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  • Rubus rosifolius flower and fruit (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr (USGS))
  • Rubus rosifolius flower (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr (USGS))
  • Rubus rosifolius flower and immature fruit (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr (USGS))
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Common name
akalakala (English, Hawai'i), akala (English, Hawai'i), Mauritius raspberry (English), frambueso de Africa (Spanish), framboisier (French), ola'a (English, Hawaii), forest bramble (English), native raspberry (English, Australia), native bramble (English, Australia), roseleaf raspberry (English), thimbleberry (English)
Synonym
Rubus rosaefolius , Smith
Rubus rosifolius , Smith var. coronarius Sims
Rubus commersonnii , Poir.
Rubus coronarius
Rubus eustephanos , var. coronarius
Rubus rosifolius , var. rosifolius
Rubus rosifolius , var. commersonii
Similar species
Summary
Rubus rosifolius is a prickly shrub that produces edible red berries. It is valued for a number of culinary and medicinal purposes. This species has become invasive in Hawai‘i and French Polynesia, where it is capable of intruding into the understory of rainforests. Prickly stems and an ability to form dense thickets make R. rosifolius undesirable in many areas.
Species Description
Rubus rosifolius is a pinnate leaved species. Erect to trailing shrub up to 2m or more in height. Stems are sparsely covered with prickles 1-4mm long. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound, 7-18cm long, with 3-7 leaflets. Inflorescence mostly of solitary, terminal or axillary flowers. Calyx of 5 lanceolate sepals 1.4 - 2.5cm long, tomentose. Corolla of 5 white, obovate petals 1 - 2cm long. Stamens many, free. Ovaries many. Fruit a subglobose, red, multiple fruit 2 - 3.5cm long, easily detaching from the receptacle. The red fruits are somewhat conical in shape, longer than they are wide.

There are two varieties of R. rosifolius that differ only in the number of petals. Rubus rosifolius var. commersonii has 9-13 petals, while Rubus rosifolius var. rosifolius has five (Bean, 2001).
Notes
Rubus rosifolius is susceptible to strawberry mild yellow edge-associated potexvirus it is transmitted by a vector; an insect; Chaetosiphon fragaraefolii belonging to family Aphididae. It is transmitted in a non-persistent manner. The virus possibly requires, for vector transmission, a helper virus (strawberry mild yellow edge luteovirus); transmitted by mechanical inoculation and by grafting (Brunt et al., 1996).
Lifecycle Stages
Seeds have germination successs of about 90% after 12 weeks (Greening Australia NSW, 2003).
Uses
Fruit is edible and sweet-tasting. Can be made into jams, pies and preserves. Leaves can be made into tea, which can be helpful for painful menstruation, childbirth, flu, and morning sickness. Aboriginal people in Australia used a decoction of the leaves as a traditional treatment for diarrhea (Notman, 2000). The fruit is a mild laxative if eaten in large quantities.
Can be used for regeneration of disturbed sites within its native range in Australia (Greening Australia NSW, 2003). Seen as a good native species to use for the replacement of invasive blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) in Australia.
Used as an ornamental plant (NCCPG, 2001).
Habitat Description
Occurs naturally in forest margins, clearings and gullies. Invades understory of moist forests. Grows to over 2000m elevation in Tahiti, and to 1730m in Hawai'i (PIER, 2002). Prefers light soil that is moist and nutrient-rich. In Australia where it is native it is found in rainforest and wet sclerophyll forest from Tasmania to Qld
Reproduction
Seeds spread by birds and rodents that have ingested fruit (PIER, 2002). Can also spread via suckers that develop from arching canes (MPAS, 2002).
Pathway
In some countries it is grown for its flowers (NCCPG, 2001).

Principal source: PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems At Risk), 2003. Rubus rosifolious

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group
Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review: Robyn Barker, Honorary Research Associate Plant Biodiversity Centre Dept for Environment & Heritage. Australia.

Publication date: 2010-10-04

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Rubus rosifolius. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=500 on 24-08-2016.

General Impacts
Threatens many native plants on the Hawai‘ian Islands through overcrowding and competition (US EPA, 2002). Is able to form dense thickets when adequate sunlight is available. Can climb using hooks on the stems and prickles on the leaves (BRAIN, 2002).
Management Info
There is no specific management information for Rubus rosifolius, but techniques used for the control of blackberry Rubus fruticosus agg which is a related species, may be applicable. These are outlined below.

\r\nPreventative measures: Maintenance of soil fertility and pasture may reduce infestations.

\r\nPhysical: Tractor and rotary slasher, hand cutting.

\r\nChemical: there are a range of herbicides that can be used for the control of blackberry, including those that are glyphosate-based, such as Roundup®. These are usually applied by spraying, using a knapsack or mistblower for smaller infestations, or handgun and hose for larger ones (EBOP, 2002).

\r\nBiological: Goats (Capra hircus) are able to control infestations through grazing. Care must be taken with this approach however, as goats are a known invasive species as well.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Rubus rosifolius
NATIVE RANGE
  • australia
  • indonesia
  • malaysia
  • mauritius
  • papua new guinea
  • solomon islands
  • vanuatu
Informations on Rubus rosifolius has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Rubus rosifolius in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Threatens many native plants on the Hawai‘ian Islands through overcrowding and competition (US EPA, 2002). Is able to form dense thickets when adequate sunlight is available. Can climb using hooks on the stems and prickles on the leaves (BRAIN, 2002).
Red List assessed species 3: CR = 2; EN = 1;
View more species View less species
Management information
There is no specific management information for Rubus rosifolius, but techniques used for the control of blackberry Rubus fruticosus agg which is a related species, may be applicable. These are outlined below.

\r\nPreventative measures: Maintenance of soil fertility and pasture may reduce infestations.

\r\nPhysical: Tractor and rotary slasher, hand cutting.

\r\nChemical: there are a range of herbicides that can be used for the control of blackberry, including those that are glyphosate-based, such as Roundup®. These are usually applied by spraying, using a knapsack or mistblower for smaller infestations, or handgun and hose for larger ones (EBOP, 2002).

\r\nBiological: Goats (Capra hircus) are able to control infestations through grazing. Care must be taken with this approach however, as goats are a known invasive species as well.

Locations
Management Category
Prevention
Unknown
Bibliography
28 references found for Rubus rosifolius

Managment information
Environment (B.O.P) Bay of Plenty.
Summary: An excellent source of information on the control of blackberry (Rubus fruticosus agg.). Methods outlined may be applicable for control of invasive populations of Rubus rosifolius. Outlines methods and equipment for mechanical control, pasture & stock management, and herbicide use.
Found at: http://www.envbop.govt.nz/weeds/weed26.asp [Accessed 02 December 2002].
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk), 2003. Rubus rosifolius
Summary: Ecology, synonyms, common names, distributions (Pacific as well as global), management and impact information.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/rubus_rosifolius.htm [Accessed 3 June 2003]
PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk) 2005. Rubus rosifolius
Summary: Ecology, synonyms, common names, distributions (Pacific as well as global), management and impact information. Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/rubus_rosifolius.htm [Accessed 9 November 2005]
Swaziland s Alien Plants Database., Undated. Rubus rosifolius
Summary: A database of Swaziland s alien plant species.
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
General information
Baret, S., Rouget, M., Richardson, D. M., Lavergne, C., Egoh, B., Dupont, J., & Strasberg, D. 2006. Current distribution and potential extent of the most invasive alien plant species on La R�union (Indian Ocean, Mascarene islands). Austral Ecology, 31, 747-758.
Summary: L objectif de ce papier est d identifier les zones prioritaires en mati�re de gestion des invasions biologiques � La R�union en mod�lisant la distribution actuelle et potentiellle d une s�lection de plantes parmi les plus envahissantes.
Bean, Tony. 2001. Queensland Raspberries. Australian Plants Online, Copyright � Farrer Centre, Charles Sturt University.
Summary: Good information on the Rubus species native to Queensland, Australia.
Available from: http://farrer.riv.csu.edu.au/ASGAP/APOL22/jun01-1.html [Accessed 02 December 2002].
Binggeli, P. 2003. The human dimensions of invasive woody plants. Woody plant Ecology.
Summary: One piece of distribution information.
Available from: http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/docs/gisp-iwp.rtf [Accessed 10 June, 2003].
BRAIN, 2002. Brisbane Rainforest Action & Information Network.
Summary: A small amount of general information .
Available from: http://www.brisrain.webcentral.com.au/vines/vines13.html [Accessed 13 June, 2003].
Brunt, A.A., Crabtree, K., Dallwitz, M.J., Gibbs, A.J., Watson, L. and Zurcher, E.J. (eds.) (1996 onwards). `Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database. Version: 20th August 1996.
Summary: Has information on a virus that R. rosifolius is susceptible to. .
Available from: http://biology.anu.edu.au/Groups/MES/vide/ [Accessed 28 November 2002].
Conservatoire Botanique National De Mascarin (BOULLET V. coord.) 2007. - Rubus rosifolius Index de la flore vasculaire de la R�union (Trach�ophytes) : statuts, menaces et protections. - Version 2007.1
Summary: Base de donn�es sur la flore de la R�union. De nombreuses informations tr�s utiles.
Available from: http://flore.cbnm.org/index2.php?page=taxon&num=5cd7edbe7a1a668fdc63c138002cc43a [Accessed 9 April 2008]
Flora of Thailand, 2003.
Summary: Has two synonyms.
Available from: http://www.forest.go.th/Botany/Flora/species%20list/volume2/Rosaceae.htm [Accessed 13 June, 2003].
Florence J., Chevillotte H., Ollier C. & Meyer J.-Y. 2007. Rubus rosifolius Base de donn�es botaniques Nadeaud de l Herbier de la Polyn�sie fran�aise (PAP).
Summary: Available from: http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf/Selection_Taxonomie.php?id_tax=3225 [Accessed 9 April 2008]
Fournet, J. 2002. Flore illustr�e des phan�rogames de guadeloupe et de Martinique. CIRAD-Gondwana editions.
Greening Australia NSW, 2003.
Summary: Small amount of information on how to grow R. rosifolius.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Rubus rosifolius
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/taxastep?king=every&p_action=containing&taxa=Rubus+rosifolius&p_format=&p_ifx=plglt&p_lang= [Accessed March 2005]
Macdonald, I.A.W., Th�baud, C., Strahm, W.A., & Strasberg, D. 1991. Effects on alien plant invasions on native v�g�tation remnants on La Reunion (Mascarene Islands, Indian Ocean). Environmental Conservation, 18, 51-61.
Summary: Cet article est le premier � proposer une hi�rarchisation des plantes les plus envahissantes de La R�union. 33 plantes ont �t� ainsi class�es en utilisant une m�thode d�velopp�e en Afrique du Sud. Les bases d une strat�gie de lutte contre les plantes exotiques envahissantes sont �galement formul�es.
MacKee, H.S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultiv�es en Nouvelle-Cal�donie, 2nd edn. MNHN, Paris.
Summary: Cet ouvrage liste 1412 taxons (esp�ces, sous esp�ces et vari�t�s) introduits en Nouvelle-Cal�donie. L auteur pr�cise dans la majorit� des cas si l esp�ce est cultiv�e ou naturalis�e.
Meyer, J.-Y. 2004. Threat of invasive alien plants to native flora and forest vegetation of eastern Polynesia. Pacific Science, 58, 357-375
Summary: Dans cet article, la menace croissante des plantes exotiques envahissantes est discut�e et les esp�ces les plus envahissantes sont d�crites. Des hypoth�ses sur l invasibilit� des �les sont pr�sent�es � la lumi�re des observations et des donn�es r�colt�es.
Meyer, J.-Y., Loope, L., Sheppard, A., Munzinger, J., Jaffre, T. 2006. Les plantes envahissantes et potentiellement envahissantes dans l archipel n�o-cal�donien : premi�re �valuation et recommandations de gestion. in M.-L. Beauvais et al. (2006) : Les esp�ces envahissantes dans l�archipel n�o-cal�donien, Paris, IRD �ditions, 260 p.+ c�d�rom.
MPSA (Middle Path Awareness Sanctuary), 2002. Wild Raspberry - Rubus rosifolius, L. Rosaceae.
Summary: Has information on homeopathic uses for R. rosifolius Available from: http://middlepath.com.au/plant/raspberry.html [Accessed 28 November 2002]
NCCPG, 2001. National Council for the Conservation of Plants and Gardens.
Summary: Minimal information on a cultivated variety of R. rosifolius.
Available from: http://www.manntaylor.com/plantweek9c.html [Accessed 13 June, 2003]
Notman, A. 2000. Roseleaf Raspberry. Rumbalara Environmental Education Centre.
Summary: Distribution information, uses, and history of the plant.
Available from: http://www.rumbalara-e.schools.nsw.edu.au/bushtucker/Rubus_rosifolius.htm [Accessed 13 June, 2003].
US EPA, 2002. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determinations of Prudency and Designations of Critical Habitat for Plant Species From the Islands of Maui and Kahoolawe, Hawaii.
Summary: Information on Hawaiian species that are endangered by R. rosifolius.
Available from: http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-SPECIES/2000/December/Day-18/e31078.htm [Accessed 13 June, 2003].
Whistler, W.A. 1995. Wayside Plants of the Islands: a guide to the lowland flora of the Pacific Islands. Isle Botanica, Hawaii.
Summary: Has useful descriptions and very good photos of a wide range of plant species found in the Pacific Islands.
Contact
The following 3 contacts offer information an advice on Rubus rosifolius
Baret,
St�phane
Geographic region: Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Parc national de La R�union, Charg� de mission flore
Address:
112 rue Ste Marie - 97400 St Denis
Phone:
02 62 90 79 06
Fax:
02 62 90 11 39
Lavergne,
Christophe
Geographic region: Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Conservatoire Botanique National de Mascarin
Address:
2 rue du P�re Georges Domaine des Colima�ons 97436 SAINT LEU
Phone:
(33) 02 62 24 92 27
Fax:
Meyer,
Jean-Yves
Geographic region: Pacific, Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Expert in the botany of French Polynesia and the Pacific Islands, and has worked on ecology and biological control of Miconia calvescens in French Polynesia.
Organization:
D�l�gation � la Recherche
Address:
D�l�gation � la Recherche, Gouvernement de Polyn�sie fran�aise. B.P. 20981, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, Polyn�sie fran�aise
Phone:
689 47 25 60
Fax: