Global invasive species database

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  • Capra hircus adult (Photo: Joseph LaForest, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org)
  • Damaged trees caused by Capra hircus (Photo: Randy Cyr, GREENTREE Technologies, Bugwood.org)
  • Capra hircus browsing bushes (Photo: Scott Bauer, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org)
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Common name
Hausziege (German), goat (English)
Synonym
Similar species
Summary
The goat (Capra hircus) was domesticated 10,000 years ago in the highlands of western Iran. These herbivores have a highly varied diet and are able to ultilise a larger number of plant species than other livestock. Goats alter plant communities and forest structure and threaten vulnerable plant species. The reduction of vegetation reduces shelter options for native animals and overgrazing in native communitties leads to ecosystem degradation. Feral goats spread disease to native animals. Native fauna on islands are particularly susceptible.
Species Description
Males weigh between 45 and 55 kilos and females weigh between 25 and 35 kilos. Colouration is highly variable from mostly black, to various shades of brown, and from single-coloured to multi-coloured. Black anterior with brown posterior is a common pattern. Horns are dimorphic, having homonymous spiral and anterior keel. Males are bearded and produce pheromones during the breeding season.
Uses
The ability of goat herds to survive in harsh environments has lead to their introduction onto many islands, including Saint Helena Island, the Juan Fernandez Islands and Hawaii. They provided food for colonising people (specifically European colonisers and ship crews) (Campbell and Donlan 2005). Fishermen may have spread goats onto new islands, such as San Benitos (Mexico) and Pinta Island and Marchena Island (Galapagos Islands, Ecuador) (Campbell and Donlan 2005). \r\n
Goats were domesticated 10,000 years ago in the highlands of western Iran (Zeder and Hesse 2000, in Campbell and Donlan 2005). Goats are used for their fur and meat as well as for milk and cheese production. Goat meat is the most highly consumed meat source in the world. More goats milk is consumed than cows milk. Angora goats have long soft fur which is utilised to produce a soft silk-like fabric called mohair. In New Zealand, mohair prices are strong (2006) and farm gate returns are good. Although little is known of optimum farm management systems, it is considered that the farming of angora goats could contribute to the positive growth of the economy (Mohair NZ Business Plan 2006). The French are well known for utilising goat products for economic purposes; making cheese and other goat milk products (Canus Undated). Some cosmetic products have claimed to help eczema sufferers (Johnson 2006).
Habitat Description
Goats usually move in herds that roam over territories up to 20km wide. Sometimes herd ranges can be as small as 100m2. Males usually wander more widely than females. Grasslands, scrub lands, rocky outcrops and semi-open or open forests are all used extensively by goats as habitat substrate. In bad weather, they may seek shelter under rocky ledges (SPREP, 2000).
Reproduction
Both sexes are physiologically capable of reproduction at about 6 months of age. Dominant males fight to win females. They follow a serial pattern and attend to one female after another as they come into estrus. In one sense this is termed polygyny, as males breed with as many females as they can during a breeding period, but more properly this is serial monogamy as a male will tend a female for extended periods, both before and after copulation and before leaving in search of a different mate.\r\n
Realised reproduction varies among populations, seasons and years. At best a typical female goat would produce one young in its first pregnancy and twin kids in subsequent pregnancies. However, most females are at less than optimal condition, which may result in a twinning rate of as little as 0%. At best, herds may produce twins at a rate of 80% or more. Triplets are not uncommon.
Nutrition
Goats are herbivores and will forage on any palatable plants in their home range. Goats have rather large rumino-reticular volume so they are able to subsist on poorer quality plants than most herbivores, therefore goats can survive and subsist in heavily exploited environments. \r\n
In a study conducted by Chimera, Coleman and Parkes (1995) the rumen contents of 49 goats (captured in 1989) were identified and the dry weight of each component was measured to produce a breakdown of the diet of a small, unique remnant population (now extinct) of feral goats on Auckland Island (a subantarctic island located south of New Zealand). Woody plants and grasses made up the bulk of their diet (41% and 39%, respectively); seaweeds made up 13%, ferns 4% and herbaceous species 3%. At least 40 plant species were eaten by the goats, but only three species, rata (Metrosideros umbellate), snow tussock (Chionochloa Antarctica) and kelp (Durvillea Antarctica), made up half of the total. Rata (Metrosideros umbellate), Coprosma foetidissima, Pseudopanax simplex and Carex appressa were the most commonly found species - eaten in at least some quantity by 90%, 80%, 76% and 69% of the goats (respectively). Unidentified grasses composed 21.4% of the total contents (dry weight) and were found in 100% of goats. NB: This population had a unique genetic makeup as it evolved separately for over 100 years on an isolated island with a cold and harsh climate and so it may not represent the dietary preferences of all goats. However, it highlights the huge adaptability of goats and their ability to subsist in particular and inhospitable landscapes.
Pathway
Goats (Capra hircus) were released as potential food for people marooned by shipwrecks.Goats (Capra hircus) were introduced to islands for their milk.

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review: Dr. Bruce Coblentz, Oregon State University, USA.

Publication date: 2010-09-15

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Capra hircus. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=40 on 23-08-2016.

General Impacts
Biodiversity on islands is greatly threatened, making the introduction of herbivores a great risk (Campbell and Donlan 2005). Unfortunately, goats (Capra hircus) have been established on many such islands. Goats alter plant communities and forest structures and threaten vulnerable plant species; the flow-down effect of these outcomes includes increased soil erosion and the reduction of native fauna that share a similar environmental niche (Spatz and Mueller-Dombois 1973, Coblentz 1978, Parkes 1984, Brennan 1986, Coblentz and Van Vuren 1987, Cronk 1989, Walker 1991, Moran 1996, Desender et al. 1999, in Campbell and Donlan 2005). In some island ecosystems it has been the case that goats are the most destructive herbivore present (King, 1985). Feral goats are particularly destructive in such environments and cause a huge loss in native vegetation due to their grazing habits. This leads to ecosystem degradation and biodiversity loss (Coblentz 1978; Schofield 1989; Moran 1996; Desender et al. 1999 in Campbell and Donlan 2005).
Management Info
Goats have been eradicated from approximately 120 islands and there is hope that native communities will recover rapidly (Hamann 1979, 1993, in Campbell and Donlan 2005). The largest islands on which substantial goat populations have been removed are: Lanai Island (Hawaii), San Clemente (USA), Pinta Island (Galapagos Islands, Ecuador) and Raoul Island (New Zealand) (Campbell and Donlan 2005). In general, goat eradication management for islands larger than 500 hectares requires detailed planning and the use of specialised technology, equipment and personnel. Securing funds for eradication programmes may be an obstacle to goat control (Campbell and Donlan 2005).

The introduction of modern eradication technology has greatly improved the effectiveness of goat control programmes, making goat eradication more likely. Some control methods include the employment of aerial hunting (helicopter), specially trained goat-hunting dogs, Global Positioning Systems and Geographic Information System techniques as well as sterilised goats marked with radiotelemetry collars, called “Judas goats”, which gravitate to, and therefore detect, wild goat herds. Judas goats are used to find wild herds and are especially suitable for finding the last few survivors or to detect the presence of wild goats when it is uncertain whether they have been eradicated. Hunting dogs are particularly useful in situations when goat density is low and vegetation density is high. Aerial hunting is appropriate in situations where there is less ground cover and a higher density of goats. \r\nEradication is always the better option when compared to short-term control. If short-term control is chosen, goats should be kept at low densities.

Please follow this link for an overview of the management methods adopted for the control of Capra hircus compiled by the ISSG.

Guidelines for managing the impact of feral goats have been developed under the Vertebrate Pest Program (VPP) Australia administered by the Bureau of Resource Sciences (BRS). The purpose of these guidelines is to assist in the development of cost-effective strategies to reduce the damage feral goats’ cause to production and conservation. Management techniques and strategies for feral goat management are recommended and illustrated by case studies. Deficiencies in knowledge, management and legislation are identified. Please follow this link to view and download Parkes, J., R Henzell & G Pickles, 1995. Managing Vertebrate Pests: Feral Goats

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Capra hircus
Informations on Capra hircus has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Capra hircus in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Biodiversity on islands is greatly threatened, making the introduction of herbivores a great risk (Campbell and Donlan 2005). Unfortunately, goats (Capra hircus) have been established on many such islands. Goats alter plant communities and forest structures and threaten vulnerable plant species; the flow-down effect of these outcomes includes increased soil erosion and the reduction of native fauna that share a similar environmental niche (Spatz and Mueller-Dombois 1973, Coblentz 1978, Parkes 1984, Brennan 1986, Coblentz and Van Vuren 1987, Cronk 1989, Walker 1991, Moran 1996, Desender et al. 1999, in Campbell and Donlan 2005). In some island ecosystems it has been the case that goats are the most destructive herbivore present (King, 1985). Feral goats are particularly destructive in such environments and cause a huge loss in native vegetation due to their grazing habits. This leads to ecosystem degradation and biodiversity loss (Coblentz 1978; Schofield 1989; Moran 1996; Desender et al. 1999 in Campbell and Donlan 2005).
Red List assessed species 284: EX = 7; EW = 1; CR = 102; EN = 80; VU = 67; NT = 16; LR/nt = 1; DD = 5; LC = 5;
View more species View less species
Mechanism
[3] Competition
[3] Predation
[19] Grazing/Herbivory/Browsing
[1] Trampling
[1] Interaction with other invasive species
Outcomes
[25] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [20] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [1] Habitat degradation
  • [1] Habitat or refugia replacement/loss
  • [2] Modification of successional patterns
  • [1] Soil or sediment modification: erosion
[6] Environmental Species - Population
  • [3] Population size decline
  • [3] Reduces/inhibits the growth of other species
Management information
Goats have been eradicated from approximately 120 islands and there is hope that native communities will recover rapidly (Hamann 1979, 1993, in Campbell and Donlan 2005). The largest islands on which substantial goat populations have been removed are: Lanai Island (Hawaii), San Clemente (USA), Pinta Island (Galapagos Islands, Ecuador) and Raoul Island (New Zealand) (Campbell and Donlan 2005). In general, goat eradication management for islands larger than 500 hectares requires detailed planning and the use of specialised technology, equipment and personnel. Securing funds for eradication programmes may be an obstacle to goat control (Campbell and Donlan 2005).

The introduction of modern eradication technology has greatly improved the effectiveness of goat control programmes, making goat eradication more likely. Some control methods include the employment of aerial hunting (helicopter), specially trained goat-hunting dogs, Global Positioning Systems and Geographic Information System techniques as well as sterilised goats marked with radiotelemetry collars, called “Judas goats”, which gravitate to, and therefore detect, wild goat herds. Judas goats are used to find wild herds and are especially suitable for finding the last few survivors or to detect the presence of wild goats when it is uncertain whether they have been eradicated. Hunting dogs are particularly useful in situations when goat density is low and vegetation density is high. Aerial hunting is appropriate in situations where there is less ground cover and a higher density of goats. \r\nEradication is always the better option when compared to short-term control. If short-term control is chosen, goats should be kept at low densities.

Please follow this link for an overview of the management methods adopted for the control of Capra hircus compiled by the ISSG.

Guidelines for managing the impact of feral goats have been developed under the Vertebrate Pest Program (VPP) Australia administered by the Bureau of Resource Sciences (BRS). The purpose of these guidelines is to assist in the development of cost-effective strategies to reduce the damage feral goats’ cause to production and conservation. Management techniques and strategies for feral goat management are recommended and illustrated by case studies. Deficiencies in knowledge, management and legislation are identified. Please follow this link to view and download Parkes, J., R Henzell & G Pickles, 1995. Managing Vertebrate Pests: Feral Goats

Locations
ANGUILLA
AUSTRALIA
CANADA
CAYMAN ISLANDS
ECUADOR
FALKLAND ISLANDS (MALVINAS)
FRENCH SOUTHERN TERRITORIES
GREECE
GUADELOUPE
MAURITIUS
MEXICO
NETHERLANDS ANTILLES
NEW ZEALAND
NORFOLK ISLAND
NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS
PORTUGAL
SAINT HELENA
SEYCHELLES
TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS
UNITED STATES
VENEZUELA
VIRGIN ISLANDS, BRITISH
Management Category
Eradication
Control
None
Unknown
Bibliography
48 references found for Capra hircus

Managment information
Atkinson, I. A. E. and Atkinson, T. J. 2000. Land vertebrates as invasive species on islands served by the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. In: Invasive Species in the Pacific: A Technical Review and Draft Regional Strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa: 19-84.
Summary: This report reviews available information on the adverse effects of 14 alien vertebrates considered to be �significant invasive species on islands of the South Pacific and Hawaii, supplementing the authors� experience with that of other workers.
Atkinson, R., J. Renteria, W. Simbana. 2008. The Consequences of Herbivore Eradication on Santiago: Are We In Time to Prevent Ecosystem Degredation Again? In Galapagos Report 2007-8 FCD, PNG, and INGALA, Puerto Ayora, Galapagos, Ecuador.
Bellchambers, K., 2004. Improving the development of effective and humane trapping systems as a control method for feral goats in Australia.
Bomford, M., 2003. Risk Assessment for the Import and Keeping of Exotic Vertebrates in Australia. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra.
Summary: Available from: http://www.feral.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/PC12803.pdf [Accessed August 19 2010]
Campbell, K.J, Baxter, G.S, Murray, P.J, Coblentz, B.E, Donlan, C.J & Carrion G., V in review, Increasing the efficacy of Judas goats by sterilisation and pregnancy termination , Wildlife Research.
Campbell, K.J, Baxter, G.S, Murray, P.J, Coblentz, B.E & Donlan, J.D in review, Development of a prolonged estrus effect for use in Judas goats , Applied Animal Behaviour Science.
Campbell, K.J & Donlan, C.J 2005, A review of feral goat eradication on islands , Conservation Biology, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1362-74.
Coblentz, B. E. 1978. The effects of feral goats (Capra hircus) on island ecosystems. Biological Conservation 13(4): 279-286.
Summary: Feral goats are implicated in habitat destruction and alteration of species composition on sensitive insular ecosystems. In the absence of population control goats become ecologically dominant and cause extinction of numerous endemic species. Removal of goats can lead to rapid recovery of suppressed flora. Problems associated with excessive goats have rarely been studied.
Daly, K. and Goriup, P. 1987. Eradication of feral goats from small islands. International Council for Bird Preservation. 46pp.
IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4.
Summary: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species provides taxonomic, conservation status and distribution information on taxa that have been globally evaluated using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. This system is designed to determine the relative risk of extinction, and the main purpose of the IUCN Red List is to catalogue and highlight those taxa that are facing a higher risk of global extinction (i.e. those listed as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable). The IUCN Red List also includes information on taxa that are categorized as Extinct or Extinct in the Wild; on taxa that cannot be evaluated because of insufficient information (i.e. are Data Deficient); and on taxa that are either close to meeting the threatened thresholds or that would be threatened were it not for an ongoing taxon-specific conservation programme (i.e. are Near Threatened).
Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/ [Accessed 25 May 2011]
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Juan Luis Rodr�guez Luengo, pers.comm., Dec 20th 2006 [Aliens-L] Control of Barbary sheep in La Palma
Mobini, S, Heath, A.M & Pugh, D.G 2002, Theriogenology of sheep and goats , in D.G Pugh (ed.), Sheep and goat medicine, W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, pp. 129-86.
O Dempsey, N 1993, Sheep self mustering - muster in your sleep, Information series QI93026. Agdex 430/75, Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Charleville, Queensland.
Parkes, J., Henzell, R. and Pickles, G. 1996. Managing Vertebrate Pests: Feral Goats. Australian Government Publishing Service: 129pp.
Summary: A comprehensive review of the history and biology of feral goats in Australia, the damage they cause, and community attitudes to feral goat management. A wide range of strategies for goat control are discussed and recommended.
Parkes, J. P. 1990. Eradication of feral goats on islands and habitat islands. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 20: 297�304.
Parkes, J. P. 1990. Feral goat control in New Zealand. Biological Conservation 54: 335�348.
Parkes, J., R Henzell & G Pickles, 1995. Managing Vertebrate Pests: Feral Goats. Vertebrate Pest Program (VPP) Bureau of Resource Sciences (BRS).
Summary: Available from: http://www.daff.gov.au/brs/land/feral-animals/apamp/managing_vertebrate_pests_feral_goats [Accessed 21 June 2010]
Rainbolt, R. E. and Coblentz, B. E. 1999. Restoration of insular ecosystems: control of feral goats on Aldabra Atoll, Republic of Seychelles. Biological Invasions 1(4): 363-375.
Summary: Control of goats on Aldabra Atoll was studied and implemented October 1993 to May 1994 and November 1994 to May 1995. A total of 882 goats was killed using traditional and Judas goat hunting techniques. Judas goats became increasingly important over tim
Rudge, M. R. and Smit, T. 1970. Expected rate of increase of hunted populations of feral goats (Capra hircus L.) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Science 13: 256�259.
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
Youngquist (ed.), Current therapy in large animal theriogenology, 1st edn, W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 594-8.
General information
Barthelat, pers. comm., 2007
Summary: Personal communication with Fabien Barthelat, an expert of flora of Mayotte.
Chimera, C.; Coleman, M.C.; Parkes, J.P. 1995. Diet of feral goats and feral pigs on Auckland Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 19: 203-207.
Summary: Available from: http://www.nzes.org.nz/nzje/free_issues/NZJEcol19_2_203.pdf [Accessed 12 March 2010]
CONABIO. 2008. Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras en M�xico. Especies invasoras - Mam�feros. Comisi�n Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Fecha de acceso.
Summary: English:
The species list sheet for the Mexican information system on invasive species currently provides information related to Scientific names, family, group and common names, as well as habitat, status of invasion in Mexico, pathways of introduction and links to other specialised websites. Some of the higher risk species already have a direct link to the alert page. It is important to notice that these lists are constantly being updated, please refer to the main page (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), under the section Novedades for information on updates.
Invasive species - mammals is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Mam%C3%ADferos [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Spanish:
La lista de especies del Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras de m�xico cuenta actualmente con informaci�n aceca de nombre cient�fico, familia, grupo y nombre com�n, as� como h�bitat, estado de la invasi�n en M�xico, rutas de introducci�n y ligas a otros sitios especializados. Algunas de las especies de mayor riesgo ya tienen una liga directa a la p�gina de alertas. Es importante resaltar que estas listas se encuentran en constante proceso de actualizaci�n, por favor consulte la portada (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), en la secci�n novedades, para conocer los cambios.
Especies invasoras - Mam�feros is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Mam%C3%ADferos [Accessed 30 July 2008]
De Garine-Wichatitsky, M., Spaggiari, J., Menard, C. 2004. Ecologie et impact des ongul�s introduits sur la for�t s�che de Nouvelle Cal�donie. IAC/CIRAD, Programme Elevage et Faune, Pa�ta, Nouvelle-Cal�donie, 50p et 128 p d annexes.
Feldmann, pers. comm., 2007
Summary: Personal communication with Philippe Feldmann, an biodiversity expert from the CIRAD- Centre de coop�ration internationale en recherche agronomique pour le d�veloppement
Fraser, Ross Kingsley Timpson, Pete McClelland, Ian Hill, Greg Sherley., undated. Auckland Island Goats A Rare Breed of New Zealand Origin
Summary: Available from: http://www.rarebreeds.co.nz/auckgoats.html [Accessed 23 February 2010]
Gargominy, O. (Ed.). 2003. Biodiversit� et conservation dans les collectivit�s fran�aises d outre-mer. Comit� fran�ais pour l UICN, Paris.
Summary: Synth�se sur la biodiversit� des �les fran�aises d outre-mer et les enjeux de conservation.
Available from: http://www.uicn.fr/Biodiversite-outre-mer-2003.html [Accessed 26 March 2008]
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2004. Online Database Capra hircus
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=180715 [Accessed 18 February 2008]
Lorvelec, O., Pascal, M., Delloue, X., Chapuis, J.L. 2007. Les mammif�res terrestres non volants des Antilles fran�aises et l�introduction r�cente d�un �cureil. Rev.Ecol. (Terre Vie), 62, 295-314
Summary: Bilan des introductions des mamif�res terrestres dans les Antilles fran�aises et analyse de leurs impacts.
Louette M. 1999. La Faune terrestre de Mayotte - Mus�e Royal de l Afrique Centrale, 247 p.
Summary: Synth�se g�n�rale sur la faune terrestre de Mayotte
Meyer, J.-Y. pers. comm., 2007
Summary: Personal communication with Jean Yves Meyer, from the D�l�gation � la Recherche of French Polynesia
Moverly, A.V. (1953) Pitcairn Island: An economic survey. Transactions of the Fiji Society 4: 61-67. In: Varnham, K. (2005) Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough, United Kingdom
Mus�um national d Histoire naturelle [Ed]. 2003-2006 . Capra hircus. Inventaire national du Patrimoine naturel
Summary: Available from: http://inpn.mnhn.fr/isb/servlet/ISBServlet?action=Espece&typeAction=10&pageReturn=ficheEspeceDescription.jsp&numero_taxon=61097 [Accessed March 25 2008]
Pascal, M., Barr�, N., De Garine-Wichatitsky, Lorvelec, O., Fr�tey, T., Brescia, F., Jourdan, H. 2006. Les peuplements n�o-cal�doniens de vert�b�br�s : invasions, disparitions. Pp 111-162, in M.-L. Beauvais et al., : Les esp�ces envahissantes dans l�archipel n�o-cal�donien, Paris, IRD �ditions, 260 p.+ c�d�rom
Summary: Synth�se des introductions d esp�ces de vert�br�s en Nouvelle-Cal�donie et �valuation de leurs impacts.
Rudge, M. R. 1990. Feral goat. In King, C. M. (ed.) The Handbook of New Zealand Mammals: 406�423.
Vandamme, A. 2001. Diagnostic sur les esp�ces spontan�es � Mayotte. Perception et utilisation de ces esp�ces par les paysans. M�moire ISTOM/CIRAD. 73 pp.
Contact
The following 4 contacts offer information an advice on Capra hircus
Graham,
Nugent
Feral goats and feral pigs
Organization:
Manaaki Whenua - Landcare Research
Address:
P.O. Box 69, Lincoln, New Zealand
Phone:
Fax:
Meyer,
Jean-Yves
Geographic region: Pacific, Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Expert in the botany of French Polynesia and the Pacific Islands, and has worked on ecology and biological control of Miconia calvescens in French Polynesia.
Organization:
D�l�gation � la Recherche
Address:
D�l�gation � la Recherche, Gouvernement de Polyn�sie fran�aise. B.P. 20981, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, Polyn�sie fran�aise
Phone:
689 47 25 60
Fax:
Parkes,
John
Feral goats
Organization:
Manaaki Whenua - Landcare Research
Address:
P.O. Box 69, Lincoln, New Zealand
Phone:
Fax:
Raymond,
Rainbolt
feral goats, invasive species
Organization:
Oregon Dept. Fish and Wildlife
Email:
Address:
Wildlife Division, P.O. Box 59, Portland, Oregon 97207, USA
Phone:
+1 503 8725260
Fax:
+1 503 8725269