Global invasive species database

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Common name
Asiatic cholera (English), epidemic cholera (English)
Synonym
Similar species
Vibrio parahaemolyticus
Summary
Vibrio cholerae is the bacteria that causes cholera; a potentially epidemic and life-threatening secretory diarrhea characterised by numerous, voluminous watery stools, often accompanied by vomiting and resulting in hypovolemic shock and acidosis. It can also cause mild or unapparent infections. Vibrio cholerae occurs in both marine and freshwater habitats in mutualistic associations with aquatic animals. Vibrio cholerae is endemic or epidemic in areas with poor sanitation; it occurs sporadically or as limited outbreaks in developed countries. Cholera is transmitted by the fecal-oral route. In coastal regions it may persist in shellfish and plankton. Long-term convalescent carriers are rare.
Species Description
According to Todar (2002), Vibrio cholerae consists of gram-negative, straight- or curved-rod bacteria. The bacteria are bioluminescent and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Vibrio spp. are capable of both respiratory and fermentative metabolism. Oxygen is a universal electron acceptor, and they do not denitrify. Most Vibrio spp. are oxidase-positive. There are 3 antigenic types (Inaba, Ogawa, and Hikojima) and the distinct El Tor biotype.
Habitat Description
According to WHO (2000), V. cholerae is often found in the aquatic environment and is part of the normal flora of brackish water and estuaries. It is often associated with algal blooms (plankton), which are influenced by the temperature of the water. Todar (2002) notes that Vibrio spp. are typically marine organisms, so most species require 2-3% NaCl or a seawater base for optimal growth; however, V. cholerae occurs in both marine and freshwater habitats in mutualistic associations with aquatic animals. V. cholerae is the most important Vibrio sp. to humans, although other species are pathogenic for invertebrates and other vertebrates. Finkelstein (UNDATED) notes that in coastal regions it may persist in shellfish and plankton. V. cholerae is endemic or epidemic in areas with poor sanitation, but long-term convalescent carriers are rare.
Reproduction
Cell division is by an asexual process called binary fission, which is the process of the division of a single-celled organism into two daughter cells (Anderson, 1999).
Nutrition
Todar (2002) explains that most Vibrio spp. have relatively simple growth factor requirements and will grow in synthetic media with glucose as a sole source of carbon and energy.
Pathway
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is testing imported and domestic shellfish and monitoring the safety of U.S. shellfish beds through the shellfish sanitation program (CDC, 2001). Transmission is through contaminated food or water sources (Todar, 2002). V. cholerae is endemic or epidemic in areas with poor sanitation (Finkelstein, UNDATED).

Principal source: Vibrio cholerae and Asiatic cholera (Todar, 2002)

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Anon

Publication date: 2006-03-23

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Vibrio cholerae. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=561 on 26-08-2016.

General Impacts
Cholera is caused by certain members of the species Vibrio cholerae, which can also cause mild or unapparent infections (Finkelstein, UNDATED). According to Todar (2002), V. cholerae produces cholera toxin, the model for enterotoxins, whose action on the mucosal epithelium is responsible for the characteristic diarrhea of the disease cholera. In its extreme manifestation, cholera is one of the most rapidly fatal illnesses known. A healthy person may become hypotensive within an hour of the onset of symptoms and may die within 2-3 hours if no treatment is provided. More commonly, the disease progresses from the first liquid stool to shock in 4-12 hours, with death following in 18 hours to several days. The clinical description of cholera begins with sudden onset of massive diarrhea. The patient may lose gallons of protein-free fluid and associated electrolytes, bicarbonates, and ions within a day or two. This loss of fluid leads to dehydration, anuria, acidosis, and shock. The watery diarrhea is speckled with flakes of mucus and epithelial cells (\"rice-water stool\") and contains enormous numbers of bacteria. The loss of potassium ions may result in cardiac complications and circulatory failure. Untreated cholera frequently results in high (50-60%) mortality rates.
Management Info
According to Todar (2002), treatment of cholera involves the rapid intravenous replacement of the lost fluid and ions. Following this replacement, administration of isotonic maintenance solution should continue until the diarrhea ceases. If glucose is added to the maintenance solution it may be administered orally, thereby eliminating the need for sterility and intravenous administration. By this simple treatment regimen, patients on the brink of death seem to be miraculously cured and the mortality rate of cholera can be reduced more than ten-fold. Most antibiotics and chemotherapeutic agents have no value in cholera therapy, although a few (e.g. tetracyclines) may shorten the duration of diarrhea and reduce fluid loss. The CDC (2001) indicates that international public health authorities are working to enhance surveillance for cholera, investigate cholera outbreaks, and design and implement preventive measures.
Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Vibrio cholerae
Informations on Vibrio cholerae has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Vibrio cholerae in information
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Invasiveness
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Species notes for this location
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Impact
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Impact information
Cholera is caused by certain members of the species Vibrio cholerae, which can also cause mild or unapparent infections (Finkelstein, UNDATED). According to Todar (2002), V. cholerae produces cholera toxin, the model for enterotoxins, whose action on the mucosal epithelium is responsible for the characteristic diarrhea of the disease cholera. In its extreme manifestation, cholera is one of the most rapidly fatal illnesses known. A healthy person may become hypotensive within an hour of the onset of symptoms and may die within 2-3 hours if no treatment is provided. More commonly, the disease progresses from the first liquid stool to shock in 4-12 hours, with death following in 18 hours to several days. The clinical description of cholera begins with sudden onset of massive diarrhea. The patient may lose gallons of protein-free fluid and associated electrolytes, bicarbonates, and ions within a day or two. This loss of fluid leads to dehydration, anuria, acidosis, and shock. The watery diarrhea is speckled with flakes of mucus and epithelial cells (\"rice-water stool\") and contains enormous numbers of bacteria. The loss of potassium ions may result in cardiac complications and circulatory failure. Untreated cholera frequently results in high (50-60%) mortality rates.
Red List assessed species 0:
Mechanism
[3] Disease transmission
Management information
According to Todar (2002), treatment of cholera involves the rapid intravenous replacement of the lost fluid and ions. Following this replacement, administration of isotonic maintenance solution should continue until the diarrhea ceases. If glucose is added to the maintenance solution it may be administered orally, thereby eliminating the need for sterility and intravenous administration. By this simple treatment regimen, patients on the brink of death seem to be miraculously cured and the mortality rate of cholera can be reduced more than ten-fold. Most antibiotics and chemotherapeutic agents have no value in cholera therapy, although a few (e.g. tetracyclines) may shorten the duration of diarrhea and reduce fluid loss. The CDC (2001) indicates that international public health authorities are working to enhance surveillance for cholera, investigate cholera outbreaks, and design and implement preventive measures.
Locations
Management Category
Unknown
Bibliography
13 references found for Vibrio cholerae

Managment information
General information
Adams, M. and Y. Motarjemi. 1999. Basic food safety for health workers. World Health Organization. Geneva.
Summary: A report that includes economic impacts of cholera.
Available from: http://www.who.int/fsf/Documents/BasicFoodSafetyforHealthWorker/1.pdf [Accessed 1 July 2003]
Anderson, G. 1999. Binary Fission.
Summary: A short summary on the process of Binary Fission.
Available from: http://tidepool.st.usm.edu/crswr/bacteriafission.html [Accessed 30 May 2003]
CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention). 2001. Cholera.
Summary: A detailed report on Cholera including the biology, distribution and treatment of the disease.
Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/cholera_g.htm [Accessed 10 June 2003]
CONABIO. 2008. Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras en M�xico. Especies invasoras - Otros invertebrados. Comisi�n Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Fecha de acceso.
Summary: English:
The species list sheet for the Mexican information system on invasive species currently provides information related to Scientific names, family, group and common names, as well as habitat, status of invasion in Mexico, pathways of introduction and links to other specialised websites. Some of the higher risk species already have a direct link to the alert page. It is important to notice that these lists are constantly being updated, please refer to the main page (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), under the section Novedades for information on updates.
Invasive species - Aquatic invertebrates is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Otros_invertebrados [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Spanish:
La lista de especies del Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras de m�xico cuenta actualmente con informaci�n aceca de nombre cient�fico, familia, grupo y nombre com�n, as� como h�bitat, estado de la invasi�n en M�xico, rutas de introducci�n y ligas a otros sitios especializados. Algunas de las especies de mayor riesgo ya tienen una liga directa a la p�gina de alertas. Es importante resaltar que estas listas se encuentran en constante proceso de actualizaci�n, por favor consulte la portada (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), en la secci�n novedades, para conocer los cambios.
Especies invasoras - Otros invertebrados is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Otros_invertebrados [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Epstein, P. R., T. E. Ford, and R. R. Colwell. 1993. Health and climate change: Marine ecosystems. The Lancet .
Summary: A report on various factors that can infect marine ecosystems, including V. cholerae.
Finkelstein, R. Cholera, Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139, and Other Pathogenic Vibrios.
Summary: This report reviews available information on Vibrio spp. It includes information on the chemistry and virulence factors of Cholera.
Available from: http://gsbs.utmb.edu/microbook/ch024.htm [Accessed 30 May 2003]
Heinemann, S.A., Thomson, III, F.K., Hynes, W.L. and Dobbs, F.C. 2003. Plasmid-borne antibiotic resistance in Vibrio cholerae < I> isolated from ships ballast water. In Abstracts: Third International Conference on Marine Bioinvasions. 2003. Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla, California
Summary: Report on the finding that antibiotic resistant Vibrio cholerae < I> was commonly found in ship ballast water.
Abstract Available from: http://massbay.mit.edu/resources/pdf/MarinePDF/2003/MBI2003abs6.pdf [Accessed 20 September, 2004]
Thomson, III, F.K., Heinemann, S.A. and Dobbs, F.C. 2003. Patterns of antibiotic resistance in cholera bacteria isolated from ships ballast water. In Abstracts: Third International Conference on Marine Bioinvasions, March 16-19, 2003. Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla, California
Summary: Antibiotic strains and genes could be being introduced to present species.
Abstract Available from: http://massbay.mit.edu/resources/pdf/MarinePDF/2003/MBI2003abs11.pdf [Accessed 20 September, 2004]
Todar, K. 2002. Vibriio cholerae and Asiatic cholera. University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Bacteriology.
Summary: A detailed report on all aspects of the biology, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of Cholera.
Available from: http://www.bact.wisc.edu/Bact330/lecturecholera [Accessed 29 May 2003]
WHO (World Health Organization). 2000. Cholera. WHO Information Fact Sheets.
Summary: A detailed report on all aspects of cholera.
Available from: http://www.who.int/inf-fs/en/fact107.html [Accessed 3 July 2003]
WHO (World Health Organization). 2003. Disease Outbreaks: Cholera. Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response.
Summary: A link to several reports on outbreaks of cholera in various countries.
Available from: http://www.who.int/disease-outbreak-news/disease/A00.htm [Accessed 20 June 2003]
Contact
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Vibrio cholerae