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  • Flowers and leaves of Wedelia trilobata at Moni on Flores, Indonesia (Photo: Colin Wilson)
  • Flower and leaves of Wedelia trilobata on Samosir Island in northern Sumatra, Indonesia (Photo: Colin Wilson)
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Common name
ut m�kadkad (English, Marshall Islands), wedelia (English), creeping ox-eye (English), trailing daisy (English), Hasenfuss (German), Singapore daisy (English), ut telia (English, Marshall Islands), ngesil ra ngebard (Palauan), dihpw ongohng (English, Pohnpei), tuhke ongohng (English, Pohnpei), rosrangrang (English, Kosrae), atiat (Puluwat), ate (Tongan)
Synonym
Acmella brasiliensis , Spreng.
Acmella spilanthoides , Cass.
Buphthalmum repens , Lam.
Buphthalmum strigosum , Spreng.
Wedelia brasiliensis , S.F.Blake
Wedelia carnea , Rich.
Verbesina carnosa , M.Gómez
Wedelia carnosa , Rich. ex Spreng.
Wedelia carnosa , Rich. var. glabella Rich.
Wedelia carnosa , Rich. var. triloba Rich.
Verbesina carnosa , M.Gómez var. triloba(Rich.) M.Gómez
Complaya trilobata , (L.) Strother
Polymnia carnosa , Poir.
Polymnia carnosa , Poir.var. glabella (Rich.) Poir.
Polymnia carnosa , Poir.var. aspera (Rich.) Poir.
Polymnia carnosa , Poir.var. triloba (Rich.) Poir.
Seruneum paludosum , (DC.) Kuntze
Seruneum trilobatum , (L.) Kuntze
Silphium trilobatum , L.
Sphagneticola ulei , O.Hoffm.
Stemmodontia trilobata , (L.) Small
Thelechitonia trilobata ,(L.) H.Rob. & Cuatrec.
Wedelia carnosa , Rich. var. aspera Rich.
Wedelia crenata , Rich.
Wedelia paludicola , Poepp. & Endl.
Wedelia paludosa , DC.
Wedelia triloba , (Rich.) Bello
Wedelia trilobata , (L.) Hitchc.
Verbesina carnosa , M.Gómez var. aspera(Rich.) M.Gómez
Similar species
Summary
Although Sphagneticola trilobata is the accepted name for this species, it is widely known as Wedelia trilobata. Sphagneticola trilobata is native to the tropics of Central America and has naturalised in many wet tropical areas of the world. Cultivated as an ornamental, it readily escapes from gardens and forms a dense ground cover, crowding out or preventing regeneration of other species. In plantations, it will compete with crops for nutrients, light and water, and reduce crop yields.
Species Description
Creeping, mat-forming perennial herbs; stems rounded, rooting at the nodes, 1-3 (-4)\r\ndm long, the flowering portions ascending, coarsely strigose to spreading hirsute, sometimes\r\nsubglabrous. Leaves fleshy, usually 4-9cm long, (1.5-) 2-5cm wide, irregularly toothed or serrate,\r\nusually with a pair of lateral lobes. Peduncles 3-10cm long; involucre campanulate-hemispherical,\r\nca. 1cm high; chaffy bracts lanceolate, rigid; ray florets often 8-13 per head, rays 6-15mm long;\r\ndisk corollas 4-5mm long; pappus a crown of short fimbriate scales. Achenes tuberculate, 4-5mm\r\nlong, few achenes maturing in cultivated plants in Hawaii. (Wagner et al, 1990)
Notes
Although Sphagneticola trilobata is the accepted name for this species, it is widely known as Wedelia trilobata.
Uses
Used commonly as an ornamental plant and groundcover.
Habitat Description
Sphagneticola trilobata has a very wide ecological tolerance range, and seems to be\r\nequally suited to dry and moist sites. Although it seems to prefer and do best in\r\nsunny sites, it survives very well in shady sites. It grows well on almost all soil\r\ntypes, including bare limestone and nutrient poor sandy beaches and swampy or\r\nwaterlogged soils. It is tolerant to inundation and high levels of salinity (Thaman, R.R. 1999).

Wedelia is found in open areas with well-drained, moist soil up to 700m or more in elevation (up to 1300m in French Polynesia). It can tolerate dry periods. A noxious weed in agricultural areas, along roadsides and trails, in open lots, wasteplaces and garbage dumps and other disturbed sites. Also naturalized and invasive along streams, canals, along the borders of mangroves and in coastal strand vegetation (PIER, 2003).

Reproduction
Usually vegetatively. Stems form new plants where they touch the ground and pieces readily take root. Plants usually develop few fertile seeds. Commonly spread by dumping of garden waste, (PIER, 2003).
Nutrition
Although it seems to prefer and do best in sunny sites, it survives very well in shady sites also. It grows well on almost all soil types, including bare limestone and nutrient poor sandy beaches and swampy or waterlogged soils. It is tolerant to inundation and high levels of salinity (Liebregts, 2001).
Pathway
Brought from Hawaii to Pohnpei by women down at the Catholic mission around 1970 who thought it would look nice in their gardens.

Principal source: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk, (PIER)

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group
Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review:

Publication date: 2010-10-04

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Sphagneticola trilobata. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=44 on 31-08-2016.

General Impacts
If Sphagneticola trilobata becomes established in plantations, it will compete with crops for nutrients, light and water, and reduce crop yields. It rapidly escapes from gardens to roadsides and plantations, where it can overgrow plants and develop into a thick cover (Niue DAFF, 2001).
Forms a dense ground cover, crowding out or preventing regeneration of other species (PIER, 2003).
Management Info
Preventative measures: It is suggested that planting of this species be banned, except where it can be contained, and \r\nthat dumping of garden waste on vacant lots be prohibited.

A Risk Assessment of Sphagneticola trilobata (Wedelia trilobata) for Hawai‘i and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The alien plant screening system is derived from Pheloung et al. (1999) with minor modifications for use in Pacific islands (Daehler et al. 2004). The result is a score of 13 and a recommendation of: \"Likely to cause significant ecological or economic harm in Hawai‘i and on other Pacific Islands as determined by a high WRA score, which is based on published sources describing species biology and behaviour in Hawai‘i and/or other parts of the world.\"

A Risk assessment of \r\r\nSphagneticola trilobata (Wedelia trilobata) for Australia was prepared by Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk \r\r\n(PIER) using the Australian risk assessment system (Pheloung, 1995). The result is a score \r\r\nof 6 and a recommendation of: reject the plant for import (Australia) or species likely to \r\r\nbe a pest (Pacific).

\r\nPhysical: The Land for Wildlife program south-east Queensland, recommends 'scarifying' for small patches of soil dominated by weeds like wedelia - the top few centimetres of soil are removed using a suitable tool such as a fire hoe. The aim is to remove soil-stored seed. Do not leave disturbed area open for reintroduction of weeds. Mowing or slashing of wedelia infested areas should be avoided as this may cut the plants into smaller pieces that can develop into new plants, and increases the risk of spreading to new areas, (Liebregts, 2001).

\r\nChemical: Langeland and Stocker (2000), suggest treating small patches with 2% Roundup; and large, dense populations by broadcast-spraying 5% Roundup (with follow-up treatments as needed). Or 1/4-1.0% Garlon 4 in water.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Sphagneticola trilobata
Informations on Sphagneticola trilobata has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Sphagneticola trilobata in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
If Sphagneticola trilobata becomes established in plantations, it will compete with crops for nutrients, light and water, and reduce crop yields. It rapidly escapes from gardens to roadsides and plantations, where it can overgrow plants and develop into a thick cover (Niue DAFF, 2001).
Forms a dense ground cover, crowding out or preventing regeneration of other species (PIER, 2003).
Red List assessed species 0:
Management information
Preventative measures: It is suggested that planting of this species be banned, except where it can be contained, and \r\nthat dumping of garden waste on vacant lots be prohibited.

A Risk Assessment of Sphagneticola trilobata (Wedelia trilobata) for Hawai‘i and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The alien plant screening system is derived from Pheloung et al. (1999) with minor modifications for use in Pacific islands (Daehler et al. 2004). The result is a score of 13 and a recommendation of: \"Likely to cause significant ecological or economic harm in Hawai‘i and on other Pacific Islands as determined by a high WRA score, which is based on published sources describing species biology and behaviour in Hawai‘i and/or other parts of the world.\"

A Risk assessment of \r\r\nSphagneticola trilobata (Wedelia trilobata) for Australia was prepared by Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk \r\r\n(PIER) using the Australian risk assessment system (Pheloung, 1995). The result is a score \r\r\nof 6 and a recommendation of: reject the plant for import (Australia) or species likely to \r\r\nbe a pest (Pacific).

\r\nPhysical: The Land for Wildlife program south-east Queensland, recommends 'scarifying' for small patches of soil dominated by weeds like wedelia - the top few centimetres of soil are removed using a suitable tool such as a fire hoe. The aim is to remove soil-stored seed. Do not leave disturbed area open for reintroduction of weeds. Mowing or slashing of wedelia infested areas should be avoided as this may cut the plants into smaller pieces that can develop into new plants, and increases the risk of spreading to new areas, (Liebregts, 2001).

\r\nChemical: Langeland and Stocker (2000), suggest treating small patches with 2% Roundup; and large, dense populations by broadcast-spraying 5% Roundup (with follow-up treatments as needed). Or 1/4-1.0% Garlon 4 in water.

Locations
NIUE
Management Category
Eradication
Bibliography
28 references found for Sphagneticola trilobata

Managment information
Daehler, C.C; Denslow, J.S; Ansari, S and Huang-Chi, K., 2004. A Risk-Assessment System for Screening Out Invasive Pest Plants from Hawaii and Other Pacific Islands. Conservation Biology Volume 18 Issue 2 Page 360.
Summary: A study on the use of a screening system to assess proposed plant introductions to Hawaii or other Pacific Islands and to identify high-risk species used in horticulture and forestry which would greatly reduce future pest-plant problems and allow entry of most nonpests.
Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Queensland Government, 2007. Singapore daisy Sphagneticola trilobata DECLARED CLASS 3. PP92 September 2007 Produced by: Land Protection (Invasive Plants and Animals)
Summary: Available from: http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/documents/Biosecurity_EnvironmentalPests/IPA-Singapore-Daisy-PP92.pdf [Accessed 26 July 2010]
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Niue DAFF, 2001. Wedelia Leaflet. Department of Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries (DAFF), Niue. With assistance from SPC - Plant Protection Service.
PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk), 2003. Wedelia trilobata
Summary: Ecology, synonyms, common names, distributions (Pacific as well as global), management and impact information.
Available at: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/wedelia_trilobata.htm [Accessed 13 May 2004].
Thaman, R.R. 1999. Wedelia trilobata: Daisy invader of the Pacific Islands. IAS Technical Report 99/2. Institute of Applied Science, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji Islands.
Summary: This paper is a preliminary account of the status in the Pacific Islands of Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitch., a recently introduced ornamental groundcover plant that has become an extremely invasive weed in many areas, and has the potential to become one of the most environmentally destructive weeds of the Pacific Islands. It is suggested that Wedelia trilobata should be immediately declared a serious noxious weed, should be restricted from introduction into new islands and habitats, and, where possible, should be exterminated from islands and habitats where it has not gained a foothold.
The paper describes Wedelia trilobata and discusses what is known about its introduction and spread in some island countries, the habitats in which it thrives and has become naturalized or invasive, and the present and potential threat that it poses to island ecosystems and indigenous species. Actions are suggested that could be taken to control the introduction and spread of Wedelia trilobata to islands and habitats where it does not yet exist, and to eradicate it from areas where it is not yet out of control.
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
Wedelia Progress report_July 2001
Summary: A progress report on the eradication of wedelia programme in Niue.
Wedelia Progress report_March 2001
Summary: A progress report on the eradication of wedelia programme in Niue.
Wilson, Colin, Wildlife Management Officer, Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Environment, Parks & Wildlife Service, Northern Territory, Australia.
Summary: Compilor of original GISD profile of Chromoleana odorata.
General information
Barthelat, F. 2005. Note sur les esp�ces exotiques envahissantes � Mayotte. Direction de l�Agriculture et de la For�t. 30p
Summary: Tableau synth�tique des plantes exotiques de Mayotte class�es en fonction de leur niveau d envahissement.
Dana Lee Ling, personal communication, April, 2002. College of Micronesia.
Summary: Habitat of S. trilobata in Micronesia.
Fosberg, F. R. and Sachet, M. -H. 1977. Flora of Micronesia. Part 3. Convolvulaceae. Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 36:27.
Fosberg, F. R., Sachet, M. H. and Oliver, R. L. 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae. Micronesica 20: 1-126.
Garcia, J.G.L., Macbryde, B., Molina, A.R. and Macbryde, O.H. 1975. Malezas prevalentes de America Central (Prevalent seeds of Central America). International Plant Protection Center, San Salvador, El Salvador.
Summary: Accounts of the flora of Central America.
Guerin, M. 1982. The flora of the atolls of French Polynesia. In Regional technical meeting on atoll cultivation, Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia, 14-19 April 1980: Collected papers, ed. M. Lambert, pp. 77-89. Technical paper no. 180. Noumea: South Pacific Commission.
Summary: Accounts of the flora of French Polynesia, including notes on wedelia.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Sphagneticola trilobata
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/taxastep?king=every&p_action=containing&taxa=Sphagneticola+trilobata&p_format=&p_ifx=plglt&p_lang= [Accessed March 2005]
Lamberson, J.O. 1982. A Guide to terrestrial plants of Enewetak Atoll. Honolulu: Pacific Science Information Center, Bernice P. Bishop Museum.
Summary: Accounts of the flora of the Marshall Islands, including notes on the presence, introduction and spread of wedelia.
Meyer, J.-Y., Loope, L., Sheppard, A., Munzinger, J., Jaffre, T. 2006. Les plantes envahissantes et potentiellement envahissantes dans l archipel n�o-cal�donien : premi�re �valuation et recommandations de gestion. in M.-L. Beauvais et al. (2006) : Les esp�ces envahissantes dans l�archipel n�o-cal�donien, Paris, IRD �ditions, 260 p.+ c�d�rom.
Neal, M.C. 1965. In gardens of Hawaii. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special Publication 50. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.
Summary: Some notes on wedelia in Hawaii.
Rabakonadrianina, E and Carr, G.D. 1981. Intergeneric hybridization, induced polyploidy, and the origin of the Hawaiian endemic Lippchaeta from Wedelia (Compositae). American Journal of Botany 68: 206-215.
Summary: Notes on hybrisation.
Santos, I. 1998. Wedelia trilobata on Pohnpei. Aliens 7: 3.
Wagner, W. L., Derral, R. H. and Sohmer, S. H. 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai i: 373-374.
Whistler, W. A. 1992. Vegetation of Samoa and Tonga. Pacific Science 46(2): 172.
Wunderlin & Hansen, 2003. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Institute for Systematic Botany.
Summary: Synonyms. Found at: http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/main.asp?plantID=1820 [Accessed 14 July 2003]
Contact
The following 2 contacts offer information an advice on Sphagneticola trilobata
Lavergne,
Christophe
Geographic region: Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Conservatoire Botanique National de Mascarin
Address:
2 rue du P�re Georges Domaine des Colima�ons 97436 SAINT LEU
Phone:
(33) 02 62 24 92 27
Fax:
Meyer,
Jean-Yves
Geographic region: Pacific, Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Expert in the botany of French Polynesia and the Pacific Islands, and has worked on ecology and biological control of Miconia calvescens in French Polynesia.
Organization:
D�l�gation � la Recherche
Address:
D�l�gation � la Recherche, Gouvernement de Polyn�sie fran�aise. B.P. 20981, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, Polyn�sie fran�aise
Phone:
689 47 25 60
Fax: