Global invasive species database

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Common name
kalamasa (Marathi, India), haal (English, Pakistan), maral (Marathi, India), soal (English), ngamuporom (Manipuri, India), phoola-chapa (English, Andhra Pradesh), pa gooan (Lao, Lao People's Democratic Republic), Indian snakehead (English), pool-a-malle (Telugu, India), murrel (English), Augenfleck-Schlangenkopf (German, Germany), trey raws (English, Sri Lanka), pba gooa (Lao, Lao People's Democratic Republic), gangara (Sinhalese, Sri Lanka), pa kouan (Lao, Lao People's Democratic Republic), great snakehead (English), bhaura (Nepali, Nepal), pla chon ngu hao (English, Cambodia), nga-yan-daing (Burmese, Myanmar), iru viral (Tamil, Sri Lanka), kalumaha (Sinhalese, Sri Lanka), cobra snakehead (English), kæmpe-slangehovedfisk (Danish, Denmark), gozar (Bengali, Bangladesh), gajal (English, West Bengal), hoovina-mural (Kannada, India), poomeenu (English, Orissa), avalu (Kannada, India), saal (English, Punjab), vral (Malayalam, India), sawal (English, Punjab), sawl (Punjabi, India), sal (English, Assam), giant snakehead (English), pumurl (English, West Bengal), coaree Veralavuree (Tamil, India), bhor (English, Bihar), bullseye snakehead (English), kubrah (English, Bihar), zmeegolov-maruliy (Russian, Russian Federation), dowlah (English, Punjab), gajar (Bengali, Bangladesh), ara (Sinhalese, Karnataka), saul (Nepali, Nepal), aviu (English, Karnataka), pla tjon gnoo aow (Thai, Thailand), bral (English, Kerala), bohr (Hindi, India), phool-mural (English, Andhra Pradesh), saura (Nepali, Nepal), madinji (English, Karnataka), pumuri (Hindi, India), curuva (English, Kerala), aviri (English, Andhra Pradesh), chaeru-veraal (English, Tamil Nadu), puveral (English, Tamil Nadu), intiankäärmeenpää (Finnish, Finland)
Synonym
Channa marulia , (Hamilton, 1822)
Channa marulius , (Hamilton, 1822)
Channa marulius ara , (Deraniyagala, 1945)
Ophicephalus grandinosus , (Cuvier, 1831)
Ophicephalus leucopunctatus , (Sykes, 1839)
Ophicephalus marulius , (Hamilton, 1822)
Ophicephalus sowara , (Cuvier, 1831)
Ophiocephalus aurolineatus , (Day, 1870)
Ophiocephalus grandinosus , (Cuvier, 1831)
Ophiocephalus marulius ara , (Deraniyagala, 1945)
Ophiocephalus theophrasti , (Valenciennes, 1840)
Ophiocephalus pseudomarulius , (Günther, 1861)
Similar species
Amia calva, Channa, Crenicichla, Batrachops
Summary
Little if any documentation is available on the effects of the bullseye snakehead (Channa marulius) on native fish populations. As a predator it may affect native ichthyofauna and subsequently disrupt native food webs. It's only recorded country of introduction is the USA.
Species Description
This snakehead species is an elongated fish, with a long dorsal fin, tubular nostrils and an ocellus near the base of the upper part of the caudal fin. There is no patch of scales on the gular region of the head. Lateral line scales drop two rows between the 16th and 18th perforated scale. Scale rows between the posterior margin of orbit and preopercular angle 10 degrees. Scales on top of the head are moderate-sized with a rosette of head scales between the orbits, with the frontal head scale in the center of the rosette. There are two scales between the rosette and the basal head scale, 10 scale rows between the propercular angle and posterior border of orbit, and the pectoral fin length is about half of the head length (Courtenay & Williams 2004). There is a distinctive orange spot on the caudal peduncle (Fuller 2009). This species has a large mouth, having a lower jaw containing seven to 18 canines behind a single row of villiform teeth that widen to five to six rows at jaw symphysis (Courtenay & Williams 2004). It has some of the largest teeth of any snakehead (Howells 2004). Teeth are present on prevomer but are absent on palatines. Juveniles may have a series of dark blotches along the sides, margined posteriorly and posterodorsally by a series of white scales. It is reported to be the largest species of the family Channidae, reaching a length of 120 to 122 centimeters. Talwar and Jhingran (1992, in USGS 2008) reported that it grows to 180 cm and a weight of 30 kg in Maharashtra State, western India, noting that a length of 30 cm can be attained in 1 year, however, Rohan Pethiyagoda and Prachya Musikasinthorn (Pers. Comm. 2002, in USGS 2008) stated they doubted that any snakehead would reach such a length and were unaware of any specimens of that size. Growth decreases with increasing age, with the greatest increase in weight occurring during the second year. In its native range it has been reported as having reached up to 60 pounds (Howells, 2004). The young are facultative airbreathers whereas the adults are obligate breathers. A peak in oxygen uptake has been exhibited at night. This species has been cited as being one of the two fastest growing snakeheads.
Uses
This fish is an important commercial, aquaculture, game and aquarium fish in various regions (FishBase 2008c). The bullseye snakehead has been cultured in ponds, ricefields, and irrigation wells that do not support other fishes. Ebanasar (1995) conducted a series of experiments on the biology, physiology and culture of this fish. It is reported that this fish is highly suitable for cage cultute and culture in ponds in combination with tilapia. It is found to be an effective tool in controlling the overpopulation of tilapia and thus checks stunted growth of tilapia. They are cultured as game fish in their native range because they put up a strong fight when hooked. Some snakeheads are highly valued as food fish, particularly northern snakehead (Channa argus), blotched snakehead (Channa maculata), Chinese snakehead (Channa asiatica), bullseye snakehead (C. marulius) and chevron snakehead (Channa striata) (Herborg et al. 2007).
Habitat Description
Channa marulius occurs in sluggish or standing water in rivers, canals, lakes and swamps. It tends to inhabit waters with submerged aquatic vegetation and is usually found only in deep pools in rivers and occasionally in lakes. It also enters flooded forests. The ideal temperature for this species is in the tropical range of approximately 24°C to 28°C (Pethiyagoda 1991). This species can exist in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate climates (Courtenay & Williams 2004). In a study by Lief-Mattias (2007), the mean air temperature was found to be the most significant environmental variable in regard to habitat suitability. This would help to explain the more tropical distribution of C. marulius, compared to other snakeheads like C. argus, that have also invaded the United States.
Reproduction
According to Agbayani (2002), the bullseye snakehead builds floating nests of weeds and leaves where orange-yellow eggs are deposited. The typical brood size of C. marulius is about 500 young, and is guarded by the parents until they reach about 10 cm in length. The eggs hatch within 54 hours at 16°C to 26°C and 30 hours at 28°C to 33°C. Breeding occurs through most of the year and can vary slightly depending on location (Courtenay & Williams 2004).
Nutrition
The bullseye snakehead fish is regarded as predacious, especially on other fishes. They cannot coexist in aquaria with other fish, including, bullseye snakeheads, once they have reached a length of 25 cm (Courtenay & Williams 2004). Dasgupta (2000, in USGS 2008) reported stomach contents of C. marulius collected from several localities in West Bengal, India, as consisting primarily of fishes (40%), followed by crustaceans (30%), macrophyte (15%), larval insects (10%), and algae (5%). Ahmad and others (1990, in USGS 2008) stated the diet of C. marulius in the River Kali, northern India, was more than 60 percent fishes and the remainder crustaceans, gastropods, insects, and larval chironomids.
Pathway
According to Fuller (2003), Channa marulius was found in Maryland due to probable aquarium release.This species has been known to be cultured for food and/or aquarium fish trade (Courtenay & Williams 2004).It is highly valued throughout Asia for its taste, so it is likely spread through the live food trade (Helias, 2002).

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Expert review underway: Dr. Walter R. Courtenay, Research Fishery Biologist, Center for Aquatic Resources Studies, USGS Florida Integrated Science Center USA

Publication date: 2009-05-24

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Channa marulius. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=520 on 30-08-2016.

General Impacts
Predation: Snakeheads are highly predatory and some have the ability to travel overland to new bodies of water. The bullseye snakehead is considered predacious (Jhingran 1984, Talwar & Jhingran 1992, in Hoffman 2002), especially on other fishes (Schmidt 2001, in Hoffman 2002). It also has the potential to impact native crustaceans through predation (Fuller 2009). In one stomach contents analysis study (N=127) it was found that the bullseye snakehead consumes its own species, bluegill, mosquitofish, warmouth, peacock bass, lizards, bufo toads, small turtles, a rat and a snake (Cocking 2008, in Fuller 2009).
Human health: Males, being territorial, will bite when they are caught (FishBase 2008c).\n
Management Info
The potential to eradicate or control snakehead populations depends on where they are found; if established in large lakes or river systems, eradication or control is expected to be nearly impossible; control in smaller water bodies depends upon the amount of vegetation, the accessibility to the water body, and the effectiveness of the control methods (Hoffman 2002). \n

Preventative measures: Areas surrounding the Gulf of Mexico, as well as large parts of Mexico itself, provide suitable habitat for establishment of Channa marulius (Lief-Mattias 2007). \n

The US Fish and Wildlife Service placed all snakehead fish in the Channidae family including C. marulius, on the federally regulated list of injurious fish in 2002, meaning their importation into or transportation between the continental United States and other territories in possession of the US is unlawful (Hoffman 2002). \n

Decision support tools for identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species (fish, invertebrates and amphibians) have been adapted from Pheloung Williams and Halloy (1999) Weed Risk Assessment tool and are available online.

Decision support tools for identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species (fish, invertebrates and amphibians) have been adapted from Pheloung Williams and Halloy (1999) Weed Risk Assessment. Please follow this link to access the decision support tool and kit.
A Risk-assessment for non-native freshwater species in the UK is available for determining the level of potential invasion The assessment can aid resource managers in decision making when it comes to management strategies.\n

Chemical: Piscicides work by preventing fish from removing oxygen from the water. Chemical control using Rotenone and similar toxins would likely be ineffective to air breathing snakeheads and damaging to nontarget organisms except in closed situations. \n

Physical: Electrofishing and netting may provide some level of control of snakehead populations; however, eradication using these methods would be too selective for [larger] size classes to remove a population of snakeheads. \n

Biological: Snakeheads are preyed upon by peacock bass and largemouth bass (Fuller 2009).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Channa marulius
ALIEN RANGE
NATIVE RANGE
  • bangladesh
  • cambodia
  • china
  • india
  • indonesia
  • lao people's democratic republic
  • myanmar
  • nepal
  • pakistan
  • sri lanka
  • thailand
  • viet nam
Informations on Channa marulius has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Channa marulius in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Predation: Snakeheads are highly predatory and some have the ability to travel overland to new bodies of water. The bullseye snakehead is considered predacious (Jhingran 1984, Talwar & Jhingran 1992, in Hoffman 2002), especially on other fishes (Schmidt 2001, in Hoffman 2002). It also has the potential to impact native crustaceans through predation (Fuller 2009). In one stomach contents analysis study (N=127) it was found that the bullseye snakehead consumes its own species, bluegill, mosquitofish, warmouth, peacock bass, lizards, bufo toads, small turtles, a rat and a snake (Cocking 2008, in Fuller 2009).
Human health: Males, being territorial, will bite when they are caught (FishBase 2008c).\n
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
UNITED STATES
Mechanism
[1] Predation
Outcomes
[2] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [1] Unspecified ecosystem modification
Management information
The potential to eradicate or control snakehead populations depends on where they are found; if established in large lakes or river systems, eradication or control is expected to be nearly impossible; control in smaller water bodies depends upon the amount of vegetation, the accessibility to the water body, and the effectiveness of the control methods (Hoffman 2002). \n

Preventative measures: Areas surrounding the Gulf of Mexico, as well as large parts of Mexico itself, provide suitable habitat for establishment of Channa marulius (Lief-Mattias 2007). \n

The US Fish and Wildlife Service placed all snakehead fish in the Channidae family including C. marulius, on the federally regulated list of injurious fish in 2002, meaning their importation into or transportation between the continental United States and other territories in possession of the US is unlawful (Hoffman 2002). \n

Decision support tools for identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species (fish, invertebrates and amphibians) have been adapted from Pheloung Williams and Halloy (1999) Weed Risk Assessment tool and are available online.

Decision support tools for identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species (fish, invertebrates and amphibians) have been adapted from Pheloung Williams and Halloy (1999) Weed Risk Assessment. Please follow this link to access the decision support tool and kit.
A Risk-assessment for non-native freshwater species in the UK is available for determining the level of potential invasion The assessment can aid resource managers in decision making when it comes to management strategies.\n

Chemical: Piscicides work by preventing fish from removing oxygen from the water. Chemical control using Rotenone and similar toxins would likely be ineffective to air breathing snakeheads and damaging to nontarget organisms except in closed situations. \n

Physical: Electrofishing and netting may provide some level of control of snakehead populations; however, eradication using these methods would be too selective for [larger] size classes to remove a population of snakeheads. \n

Biological: Snakeheads are preyed upon by peacock bass and largemouth bass (Fuller 2009).

Bibliography
34 references found for Channa marulius

Managment information
Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.
Summary: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
The decision support tools are available from: http://cefas.defra.gov.uk/our-science/ecosystems-and-biodiversity/non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx [Accessed 13 October 2011]
The guidance document is available from http://www.cefas.co.uk/media/118009/fisk_guide_v2.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009].
Copp, G.H., Garthwaite, R. and Gozlan, R.E., 2005. Risk identification and assessment of non-native freshwater fishes: concepts and perspectives on protocols for the UK. Sci. Ser. Tech Rep., Cefas Lowestoft, 129: 32pp.
Summary: The discussion paper presents a conceptual risk assessment approach for freshwater fish species that addresses the first two elements (hazard identification, hazard assessment) of the UK environmental risk strategy The paper presents a few worked examples of assessments on species to facilitate discussion.
Available from: http://www.cefas.co.uk/publications/techrep/tech129.pdf [Accessed 1 September 2005]
Courtenay, Walter R. Jr., & James D. Williams., 2004. Snakeheads (Pisces, Channidae)- A Biological Synopsis and Risk Assessment. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1251.
Summary: Available from: http://fisc.er.usgs.gov/Snakehead_circ_1251/circ_1251_courtenay.pdf [Accessed 23 April 2009]
Gestring, Kelly B., Paul L. Shafland, and Murray S. Stanford. 2003. Annual Progress Report For Metropolitan Southeast Florida Canal Fisheries and Recently Introduced Exotic Fishes. 2002 � 2003
Summary: Available from: http://www.floridaconservation.org/Fishing/fishes/NonnativeReports/AnnRept2002-03.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009]
Gestring, Kelly B., Paul L. Shafland, and Murray S. Stanford. 2004. Second Annual Progress Report for Exotic Fish Assessments 2003-2004
Summary: Available from: http://www.floridaconservation.org/Fishing/fishes/NonnativeReports/AnnRept2003-04.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009]
Hoffman, P. 2002. Injurious Wildlife Species; Snakeheads (family Channidae). Department of Interior, United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
Summary: An extensive report on snakeheads, including information on biology, ecology, and management.
Howells, Robert G., 2004. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Snakehead Alert. Heart of the Hills Research Station, Ingram, Texas 78025; August 2002.
Summary: Available from: http://www.vtafs.org.vt.edu/pdffiles/Snakehead.doc [Accessed 13 January 2009]
Maryland Invasive Species Resource Center, 2008. List of Prohibited Invasive Species
Summary: Legat status
Available from: http://www.dnr.state.md.us/invasives/#pis [Accessed 13 January 2009]
Mendoza, R.E.; Cudmore, B.; Orr, R.; Balderas, S.C.; Courtenay, W.R.; Osorio, P.K.; Mandrak, N.; Torres, P.A.; Damian, M.A.; Gallardo, C.E.; Sanguines, A.G.; Greene, G.; Lee, D.; Orbe-Mendoza, A.; Martinez, C.R.; and Arana, O.S. 2009. Trinational Risk Assessment Guidelines for Aquatic Alien Invasive Species. Commission for Environmental Cooperation. 393, rue St-Jacques Ouest, Bureau 200, Montr�al (Qu�bec), Canada. ISBN 978-2-923358-48-1.
Summary: In 1993, Canada, Mexico and the United States signed the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) as a side agreement to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The NAAEC established the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) to help the Parties ensure that improved economic efficiency occurred simultaneously with trinational environmental cooperation. The NAAEC highlighted biodiversity as a key area for trinational cooperation. In 2001, the CEC adopted a resolution (Council Resolution 01-03), which created the Biodiversity Conservation Working Group (BCWG), a working group of high-level policy makers from Canada, Mexico and the United States. In 2003, the BCWG produced the �Strategic Plan for North American Cooperation in the Conservation of Biodiversity.� This strategy identified responding to threats, such as invasive species, as a priority action area. In 2004, the BCWG, recognizing the importance of prevention in addressing invasive species, agreed to work together to develop the draft CEC Risk Assessment Guidelines for Aquatic Alien Invasive Species (hereafter referred to as the Guidelines). These Guidelines will serve as a tool to North American resource managers who are evaluating whether or not to introduce a non-native species into a new ecosystem. Through this collaborative process, the BCWG has begun to implement its strategy as well as address an important trade and environment issue. With increased trade comes an increase in the potential for economic growth as well as biological invasion, by working to minimize the potential adverse impacts from trade, the CEC Parties are working to maximize the gains from trade while minimizing the environmental costs.
Available from: English version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5516_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_en.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010]
French version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5517_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_fr.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010]
Spanish version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5518_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_es.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010].
General information
AFA (Asian Fishing Adventure), 2003. Thailand: Giant Snakehead Fish B&B Worldwide Fishing Adventures.
Summary: A report on C. marulius in Thailand.
Agbayani, E. 2002. Countries where Channa marulius is Found Worldfish Center.
Summary: A reference on the distribution of C. marulius in Asia.
Courtenay, Walter R. Jr. 2007. Introduced species: What species do you have and how do you know? Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 136(4). JUL 2007. 1160-1164.
Summary: Abstract: The introduction of fishes, whether of foreign origin or from one part of North America to another, has been part of fisheries management for much of the past century, some introductions dating well back into the nineteenth century. Federal, state, and provincial agencies, along with aquaculture facilities and private aquarists, have all played important roles in this history. In recent decades there have been many unauthorized introductions via a rapidly increasing number of pathways, some of which are difficult to control. One very large problem in dealing with introduced fish is the inability of many fishery biologists and managers to identify native fishes in their jurisdictions, recognize introduced species, and appreciate the management problems that might result. Proper management cannot be done by those who have little knowledge of systematic ichthyology and who are thus unable to identify the fishes they are dealing with, be they native or introduced. I suggest a solution to some of these problems and recommend a curriculum change to better train future fishery biologists and managers.
FishBase, 2005. Species profile Channa marulius Great snakehead
Summary: FishBase is a global information system with all you ever wanted to know about fishes . FishBase on the web contains practically all fish species known to science. FishBase was developed at the WorldFish Center in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and many other partners, and with support from the European Commission (EC). Since 2001 FishBase is supported by a consortium of seven research institutions. You can search on Search FishBase
This species profile is available from: http://www.fishbase.org/summary/speciessummary.cfm?id=5144 [Accessed 21 March, 2005]
FishBase, 2008. Channa marulius Great snakehead Common names
Summary: Available from: http://www.fishbase.org/comnames/CommonNamesList.php?ID=5144&GenusName=Channa&SpeciesName=marulius&StockCode=5382 [Accessed 13 January 2009]
FishBase, 2008. Channa marulius Great snakehead Introductions
Summary: Available from: http://www.fishbase.org/Introductions/IntroductionsList.cfm?ID=5144&GenusName=Channa&SpeciesName=marulius&fc=431&StockCode=5382 [Accessed 13 January 2009]
FishBase, 2008. Channa marulius Great snakehead Snakehead Country list
Summary: Available from: http://www.fishbase.org/Country/CountryList.php?ID=5144&GenusName=Channa&SpeciesName=marulius [Accessed 13 January 2009]
FishBase, 2008. Channa marulius Great snakehead Species summary
Summary: Available from: http://www.fishbase.org/summary/SpeciesSummary.php?id=5144 [Accessed 13 January 2009]
FishBase, 2008. Channa marulius Great snakehead Synonyms
Summary: Available from: http://www.fishbase.org/Nomenclature/SynonymsList.php?ID=5144&SynCode=25485&GenusName=Channa&SpeciesName=marulius [Accessed 13 January 2009]
Fuller, P., 2003. Channa marulius Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL.
Summary: Available from: http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.asp?speciesID=2266
Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), 2009. Species: Channa marulius (Hamilton, 1822)
Summary: Available from: http://data.gbif.org/species/13538499 [Accessed 15 June 2010]
Helias, J. 2002. From it s Native Asia to Florida-The Tale of The Cobra Snakehead. Carpe Carpio.
Summary: A report on the history and distribution of C. marulius.
Herborg, L., Mandrak, N.E., Cudmore, B.C. & MacIsaac, H.J. 2007. Comparative distribution and invasion risk of snakehead (Channidae) and Asian carp (Cyprinidae) species in North America. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Volume 64, Number 12, pp. 1723-1735(13)
Summary: Herborg and colleagues (2007) predict suitable environments of 14 high-profile species of nonindigenous snakehead (Channidae) and Asian carp (Cyprinidae) species in North America based upon ecological niche modelling.
Howells, R.G. 2002. Snakehead Alert Texas Parks and Wildlife Department.
Summary: A poster on several species of the Channa genus.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2004. Online Database Channa marulius
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=166663 [Accessed December 31 2004]
Pam Fuller. 2009. Channa marulius . USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL.
Summary: Available from: http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.asp?speciesID=2266 [Accessed 13 January 2009]
Prasad, Bijay Bhushan., 2002. Trophic ecology of an air-breathing fish, Channa marulius (Ham.). Geobios (Jodhpur). 29(1). January, 2002. 9-12.
Shafland, Paul L.; Gestring, Kelly B.; Stanford, Murray S., 2007. Florida s exotic freshwater fishes - 2007. Florida Scientist. 71(3). SUM 2008. 220-242.
USGS. 2008. Channa marulius (Hamilton, 1822). Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC).
Summary: Available from: http://fisc.er.usgs.gov/Snakehead_circ_1251/html/channa_marulius.html [Accessed 13 January 2009]
USGS (US Geological Survey), NAS (Non-indigenous Aquatic Species). 2003. Giant snakehead found in Wisconsin waters (News item). U.S. Department of the Interior, 2003-09-19.
Contact
The following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Channa marulius
Courtenay, Jr.,
Walter R.
Organization:
Research Fishery Biologist, USGS - Center for Aquatic Resource Studies
Address:
7920 NW 71st Street, Gainesville, Florida 32653-3071
Phone:
(352)264-3519
Fax:
(352)378-4956