Global invasive species database

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  • Flowers of Ardisia elliptica
  • Leaves of Ardisia elliptica
  • Ardisia elliptica foliage (Photo: Ken A. Langeland, University of Florida, Bugwood.org)
  • Ardisia elliptica fruits (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr, U.S. Geological Survey, Bugwood.org)
  • Ardisia elliptica flowers (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr, U.S. Geological Survey, Bugwood.org)
  • Ardisia elliptica infestation (Photo: Tony Pernas, USDI National Park Service, Bugwood.org)
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Common name
shoebutton ardisia (English), ati popa'a (English, French Polynesia)
Synonym
Ardisia humilis , Vahl.
Ardisia squamulosa , Pr.
Similar species
Summary
Ardisia elliptica is a shade tolerant evergreen tree whose fast growth and attractive fruit made it a popular ornamental plant in the past. It has escaped from private and public gardens to invade natural areas. Due to high reproductive output and high shade-tolerance, carpets of seedlings can form underneath adult trees. High seed viability (99%) and seed consumption by both avian and mammalian frugivores can lead to rapid spread across a landscape.
Species Description
Ardisia elliptica is a tropical understorey shrub that can reach heights of up to 5 metres. Undamaged plants in forest habitats are characterised by a single stem, producing short, perpendicular branches. Leaves are elliptic to elliptic-obovate, entire, leathery and alternate. Most plants in South Florida have pink to red coloured petioles, although some populations have light green petioles. Umbellate inflorescences develop in leaf axils of branch leaves. Petals are light pink. Fruits are drupes that first turn red as they mature and then deep purple/black. Pulp from the fruits will stain fingers a deep purple. Seeds are approximately spherical with a diameter of about 5mm.
Notes
Ardisia elliptica readily invades moist disturbed forests, however, it has also been able to invade relatively undisturbed sites. Its fast growth and attractive fruit made it a popular ornamental plant in the past. From private and public gardens it has invaded natural areas. Close resemblance between it and A. escallonioides in Florida led to its introduction to the Everglades National Park in 1947. Because its fruit is readily consumed by both avian and mammalian frugivores, rapid spread across a landscape is possible. High seed viability (99%) greatly increases success of rare long-distance dispersal events.
Lifecycle Stages
Seeds do not have any long-term dormancy (i.e., greater than 6 months), however, seedlings and juveniles can survive under very shady conditions for many years. Given enough light, juveniles rapidly develop into reproductive adults. In Florida (USA) habitats, there is very little adult mortality. Fruits are readily eaten by frugivores.
Habitat Description
Ardisia elliptica readily invades moist disturbed forests, however, it has also been able to invade relatively undisturbed sites. Its fast growth and attractive fruit made it a popular ornamental plant in the past. From private and public gardens it has invaded natural areas. Close resemblance between it and A. escallonioides in Florida led to its introduction to the Everglades National Park in 1947. Because its fruit is readily consumed by both avian and mammalian frugivores, rapid spread across a landscape is possible. High seed viability (99%) greatly increases the success of rare long-distance dispersal events.
Reproduction
Ardisia elliptica is highly autogamous. Given ideal conditions, individuals can reach reproductive maturity in 2-4 years in the field and 1-2 years in a shade house. Large adults in bright forested sites have been measured producing up to 400 fruits. However, adults can also successfully set fruit under shady conditions.
Nutrition
A shade-adapted species that can survive under extreme low light levels. In Florida it grows in alkaline soils and limestone substrates. Prefers moist forests. Seedlings can tolerate submergence for short periods.
Pathway
Although this method has not been documented, it is a likely invasion path.Sold as an ornamental.

Principal source: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk, (PIER, 2002)

Compiler: Anthony L. Koop, University of Miami, Department of Biology, Coral Gables, Florida, USA & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Anthony L. Koop, University of Miami, Department of Biology, Coral Gables, Florida, USA.

Publication date: 2005-04-13

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Ardisia elliptica. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=52 on 29-07-2016.

General Impacts
Ardisia elliptica readily forms dense monotypic stands that exclude native species. Due to high reproductive output and high shade-tolerance, carpets of seedlings (>400 plants per square metre) can form underneath adult plants under ideal conditions (moist soil and shallow litter). Seedling carpets and increased shade levels inhibit recruitment by native species.
Management Info
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Ardisia elliptica for Hawaii and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The alien plant screening system is derived from Pheloung et al. (1999) with minor modifications for use in the Pacific islands (Daehler et al. 2004).

Physical: Hand pull seedlings.

Chemical: \"In areas with a dense groundcover of seedlings, a broadcast spray of a glyphosate herbicide is effective, but be careful to avoid damaging desirable plants. Mature specimens should be treated with a basal application of a triclopyhr herbicide mixed with an oil diluent\" (Hammer, 1996).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Ardisia elliptica
NATIVE RANGE
Informations on Ardisia elliptica has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Ardisia elliptica in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Ardisia elliptica readily forms dense monotypic stands that exclude native species. Due to high reproductive output and high shade-tolerance, carpets of seedlings (>400 plants per square metre) can form underneath adult plants under ideal conditions (moist soil and shallow litter). Seedling carpets and increased shade levels inhibit recruitment by native species.
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
UNITED STATES
Mechanism
[1] Competition
Outcomes
[1] Environmental Species - Population
  • [1] Reduces/inhibits the growth of other species
Management information
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Ardisia elliptica for Hawaii and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The alien plant screening system is derived from Pheloung et al. (1999) with minor modifications for use in the Pacific islands (Daehler et al. 2004).

Physical: Hand pull seedlings.

Chemical: \"In areas with a dense groundcover of seedlings, a broadcast spray of a glyphosate herbicide is effective, but be careful to avoid damaging desirable plants. Mature specimens should be treated with a basal application of a triclopyhr herbicide mixed with an oil diluent\" (Hammer, 1996).

Locations
Management Category
Prevention
Unknown
Bibliography
18 references found for Ardisia elliptica

Managment information
Brown, M. T. and Lamare, M. D. 1994. The distribution of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar within Timaru harbour, New Zealand. Japanese Journal of Phycology 42: 63-70.
Daehler, C.C; Denslow, J.S; Ansari, S and Huang-Chi, K., 2004. A Risk-Assessment System for Screening Out Invasive Pest Plants from Hawaii and Other Pacific Islands. Conservation Biology Volume 18 Issue 2 Page 360.
Summary: A study on the use of a screening system to assess proposed plant introductions to Hawaii or other Pacific Islands and to identify high-risk species used in horticulture and forestry which would greatly reduce future pest-plant problems and allow entry of most nonpests.
Forrest, B. 2000. A management strategy for the Asian kelp Undaria? Aliens 12.
Hay, C. H. 1990. The dispersal of sporophytes of Undaria pinnatifida by coastal shipping in new Zealand, and implications for further dispersal of Undaria in France. British Phycological Journal 25: 301-313.
Hay, C. H. and Luckens, P. A. 1987. The Asian kelp Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyta, Laminariales) found in a New Zealand harbour. New Zealand Journal Botany 25: 364-366.
Montague, T. L. 2000. The brushtail possum: Biology, impact and management of an introduced marsupial. Manaaki Whenua Press, New Zealand.
Summary: An account (by several authors) that outlines the breadth and complexity of the possum problem in New Zealand. The book explores current and potential future management techniques, and measuring the benefits of controlling possums.
Rash, J. E., Williamson, R. C. and Taylor, S. J. 1995. How green is your mudflat? Proceedings of the Australasian conference on Spartina control. Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Yarram, Victoria, Australia.
Summary: Collection of papers about the history of Spartina invasions in Australia and New Zealand and subsequent control attempts.
Shaw, W. B. 1999. Options for Spartina control in Northland. Conservation Advisory Science Notes: 253, Department of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand.
Ward, B. and Henzell, R. 1999. Gel pruning for the control of invasive vines. ConScience, Department of Conservation, New Zealand.
Summary: Gel pruning is being investigated as an environmentally friendly and effective chemical application system for selectively killing invasive vines.
General information
Conservatoire Botanique National De Mascarin (BOULLET V. coord.) 2007. - Ardisia elliptica Index de la flore vasculaire de la R�union (Trach�ophytes) : statuts, menaces et protections. - Version 2007.1
Summary: Base de donn�es sur la flore de La R�union. De nombreuses informations tr�s utiles.
Available from: http://flore.cbnm.org/index2.php?page=taxon&num=3435c378bb76d4357324dd7e69f3cd18 [Accessed 28 March 2008]
Cowan, P. E. 1990. The Brushtail Possum. The Handbook of New Zealand Mammals. King, C. M. (ed.) Oxford University Press.
Summary: A comprehensive book on all 46 species of land-breeding mammals (mostly alien) that occur in New Zealand. Chapters are by local experts on each species. Chapter on brushtail possums is by P.E. Cowan.
Florence J., Chevillotte H., Ollier C. & Meyer J.-Y. 2007. Waterhousea floribunda Base de donn�es botaniques Nadeaud de l Herbier de la Polyn�sie fran�aise (PAP).
Summary: Base de donn�es sur le flore de Polyn�sie Fran�aise.
Available from: http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf/Selection_Taxonomie.php?id_tax=2614 [Accessed 26 March 2008]
Innes, J. G. 1990. Ship Rat. The Handbook of New Zealand Mammals. King, C. M. (ed.) Oxford University Press: 206-225.
Summary: A complete reference to the ship rat in New Zealand.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2004. Online Database Ardisia elliptica
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=183615 [Accessed December 31 2004]
Langeland, K.A. and Burks, K. C (Eds) 1998. Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida s Natural Areas, University of Florida. Ardisia elliptica.
Summary: Information on plants that pose threats to natural resource areas in Florida.
Available from: http://www.fleppc.org/ID_book/ardidia%20elliptica.pdf [Accessed 30 December 2004]
Meyer, J.-Y. 2004. Threat of invasive alien plants to native flora and forest vegetation of eastern Polynesia. Pacific Science, 58, 357-375
Summary: Dans cet article, la menace croissante des plantes exotiques envahissantes est discut�e et les esp�ces les plus envahissantes sont d�crites. Des hypoth�ses sur l invasibilit� des �les sont pr�sent�es � la lumi�re des observations et des donn�es r�colt�es.
Contact
The following 9 contacts offer information an advice on Ardisia elliptica
Beggs,
Jacqueline
Ecological Entomology, ecology and control of invasive invertebrates, honeydew beech forest food webs.
Organization:
School of Biological Sciences, Tamaki Campus, University of Auckland
Address:
Private Bag 92019, Auckland New Zealand
Phone:
09 373 7599 ext 86823
Fax:
09 3737 7042
Clout,
Mick
Expert on brushtail possum in New Zealand
Organization:
University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Address:
School of Geography and Environmental Science, Tamaki Campus, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand,
Phone:
+64 9 3737599 x5281
Fax:
+64 9 3737042
Gillespie,
Paul
Spartina anglica - New Zealand
Organization:
Senior Marine Research Scientist, Cawthron Institute
Address:
98 Halifax Street East, Nelson, New Zealand
Phone:
Fax:
Graham,
Nugent
Feral goats and feral pigs
Organization:
Manaaki Whenua - Landcare Research
Address:
P.O. Box 69, Lincoln, New Zealand
Phone:
Fax:
Harris,
Richard
Hymenoptera (ants, bees, wasps) spp. - ecology and control in New Zealand
Organization:
Landcare Research, NZ
Address:
Private Bag 6, Nelson, New Zealand
Phone:
+64 3 5481082
Fax:
+64 3 5468590
Koop,
Anthony L.
Ardisia elliptica
Organization:
University of Miami
Address:
Department of Biology; P.O. Box 249118; Coral Gables, Florida 33124-0421; USA
Phone:
+1 305 2845364
Fax:
+1 305 2843039
Meyer,
Jean-Yves
Geographic region: Pacific, Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Expert in the botany of French Polynesia and the Pacific Islands, and has worked on ecology and biological control of Miconia calvescens in French Polynesia.
Organization:
D�l�gation � la Recherche
Address:
D�l�gation � la Recherche, Gouvernement de Polyn�sie fran�aise. B.P. 20981, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, Polyn�sie fran�aise
Phone:
689 47 25 60
Fax:
Parkes,
John
Feral goats
Organization:
Manaaki Whenua - Landcare Research
Address:
P.O. Box 69, Lincoln, New Zealand
Phone:
Fax:
Shaw,
Willie
Spartina anglica, Spatina alterniflora - New Zealand
Organization:
Director, Wildland Consultants Ltd
Address:
5B Owhata Road, PO Box 7137 Te Ngae, Rotorua, New Zealand
Phone:
+64 7 3459017
Fax:
+64 7 345 9018