings and preventing them from establishing. This may result in the alteration of native forest habitats and ecosystems and in the degradation of native forest communities. In some instances forest regeneration may be completely prevented (Environment B.O.P). \r\n
First collected in 1954 at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (HVNP) (Wester, 1992), populations are now found on all islands in Hawaii (Smith, 1985). It exhibits aggressive growth and shade-tolerance, and forms dense thickets on undisturbed sites in the understory of open and closed-canopy ohia-lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) rain forests as well as in open habitats and forest edges around the National Park. It threatens the viability of such natural forests by preventing their regeneration (Anderson and Gardner 1999).\r\n
Aircraft-based analysis has found that ginger reduces the amount of nitrogen in the Metrosideros forest canopy in Hawaii, a finding later corroborated by ground based sampling (Stanford Report March 9 2005). Such alteration in natural ecosystem processes could alter the type of fauna able to inhabit such a habitat.
Red List assessed species 5: CR = 3; EN = 1; VU = 1;
Mechanism
Outcomes
[29] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [9] Modification of hydrology/water regulation, purification and quality /soil moisture
  • [9] Modification of nutrient pool and fluxes
  • [1] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [1] Modification of successional patterns
  • [9] Soil or sediment modification: erosion
[6] Environmental Species - Population
  • [5] Reduces/inhibits the growth of other species
  • [1] Indirect mortality
[1] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Damage to forestry
Management information
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Hedychium gardnerianum for Hawai‘i and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The alien plant screening system is derived from Pheloung et al. (1999) with minor modifications for use in Pacific islands (Daehler et al. 2004). The result is a score of 16 and a recommendation of: \"Likely to cause significant ecological or economic harm in Hawai‘i and on other Pacific Islands as determined by a high WRA score, which is based on published sources describing species biology and behaviour in Hawai‘i and/or other parts of the world.\"

Remote sensing techniques and new technologies may help map the potential spread of invasive species such as kahili ginger. Recently, Scientists from Stanford and the Carnegie Institution developed an imaging method based on NASA Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) that detects changes in nitrogen levels and water content (measured from a high altitude sircraft). The detection of the exotic kahili ginger plant (Hedychium gardnerianum) in Hawaii (where the study was conducted) is based on the premise that it has relatively high water content compared with native forest plant species (ie: the native 'ohi'a (Metrosideros polymorpha) trees (Stanford Report March 9 2005). Identifying the actual and potential range of an invasive plant before it dominates a landscape can be an important step in the control of an invasive understory species.

Physical: Manual removal is another option for controlling local infestations (ie: in gardens). Small seedlings can be pulled out by hand. Removing the flower heads from Kahili ginger does not kill the plant but does slow down its spread. If the seeds are not fully formed the flowers can be left on the ground. If the seeds have formed, remove the flowers and put them out for disposal in your rubbish bags. Isolated small plants can be grubbed out and the rhizomes should also be removed. Stalks and roots are hard to burn and should not be composted. Take them to your council dump or transfer station or put them out for domestic rubbish collection.

Chemical: Common herbicides that are suitable include Escort, Roundup and Amitrole. Use the concentrations as recommended by the manufacturer. Apply from spring to late autumn. Spray lightly on the leaves and roots. Do not remove the leaves or stalks until they have gone brown and dried out. This will take three to four months. In terms of chemical control, it is cost effective to use Escort (metsulfuron-methyl) which is the most effective herbicide for use against kahili ginger (Harris et al. 1996, in Anderson and Gardner 1999). However, when large infestations are the case (such as in Hawaii) chemical control is considered environmentally safe only for small intensively managed areas with a high conservation value (Tunison and Stone 1992, in Anderson and Gardner 1999). This is because of the many side effects of Escort (which include soil leaching, ground water contamination and effects on non-target native plants).

In the summer of 1998, kahili ginger was removed from certain parts of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) by the use of Escort with a concentration of 1.5 g/l. The herbicide was applied aerially after epigeal sprouts had been cut down. It is absorbed by the plants through roots and foliage, and inhibits cell division in roots and shoots, which leads to rapid wilting and death. Escort might cause environmental damage, such as soil leaching and ground water contamination and might possibly affect non-target native species (Minden et al 2010)

Biological: Biological control is considered the only practical approach for the long-term management of large kahili ginger infestations in native forests. The ability of the bacterium Ralstonia (=Pseudomonas) solanacearum to cause bacterial wilt in kahili ginger H. gardnerianum in the field, together with its lack of virulence in other ginger species, contributes to its potential as a biological control agent (Anderson and Gardner 1999).

Bibliography
28 references found for Hedychium gardnerianum

Managment information
Anderson, R.C. and Gardner, D.E. 1999. An Evaluation of the Wilt-Causing Bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum as a Potential Biological Control Agent for the Alien Kahili Ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum) in Hawaiian Forests, Biological Control 15: 89�96.
Asner, G.P., and P.M. Vitousek. 2005. Remote analysis of biological invasion and biogeochemical change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 102(12):4383-4386.
Summary: A study using airborne imaging spectroscopy and photon transport modeling to determine how biological invasion (specifically the nitrogen-fixing tree Myrica faya and the invasive understory herb Hedychium gardnerianum) altered the chemistry of forest canopies across a Hawaiian montane rain forest landscape.
Available from: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/0500823102v1 [Accessed 25th April 2005]
Chai, S. Undated. Pittosporum invasion of the Blue Mountains. Jamaica Conservation & Development Trust
Daehler, C.C; Denslow, J.S; Ansari, S and Huang-Chi, K., 2004. A Risk-Assessment System for Screening Out Invasive Pest Plants from Hawaii and Other Pacific Islands. Conservation Biology Volume 18 Issue 2 Page 360.
Summary: A study on the use of a screening system to assess proposed plant introductions to Hawaii or other Pacific Islands and to identify high-risk species used in horticulture and forestry which would greatly reduce future pest-plant problems and allow entry of most nonpests.
Department of Conservation (DOC), undated. Threats and Impacts Wild Ginger.
Summary: Good overview of Hedychium gardnerianum in New Zealand. Some good management information.
Available from: http://www.doc.govt.nz/templates/MultiPageDocumentTOC.aspx?id=40086 [Accessed 25 August 2008]
Environment Waikato. 2002. Wild Ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum, H. flavescens)
Hivert, J. 2003. Plantes exotiques envahissantes - Etat des m�thodes de lutte mise en oeuvre par l Office National des For�ts � La R�union. ONF R�union.
Summary: Synth�se des m�thodes de lutte employ�es par l ONF � la R�union contre une vingtaine de plantes exotiques envahissantes.
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Mather, John. Environment BOP. Wild Ginger - Fact Sheet PP02198. Environment Bay of Plenty, NZ.
Minden, Vanessa; Klaus Josef Hennenberg; Stefan Porembski & Hans Juergen Boehmer, 2010. Invasion and management of alien Hedychium gardnerianum (kahili ginger, Zingiberaceae) alter plant species composition of a montane rainforest on the island of Hawai�i. Plant Ecol (2010) 206:321�333
National Pest Plant Accord, 2001. Biosecurity New Zealand.
Summary: The National Pest Plant Accord is a cooperative agreement between regional councils and government departments with biosecurity responsibilities. Under the accord, regional councils will undertake surveillance to prevent the commercial sale and/or distribution of an agreed list of pest plants.
Available from: http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/pests-diseases/plants/accord.htm [Accessed 11 August 2005]
New Zealand Plant Conservation Network, 2005. Unwanted Organisms. Factsheet Hedychium gardnerianum
PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk), 2003. Hedychium gardnerianum
Summary: Ecology, synonyms, common names, distributions (Pacific as well as global), management and impact information.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/hedychium_gardnerianum.htm [Accessed 31 January 2003]
Plant Pest Control. Undated. (Wild Ginger Fact Sheet PP02/98: Hedychium gardnerianum, Hedychium flavescens). Environment Bay of Plenty.
Royal New Zealand Institute of Horticulture (RNZIH), 2005. Kahili ginger Hedychium gardnerianum
Stanford Report, March 9. 2005 Scientists use Aerial Imaging to Find Hidden Invaders in Hawaiian Rain forest.
Summary: Available from: http://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2005/march9/invade-030905.html [Accessed 14 February 2006]
Swaziland s Alien Plants Database., Undated. Hedychium gardnerianum
Summary: A database of Swaziland s alien plant species.
Taranaki Regional Council. 2003. Wild ginger Kahili ginger/yellow ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum, Hedychium flavescens). The Pest Plant Management Section.
Tasman District Council (TDC) 2001. Tasman-Nelson Regional Pest Management Strategy
General information
Conservatoire Botanique National De Mascarin (BOULLET V. coord.) 2007. - Hedychium gardnerianum Index de la flore vasculaire de la R�union (Trach�ophytes) : statuts, menaces et protections. - Version 2007.1
Summary: Base de donn�es sur la flore de la R�union. De nombreuses informations tr�s utiles.
Available from: http://flore.cbnm.org/index2.php?page=taxon&num=dab49080d80c724aad5ebf158d63df41 [Accessed 1 April 2008]
Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW), 2001. Hedychium gardnerianum.
Summary: Uses for kahili ginger.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/gcw/html/autogend/species/9316.HTM [Accessed on 31 January 2003].
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Hedychium gardnerianum
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/taxastep?king=every&p_action=containing&taxa=Hedychium+gardnerianum&p_format=&p_ifx=plglt&p_lang= [Accessed March 2005]
Lavergne C. 2005. Invasion par les plantes exotiques envahissantes dans une �le oc�anique : Impact �cologique � la R�union et valeur patrimoniale des �cosyst�mes indig�nes envahis. Rapport final, Programme de Recherche sur les Invasions Biologiques INVABIO, Conservatoire Botanique National de Mascarin et Universit� de la R�union, 152 p. + annexes.
Macdonald, I.A.W., Th�baud, C., Strahm, W.A., & Strasberg, D. 1991. Effects on alien plant invasions on native v�g�tation remnants on La Reunion (Mascarene Islands, Indian Ocean). Environmental Conservation, 18, 51-61.
Summary: Cet article est le premier � proposer une hi�rarchisation des plantes les plus envahissantes de La R�union. 33 plantes ont �t� ainsi class�es en utilisant une m�thode d�velopp�e en Afrique du Sud. Les bases d une strat�gie de lutte contre les plantes exotiques envahissantes sont �galement formul�es.
MacKee, H.S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultiv�es en Nouvelle-Cal�donie, 2nd edn. MNHN, Paris.
Summary: Cet ouvrage liste 1412 taxons (esp�ces, sous esp�ces et vari�t�s) introduits en Nouvelle-Cal�donie. L auteur pr�cise dans la majorit� des cas si l esp�ce est cultiv�e ou naturalis�e.
Meyer, J.-Y., Loope, L., Sheppard, A., Munzinger, J., Jaffre, T. 2006. Les plantes envahissantes et potentiellement envahissantes dans l archipel n�o-cal�donien : premi�re �valuation et recommandations de gestion. in M.-L. Beauvais et al. (2006) : Les esp�ces envahissantes dans l�archipel n�o-cal�donien, Paris, IRD �ditions, 260 p.+ c�d�rom.
Smith, Clifford W. Hawaiian Alien Plant Studies. University of Hawaii, Botany Department.
Summary: Information on the distribution of Kahili Ginger in Hawaii, plus some general information.
Available from: http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/cw_smith/hed_gar.htm [Accessed 31 January 2003].
Contact
The following 7 contacts offer information an advice on Hedychium gardnerianum
Anderson,
Rob
Organization:
USGS-BRD-Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center
Address:
3190 Maile Way, St. John 408 Honolulu, Hawai`i 96822
Phone:
808-956-9428
Fax:
808-956-5687
Baret,
St�phane
Geographic region: Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Parc national de La R�union, Charg� de mission flore
Address:
112 rue Ste Marie - 97400 St Denis
Phone:
02 62 90 79 06
Fax:
02 62 90 11 39
Buddenhagen,
Chris
Chris s current employment involves weed control, pig control, rodent control, documentation of rare species distributions, fence building. All his work is documented in databases and GIS. His unpaid work involves writing up studies about invasive plant management done previously in the Galapagos Islands.
Organization:
Hawaii Invasive Species Council Coordinator
Address:
1151 Punchbowl Street, Room 325. Honolulu, HI 96813.
Phone:
808 587 4154
Fax:
Harre,
Mike
Biosecurity Officer (Response)
Organization:
Auckland Regional Council
Address:
Private Bag 92 012, Auckland
Phone:
+64 9 366 2000 x8774
Fax:
Lavergne,
Christophe
Geographic region: Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Conservatoire Botanique National de Mascarin
Address:
2 rue du P�re Georges Domaine des Colima�ons 97436 SAINT LEU
Phone:
(33) 02 62 24 92 27
Fax:
Meyer,
Jean-Yves
Geographic region: Pacific, Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Expert in the botany of French Polynesia and the Pacific Islands, and has worked on ecology and biological control of Miconia calvescens in French Polynesia.
Organization:
D�l�gation � la Recherche
Address:
D�l�gation � la Recherche, Gouvernement de Polyn�sie fran�aise. B.P. 20981, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, Polyn�sie fran�aise
Phone:
689 47 25 60
Fax:
Triolo,
Julien
Geographic region: Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Office National des For�ts
Address:
ONF. Domaine Forestier de la Providence, 97488 Saint Denis cedex
Phone:
692345283
Fax: