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Common name
thorny poinciana (English), bois sappan (French), Arrete-boeuf (English), Mysore thorn (English), mubage (English), mauritiusdoring (Afrikaans), kraaldoring (English), ulozisi (Zulu, South Africa), caniroc (English), ufenisi (Zulu), Mauritius thorn (English), puakelekino (English, Hawaii), cat's claw (English), liane croc chien (English), wait-a-bit (English), kraaldoring (Afrikaans), shoofly (English), ubobo-encane (Zulu)
Synonym
Biancaea decapetala , (Roth)
Reichardia decapetala
Caesalpinia decapetala , var. japonica (Sieb. & Zucc.)
Caesalpinia sepiaria , Roxb.
Biancaea sepiaria , (Roxb.) Todaro
Reichardia decapetala , Roth
Biancaea sepiaria , (Roxb.) Tod.
Similar species
Caesalpinia subtropica, Caesalpinia scortechinii
Summary
Mysore thorn (Caesalpinia decapetala ) originates from tropical and eastern Asia but is now a serious weed in many locations such as South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Hawaii, Portugal, New Zealand and Norfolk Island. It has become a major invasive plant in South Africa and Hawaii, where it has the capability to take over large areas of agricultural land, limiting animal movement. This sprawling, thorny and noxious shrub also invades forest margins, smothering native vegetation.
Species Description
This robust thorny evergreen shrub grows from two to four meters high or climbs to 10 meters or higher. It often forms dense thickets. The stems are covered with minute golden-hair and thorns which are straight or hooked, numerous and not in regular rows or confined to nodes. The leaves are dark green, paler underneath, not glossy, up to 30 cm long with leaflets up to 8 mm wide. The flowers are pale yellow in elongated erect clusters 10 cm to 40 cm long. Fruits are brown woody pods, flattened, unsegmented, smooth, sharply beaked at apex, about 8 cm long (PIER 2002).
Notes
The genus Caesalpinia contains more than 100 species, occurring in tropical and temperate regions worldwide. Seventeen species are reported from China, occurring primarily in the southwest and north (Hao et al. 2004).
Uses
Caesalpinia decapetala is used as a landscaping plant as a hedge or an ornamental in China and elsewhere. The bitter tasting stems and roots can be used medicinally, while other parts of the plant are useful in the chemical industry (Hao et al. 2004). The fruits and bark are rich in tannin. With an oil content of 35 percent, the seeds serve as a source of lubricant and soap (Hao et al. 2004).
Habitat Description
Caesalpinia decapetala occurs on bushy hillsides, uplands, and along streams in temperate and tropical regions (Hao et al. 2004).C. decapetala invades forest margins and gaps, plantations, roadsides and watercourses (PIER 2002). In South Africa C. decapetala invades riverine habitats, forest margins, savanna and timber plantations (South African National Parkes Undated). Altitudinal range is from 0 to 1500 meters (Wildy, E. pers. comm. 2004). In the Pacific, the plant is confined to dry to mesic lowland habitats (PIER 2002). In South Africa C. decapetala is commonly found in areas that receive between 750mm and 1000mm of rain per annum (E. Wildy pers. comm. 2004).
Reproduction
The medium-sized seeds may be dispersed by rodents and granivorous birds, but man is almost certainly the principal dispersal agent in Hawaii (PIER, 2002). Trailing branches root where they touch the ground (WESSA, 2004). The seed is spread considerable distances by running water (Starr et al. 2003). It is thought that in Maui the introduction may have been the result of seeds in mud on large machinery used to do road work on the Hana Hwy. (Starr et al. 2003).
Pathway
Seeds from Caesalpinia decapetala can contaminate agricultural produce and remain viable in the soil for up to 10 years and hence farmers, rural distributors and local weed control authorities need to promote and guard against its transportation (NSW North Coast Weeds Advisory Committee 2009).Caesalpinia decapetala was first introduced by ranchers for fencing (Starr et al. 2003) and missionaries who planted it to keep out wild animals (WESSA 2004).

Principal source: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk, 2002. Caesalpinia decapetala

Compiler: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
Updates under progress with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review: Eden Wildy. Alien Invader Plants Project. Wildlife & Environment Society of SA. South Africa.

Publication date: 2010-01-27

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Caesalpinia decapetala. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=510 on 29-07-2016.

General Impacts
Caesalpinia decapetala has a thorny smothering habit which can reduce flora and fauna habitat through forming dense monocultures. This can create a habitat for introduced pests (such as foxes, cats and rabbits in Australia). Thorns on the plant can injure wildlife and restrict access for livestock. The weed can damage fences, sheds, road signs and other infrastructure (NSW North Coast Weeds Advisory Committee 2009). \r\n\r\n
Ecosystem change (NSW North Coast Weeds Advisory Committee 2009):\r\nC. decapetala is capable of growing in a range of environments and soil types. Infestations alter natural ecosystems through light reduction, smothering and prevention of germination of native seedlings.\r\n\r\n
Modification of Hydrology: C. decapetala prefers to grow along water courses, where it forms dense thickets. These thickets restrict water flow, access to water and the movement of flood debris, which leads to increased flood damage (NSW North Coast Weeds Advisory Committee 2009). Infestations of C. decapetala scramble over riparian vegetation and are believed to greatly accelerate water loss by evapo-transpiration (South African National Parks Undated).\r\n\r\n
Reduction in native biodiversity (South African National Parks Undated): C. decapetala out-shades indigenous vegetation causing trees to collapse.\r\n\r\n
Economic (NSW North Coast Weeds Advisory Committee 2009): C. decapetala is a thorny plant capable of climbing and engulfing native vegetation, fences, road signs, sheds, bridges and other infrastructure. The growth and spread of C. decapetala restricts access to forest, roadside and riparian areas, reducing aesthetic value and potentially seriously injuring people. For these reasons it may impact tourism assets.\r\n\r\n
Agriculture (NSW North Coast Weeds Advisory Committee 2009): Beef cattle farmers and other agricultural industries may be impacted. C. decapetala smothers pasture lands, limits livestock movement and machinery and may damage infrastructure such as fences. The long spines of C. decapetala may inflict serious injury to animals.
Management Info
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Caesalpinia decapetala for Hawaii and the Pacific was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The result is a score of 20 with the weed likely to cause significant ecological or economic harm in Hawaii and on other Pacific Islands.\r\n

Chemical: Possible control methods include helicopter foliar, ground foliar, cut stump and basal bark (Starr Starr & Loope 2003). Foliar spray, while costly, may be the best way to treat plants due to the numerous thorns and thicket like structure that would make basal bark or cut stump treatments difficult (Starr Starr & Loope 2003). Metsulfuron methyl based herbicides are currently registered for the control of C. decapetala. The herbicide should be applied when the weed is actively growing (before flowering) and should be used with a wetting agent (Rolles Undated). C. decapetala is also sensitive to foliar applications of glyphosate and triclopyr and to soil applications of tebuthiuron. Adequate coverage of C. decapetala foliage in dense infestations is difficult. Timely repeat applications (3-9 months) of triclopyr ester at 113.4grms/acre (0.25 lb/acre) allows gradual reductions and opening of the canopy and eventual control. This strategy not only stresses the C. decapetala over a longer period but also controls newly germinated seedlings. Accessible stems may be basal bark treated with triclopyr ester at 20% product in diesel or crop oil in very low volume applications (PIER 2002).\r\n

Physical control: C. decapetala is extremely prickly, and attempts at physical control must be done carefully. Molokai Invasive Species Committee (MoMISC) has targeted C. decapetala for eradication and is experimenting with control methods. Heavy machinery would not be an option in Hawaiian gulch due to steep and difficult terrain (Starr Starr & Loope 2003).\r\n

Biocontrol (Hill Klein & Williams 2002; Kalibbala 2009): Several surveys have been conducted in the weeds native range for phytophagous insects. Two species have been evaluated for biological control, a leaf-mining gracillariid moth (Acrocercops hyphantica) - which was rejected because it was not host specific - and the seed-eating weevil (Sulcobruchus subsuturalis) which was released in South Africa from 1999 onwards. The female weevil lays her eggs on the mature seeds and the larvae develop inside the seeds (Hill Klein & Williams 2002). The first post-release evaluation of the efficacy of the weevil (see Kalibbala 2009) found that the weevil was not well established at study sites and that weed seedling recruitment was high. S. subsuturalis had failed to maintain high populations on the target weed, possibly due to weevil egg predation by native ants and attacks by native parasitoids. The author recommendeds continuing to release S. subsuturalis using improved strategies (see Kalibbala 2009).\r\n

Integrated Pest Management: In terms of cultural control the residents of Hawaii could be discouraged from planting or spreading C. decapetala. Machinery and gear should be cleaned, especially if working in areas of C. decapetala. A substantial number of non-weedy alternative species are currently available for use as replacement species for street and garden plantings (NSW North Coast Weeds Advisory Committee 2009).\r\n

Legislative In terms of noxious weed acts C. decapetala is currently not on the Hawaii state noxious weed list, but is a good candidate for listing. C. decapetala is declared a noxious weed in South Africa (PIER 1999). It is also listed as a weed by the following three sources: Greening Australia project, University of Hawaii Botany Department, and Department of Land and Natural Resources.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Caesalpinia decapetala
NATIVE RANGE
  • bhutan
  • china
  • india
  • indonesia
  • japan
  • korea, democratic people's republic of
  • lao people's democratic republic
  • malaysia
  • myanmar
  • nepal
  • philippines
  • sri lanka
  • thailand
  • viet nam
Informations on Caesalpinia decapetala has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Caesalpinia decapetala in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Caesalpinia decapetala has a thorny smothering habit which can reduce flora and fauna habitat through forming dense monocultures. This can create a habitat for introduced pests (such as foxes, cats and rabbits in Australia). Thorns on the plant can injure wildlife and restrict access for livestock. The weed can damage fences, sheds, road signs and other infrastructure (NSW North Coast Weeds Advisory Committee 2009). \r\n\r\n
Ecosystem change (NSW North Coast Weeds Advisory Committee 2009):\r\nC. decapetala is capable of growing in a range of environments and soil types. Infestations alter natural ecosystems through light reduction, smothering and prevention of germination of native seedlings.\r\n\r\n
Modification of Hydrology: C. decapetala prefers to grow along water courses, where it forms dense thickets. These thickets restrict water flow, access to water and the movement of flood debris, which leads to increased flood damage (NSW North Coast Weeds Advisory Committee 2009). Infestations of C. decapetala scramble over riparian vegetation and are believed to greatly accelerate water loss by evapo-transpiration (South African National Parks Undated).\r\n\r\n
Reduction in native biodiversity (South African National Parks Undated): C. decapetala out-shades indigenous vegetation causing trees to collapse.\r\n\r\n
Economic (NSW North Coast Weeds Advisory Committee 2009): C. decapetala is a thorny plant capable of climbing and engulfing native vegetation, fences, road signs, sheds, bridges and other infrastructure. The growth and spread of C. decapetala restricts access to forest, roadside and riparian areas, reducing aesthetic value and potentially seriously injuring people. For these reasons it may impact tourism assets.\r\n\r\n
Agriculture (NSW North Coast Weeds Advisory Committee 2009): Beef cattle farmers and other agricultural industries may be impacted. C. decapetala smothers pasture lands, limits livestock movement and machinery and may damage infrastructure such as fences. The long spines of C. decapetala may inflict serious injury to animals.
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
Mechanism
[4] Competition
Outcomes
[5] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Modification of hydrology/water regulation, purification and quality /soil moisture
  • [1] Modification of food web
  • [3] Reduction in native biodiversity
[1] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Damage to agriculture
Management information
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Caesalpinia decapetala for Hawaii and the Pacific was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The result is a score of 20 with the weed likely to cause significant ecological or economic harm in Hawaii and on other Pacific Islands.\r\n

Chemical: Possible control methods include helicopter foliar, ground foliar, cut stump and basal bark (Starr Starr & Loope 2003). Foliar spray, while costly, may be the best way to treat plants due to the numerous thorns and thicket like structure that would make basal bark or cut stump treatments difficult (Starr Starr & Loope 2003). Metsulfuron methyl based herbicides are currently registered for the control of C. decapetala. The herbicide should be applied when the weed is actively growing (before flowering) and should be used with a wetting agent (Rolles Undated). C. decapetala is also sensitive to foliar applications of glyphosate and triclopyr and to soil applications of tebuthiuron. Adequate coverage of C. decapetala foliage in dense infestations is difficult. Timely repeat applications (3-9 months) of triclopyr ester at 113.4grms/acre (0.25 lb/acre) allows gradual reductions and opening of the canopy and eventual control. This strategy not only stresses the C. decapetala over a longer period but also controls newly germinated seedlings. Accessible stems may be basal bark treated with triclopyr ester at 20% product in diesel or crop oil in very low volume applications (PIER 2002).\r\n

Physical control: C. decapetala is extremely prickly, and attempts at physical control must be done carefully. Molokai Invasive Species Committee (MoMISC) has targeted C. decapetala for eradication and is experimenting with control methods. Heavy machinery would not be an option in Hawaiian gulch due to steep and difficult terrain (Starr Starr & Loope 2003).\r\n

Biocontrol (Hill Klein & Williams 2002; Kalibbala 2009): Several surveys have been conducted in the weeds native range for phytophagous insects. Two species have been evaluated for biological control, a leaf-mining gracillariid moth (Acrocercops hyphantica) - which was rejected because it was not host specific - and the seed-eating weevil (Sulcobruchus subsuturalis) which was released in South Africa from 1999 onwards. The female weevil lays her eggs on the mature seeds and the larvae develop inside the seeds (Hill Klein & Williams 2002). The first post-release evaluation of the efficacy of the weevil (see Kalibbala 2009) found that the weevil was not well established at study sites and that weed seedling recruitment was high. S. subsuturalis had failed to maintain high populations on the target weed, possibly due to weevil egg predation by native ants and attacks by native parasitoids. The author recommendeds continuing to release S. subsuturalis using improved strategies (see Kalibbala 2009).\r\n

Integrated Pest Management: In terms of cultural control the residents of Hawaii could be discouraged from planting or spreading C. decapetala. Machinery and gear should be cleaned, especially if working in areas of C. decapetala. A substantial number of non-weedy alternative species are currently available for use as replacement species for street and garden plantings (NSW North Coast Weeds Advisory Committee 2009).\r\n

Legislative In terms of noxious weed acts C. decapetala is currently not on the Hawaii state noxious weed list, but is a good candidate for listing. C. decapetala is declared a noxious weed in South Africa (PIER 1999). It is also listed as a weed by the following three sources: Greening Australia project, University of Hawaii Botany Department, and Department of Land and Natural Resources.

Locations
Management Category
Eradication
Control
Unknown
Monitoring
Bibliography
32 references found for Caesalpinia decapetala

Managment information
Alien Invader Plants, 2004
Summary: Notes on Mysore thorn in South Africa, includes information on common names, management, dispersal and alternative species to use.
Available from: http://www.geocities.com/wessaaliens/species/mthorn.htm [Accessed 17 June 2003].
Beatera, M.M.T., R.D. Garnera and E.T.F. Witkowski. 2008. Impacts of clearing invasive alien plants from 1995 to 2005 on vegetation structure, invasion intensity and ground cover in a temperate to subtropical riparian ecosystem, South African Journal of Botany 74(3): 495 - 507.
Summary: Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7XN9-4S2VMGJ-3&_user=140507&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1083625989&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000011498&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=140507&md5=3f11e1737e0255d70d9bb6a25c94062c [Accessed 9 November 2009]
Daehler, C.C; Denslow, J.S; Ansari, S and Huang-Chi, K., 2004. A Risk-Assessment System for Screening Out Invasive Pest Plants from Hawaii and Other Pacific Islands. Conservation Biology Volume 18 Issue 2 Page 360.
Summary: A study on the use of a screening system to assess proposed plant introductions to Hawaii or other Pacific Islands and to identify high-risk species used in horticulture and forestry which would greatly reduce future pest-plant problems and allow entry of most nonpests.
Hill, Martin, Hildegard Klein & Hester Williams. 2002. South Africans Target Vines, Biocontrol News and Information 23(3).
Summary: Available from: http://www.pestscience.com/Bni23-3/Gennews.htm [Accessed 7 November 2009]
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
National Pest Plant Accord, 2001. Biosecurity New Zealand.
Summary: The National Pest Plant Accord is a cooperative agreement between regional councils and government departments with biosecurity responsibilities. Under the accord, regional councils will undertake surveillance to prevent the commercial sale and/or distribution of an agreed list of pest plants.
Available from: http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/pests-diseases/plants/accord.htm [Accessed 11 August 2005]
New South Wales (NSW) North Coast Weeds Advisory Committee. 2009. Regional Weed Management Plan
Summary: Available from: http://www.northcoastweeds.org.au/site-files/docs/mysore_rcp.pdf [Accessed 10 November 2009]
PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk), 2002. Caesalpinia decapetala
Summary: Ecology, synonyms, common names, distributions (Pacific as well as global), management and impact information.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/caesalpinia_decapetala.htm [Accessed 24 June 2003]
Royal New Zealand Institute of Horticulture (RNZIH), 2005. Mysore thorn Caesalpinia decapetala
Summary: Available from: http://www.rnzih.org.nz/pages/nppa_064.pdf [Accessed 1 October 2005]
Swaziland s Alien Plants Database., Undated. Caesalpinia decapetala
Summary: A database of Swaziland s alien plant species.
General information
Centre des ressources biologiques. Plantes tropicales. INRA-CIRAD. 2007.
Summary: Available from: http://collections.antilles.inra.fr/ [Accessed 31 March 2008]
Conservatoire Botanique National De Mascarin (BOULLET V. coord.) 2007. - Caesalpinia decapetala. Index de la flore vasculaire de la R�union (Trach�ophytes) : statuts, menaces et protections. - Version 2007.1
Summary: Base de donn�es sur la flore de La R�union. De nombreuses informations tr�s utiles.
Available from: http://flore.cbnm.org/index2.php?page=taxon&num=ae5e3ce40e0404a45ecacaaf05e5f735 [Accessed 26 March 2008]
Florence J., Chevillotte H., Ollier C. & Meyer J.-Y. 2007. Caesalpinia decapetala. Base de donn�es botaniques Nadeaud de l Herbier de la Polyn�sie fran�aise (PAP).
Summary: Base de donn�es sur le flore de Polyn�sie Fran�aise.
Available from: http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf/Selection_Taxonomie.php?id_tax=3572 [Accessed 26 March 2008]
Fournet, J. 2002. Flore illustr�e des phan�rogames de guadeloupe et de Martinique. CIRAD-Gondwana editions.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2004. Online Database Caesalpinia decapetala
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=184645 [Accessed December 31 2004]
Kruger2Canyons.com 2002-2009. Learning Centre > Geography > Invasive Species
Summary: Available from: http://www.kruger2canyons.com/learningcentre/kruger_invasive_species.php [Accessed 9 November 2009]
MacKee, H.S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultiv�es en Nouvelle-Cal�donie, 2nd edn. MNHN, Paris.
Summary: Cet ouvrage liste 1412 taxons (esp�ces, sous esp�ces et vari�t�s) introduits en Nouvelle-Cal�donie. L auteur pr�cise dans la majorit� des cas si l esp�ce est cultiv�e ou naturalis�e.
Meyer, J.-Y., Loope, L., Sheppard, A., Munzinger, J., Jaffre, T. 2006. Les plantes envahissantes et potentiellement envahissantes dans l archipel n�o-cal�donien : premi�re �valuation et recommandations de gestion. in M.-L. Beauvais et al. (2006) : Les esp�ces envahissantes dans l�archipel n�o-cal�donien, Paris, IRD �ditions, 260 p.+ c�d�rom.
Plants of the Eastern Caribbean Online Database. Undated. Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston
Summary: Available from: http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/plantdetails.php?pid=503&sn=Caesalpinia+decapetala&cn=Arrete-boeuf%2C+caniroc%2C+wait-a-bit&gh=shrub%2C+tree+or+tree-like [Accessed 7 November 2009]
Rolles, Darren W . Undated. Mysore Thorn (Caesalpinia decapetala).
Summary: Available from: http://www.southeastweeds.org.au/system/files//f12/o504/mysore-rolles.pdf [Accessed 9 November 2009]
South African National Parks. Undated. Bio-hazard: Caesalpinia decapetala.
Summary: Available from: http://www.sanparks.org/parks/kruger/conservation/scientific/ff/alien_biota/awareness/No.%208%20-%20Caesalpinia.pdf [Accessed 9 November 2009]
Space, J.C. and M. Falanruw. 1999. Observations on invasive plant species in Micronesia.
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/micronesia_report.pdf [Accessed 10 November 2009]
Contact
The following 3 contacts offer information an advice on Caesalpinia decapetala
Lavergne,
Christophe
Geographic region: Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Conservatoire Botanique National de Mascarin
Address:
2 rue du P�re Georges Domaine des Colima�ons 97436 SAINT LEU
Phone:
(33) 02 62 24 92 27
Fax:
Meyer,
Jean-Yves
Geographic region: Pacific, Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Expert in the botany of French Polynesia and the Pacific Islands, and has worked on ecology and biological control of Miconia calvescens in French Polynesia.
Organization:
D�l�gation � la Recherche
Address:
D�l�gation � la Recherche, Gouvernement de Polyn�sie fran�aise. B.P. 20981, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, Polyn�sie fran�aise
Phone:
689 47 25 60
Fax:
Wildy,
Eden
Organization:
Address:

Phone:
Fax: