Global invasive species database

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  • Distribution
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Common name
Chilean needle grass (English)
Synonym
Stipa neesiana , Trin. & Rupr.
Similar species
Nassella trichotoma, Nassella charruana, Nassella hyalina, Nassella lecotricha, Nassella tenuissima
Summary
Nassella neesiana (Chilean needle grass) threatens the ecological integrity of affected natural ecosystems and also causes significant devastation in agricultural areas due to the reduction in pasture palatability and also direct damage to stock.
Species Description
Perennial tussock forming C3 grass of up to 1m high. Flat leaves 1-5mm diameter, strongly ribbed on adaxial surface with rough margins. Infloresence an open panicle; stem seeds (cleistogenes) are also produced (Gardner, 1998).
Notes
Nassella neesiana was previously known as Stipa neesiana. It is difficult to distinguish from native Stipas.
Lifecycle Stages
Peak flowering of Chilean needle grass in Australia occurs between November and February (Gardner, 1998), however it has the ability to flower all year round (Ens, 2002). The seed bank has been estimated to potentially persist in the soil for up to 12 years even with annual glyphosate application (Bourdot and Hurrell 1992)!
Uses
Good stock feed during winter only
Habitat Description
In Australia it invades disturbed grasslands and grassy woodlands of temperate regions with more than 500mm rainfall (Gardner, 1998)
Reproduction
Reproduces by sexual (chasmogamous) and asexual (cleistogamous) seed production. The cleistogenes are formed in the leaf sheaths and culms while the chasmogenes are found in the infloresence (Gardner, 1998). Up to 22,000 chasmogamous seeds/plant/year can be produced (Bourdot and Hurrell 1992). Production of the asexual seeds is a common response following slashing, grazing or fire (Gardner, 1998).

Principal source:

Compiler: Emilie-Jane Ens, PhD candidate University of Wollongong, Australia.

Review: Emilie-Jane Ens, PhD candidate University of Wollongong, Australia.

Publication date: 2005-11-16

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Nassella neesiana. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=458 on 10-12-2016.

General Impacts
Nassella neesiana has the tendency to replace native flora (Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand et al., 2000; Ens, 2002), reduce ant abundance and alter the entire invertebrate community composition in conservation areas (Ens, 2002). Potential distribution overlaps an array of threatened species in Australia (Thorpe and Lynch, 2000). Agricultural productivity is thwarted by the replacement of palatable ground cover, injury to stock, reduction of produce quality and increased management costs (Thorpe and Lynch, 2000). Some sheep graziers in eastern Australia have been forced to switch to beef production (Thorpe and Lynch, 2000).
Management Info
Preventative measures: A combination of chemical, mechanical, rehabilitation, competition, grazing management, biological control techniques and hygiene regimes are required to eradicate Chilean Needle Grass (Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand et al., 2000). As yet there is an absence of an effective herbicide (Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand et al. 2000).
Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Nassella neesiana
ALIEN RANGE
NATIVE RANGE
  • argentina
  • bolivia
  • brazil
  • chile
  • ecuador
  • uruguay
Informations on Nassella neesiana has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Nassella neesiana in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Nassella neesiana has the tendency to replace native flora (Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand et al., 2000; Ens, 2002), reduce ant abundance and alter the entire invertebrate community composition in conservation areas (Ens, 2002). Potential distribution overlaps an array of threatened species in Australia (Thorpe and Lynch, 2000). Agricultural productivity is thwarted by the replacement of palatable ground cover, injury to stock, reduction of produce quality and increased management costs (Thorpe and Lynch, 2000). Some sheep graziers in eastern Australia have been forced to switch to beef production (Thorpe and Lynch, 2000).
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
Mechanism
[1] Competition
Outcomes
[3] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Modification of food web
  • [1] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [1] Habitat degradation
[2] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Damage to agriculture
  • [1] Reduce/damage livestock and products
Management information
Preventative measures: A combination of chemical, mechanical, rehabilitation, competition, grazing management, biological control techniques and hygiene regimes are required to eradicate Chilean Needle Grass (Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand et al., 2000). As yet there is an absence of an effective herbicide (Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand et al. 2000).
Locations
Management Category
Control
Bibliography
6 references found for Nassella neesiana

Managment information
Gardner, M. R. and Sindel. B. M. 1998. The biology of Nassella and Achnatherum species naturalized in Australia and the implications for management on conservation lands. Plant Protection Quarterly 13(2): 76-79
Summary: In-text reference�Gardner and Sindel, 1998
General information
Bourdot, G. W. and Hurrell, G. A. 1992. Aspects of the ecology of Stipa neesiana seeds. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research.32: 317-326
Summary: In-text reference�(Bourdot and Hurrell 1992)
Ens, E. J. 2002. Chilean Needle Grass on the Cumberland Plain: expose of distribution and impacts on invertebrates. Honours thesis. University of New South Wales.
Summary: In-text reference�(Ens, 2002)
Gardner, M. R. 1998. The biology of Nassella Neesiana (Trin. & Rupr.) Barkworth (Chilean needle grass) in pastures on the northern tablelands of New South Wales: weed or pasture? PhD thesis. The University of New England
Summary: In-text reference�(Gardner, 1998)
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Nassella neesiana
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/taxastep?king=every&p_action=containing&taxa=Nassella+neesiana&p_format=&p_ifx=plglt&p_lang= [Accessed March 2005]
Contact
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Nassella neesiana