Global invasive species database

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Common name
Synonym
Leuciscus idella , (Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1844)
Ctenopharyngodon idellus , (Valenciennes, 1844)
Ctenopharingodon idella , (Valenciennes, 1844)
Pristiodon siemionovii , (Valenciennes, 1844)
Leuciscus tschiliensis , (Valenciennes, 1844)
Leuciscus idella , (Valenciennes, 1844)
Leuciscus idellus , (Valenciennes, 1844)
Sarcocheilichthys teretiusculus , (Valenciennes, 1844)
Ctenopharyngodon laticeps , (Valenciennes, 1844)
Similar species
Summary
Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is a large cyprinid introduced worldwide as a biological control of aquatic vegetation as well as a food fish. It is a voracious feeder which is incredibly efficient at removing aquatic weeds. However they can completely eliminate vegetation from water systems, resulting in widespread ecological effects. Grass carp are also known to compete with native fish, carry parasites such as Asian tapeworm (Bothriocephalus opsarichthydis), and induce other harmful effects to introduced waters.
Species Description
Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) has an oblong, slender body, a wide scaleless head, and very short snout. It is dark gray, silver, to olive in color with lighter sides and clear to gray-brown fins. It bears large cycloid scales with dark edges. Its dorsal fin bears 7-8 rays, anal fin 7-11 rays, and caudal fin about 18 rays. They are among the largest of the minnow family reaching weights of 30-50 kg and lengths of over a meter (Cudmore & Mandrak, 2004; FishBase, 2008).
Notes
The use of grass carp as a control for aquatic vegetation is best suited in situations where total elimination of the macrophyte community is desired, as over consumption of vegetation may induce negative effects (Standish & Wattendorf 1987).
Lifecycle Stages
Eggs hatch within 2-3 days. Pelagic larvae emerge and seek shelter in vegetated areas of flood plains, reservoirs, and lakes. They may winter in deep holes within riverbeds. Males reach sexual maturity around the age of two years, while females take about three. Grass carp and may live as long as 30-50 years (FishBase, 2008; DPIF, 2004; Pierce, 1983)
Uses
Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) are used worldwide for control of aquatic vegetation as well as an important food fish. Techniques to produce triploid populations that are functionally sterile have effectively removed the threat of wild establishment and rendering them a cheaper, safer alternative to chemical and mechanical control methods. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has implemented a voluntary program that certifies triploidy to would be stocked populations. Beneficial effects of grass carp on ecosystems regarding angling have been reported from some locations. Grass carp have been used in Germany and the Netherlands for their positive effects on sportfish productivity, growth and survival. Apparently, the high productivity and consumption of plants ignored by many sportfish of grass carp result in faster organic breakdown and decreased retention of nutrients by plants, as well as more aerated, sunlit waters bearing more habitable space. Grass carp have also been used to effectively eliminate malarial mosquitos (Anopheles pulcherrimus) from the Kara Kum Canal of the former Soviet Union. The mosquitos were believed to be eliminated as a result of extensive vegetation consumption by grass carp (Standish & Wattendorf 1987; Jacobson & Kartalia, 1994; Pierce, 1983; GSMFC, 2005).
Habitat Description
Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) inhabit sub-tropical and temperate climates and prefer in large rivers, lakes, and reservoirs with abundant vegetation and relatively shallow waters. They are tolerant of a range of conditions may inhabit temperatures of 0-33° C, oxygen levels as low as 0.5 ppm, and salinities as great as 10 ppt, although it is reported as capable of tolerating much greater salinities (Cudmore & Mandrak, 2004; Nico et al. 2006).
Reproduction
Sexual. Oviparous, external fertilization. Spawning occurs in summer months prompted by rising water levels of about 20cm or more and water temperatures of around 20° C. Grass carp migrate long distances to seek turbulent waters in which to spawn. Eggs are pelagic and left to drift downstream, hatching in 2-3 days. They must remain suspended during their incubation and are very much dependant on adequate oxygen flow, therefore usually require long river streches of turbulent rising waters. Since they require these conditions for spawning, they are not able to reproduce in many introduced habitats. Grass carp have a tremendous reproductive capacity with females producing 500,000-700,000 eggs and over 1,000,000 eggs in its native range (FishBase, 2008; DPIF, 2004; GSMFC, 2005; Tu, 2003).
Nutrition
Ctenopharyngodon idella feed on a wide range of aquatic vegetation, and are capable of consuming 40-300% of their body mass per day of plant material depending on their age and size. Fry consume planktonic crustaceans, rotifers, and insect larvae, while adults are completely vegetarian. Active feeding occurs at 7-8°C and intensive feeding requires 20°C. They are found to prefer softer, low fiber plants. Studies have found them to preferentially consume or have demonstrated themselves as an effective control for species: Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum), hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata), pondweed (Potamoeton diversifolius), fanwort (Cabomba caroliniana), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), musk grass (Chara spp.), elodea (Elodea canadensis), Brazilian elodea (Egeria densa), southern naiad (Najas quadalupensis), coastal arrowhead (Sagittaria graminea), eastern bladderwort (Utricularia gibba), watermeal (Woffia spp.), and duckweeds (Lemna spp. and Spirodela spp.). (Jordan, 2003; Cudmore, 2004; Pierce, 1983).
General Impacts
Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) are voracious feeders. Many of their introductions have been for the control of aquatic vegetation. However, they are known to completely eliminate aquatic plants in introduced habitats altering trophic structure and inflicting widespread detrimental effects on ecosystems. They may also feed selectively on softer plants thereby enhancing development of tougher plants. Grass carp remove macrophyte cover, eliminate spawning substrate, disturb sediment and muddy waters, reduce water quality, increase nutrients in waters accelerating eutrophication, decrease oxygen levels, and promote alagal bloom. They compete with native invertebrates and fish for food and other important resources. Reported impacts on native fishes include the reduction of bluegill, sunfish, smelt, bully, and pike populations. Grass carp are believed to impact waterfowl by reducing aquatic vegetation, an essential food source. Significant declines of gadwall (Anas stepera), American wigeon (Anas americana), and American coot (Fulica americana) have been reported following grass carp introductions. They carry diseases and parasites which are transmittable to other fish and are believed to be the main vector for Asian tapeworms (Bothriocephalus opsarichthydis) known to infect several fishes in Canada including common carp (Cyprinus carpio), golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). One record cites grass carp as the vector for the infection of endangered woundfin (Plagopterus argentissimus) (Standish & Wattendorf 1987; Jordan, 2003; Jacobson & Kartalia, 1994; Nico et al. 2006; GSMFC, 2005; McKnight & Hepp, 1995; Mitchell, 1986; Elvira, 2001).
Management Info
Preventative measures: Most of the United States have some form of regulation regarding the introduction of Ctenopharyngodon idella (Allen, 1987). Introduced populations should be securely contained. Grass carp migrate and are capable of dispersing long distances and establishing potentially harmful populations. They are known to leap fish barriers, so they should only be introduced to systems where escape is impossible. Also, stocking densities should be kept as low as possible to prevent adverse ecological effects (Jordan, 2003)

Chemical: The use of food pellets containing 1.0% anitmycin, a respiratory poison, were found to be readily consumed by and lethal to Ctenopharyngodon idella in studies (Kroon, 2005).

Biological: Induced tripoloidy, and the resultant sterilization, in grass carp provides an effective means of controlling Ctenopharyngodon idella. By inhibiting the second maturation division of meiosis in fertilized eggs, an extra chromosome set is retained in the second polar body, thereby producing a triploid zygote. This may be accomplished by cold shocks, which result in 50-100% triploidy with survival less than 20%, heat shocks yeilding about 87% triploids and up to 50% survival, or by hydrostatic pressure treatments of 7000 to 8000 psi, which consistently result in nearly 100% triploids with only 30% mortality. Upon proper seperation of diploids, these methods provide completely sterile populations that can be used for the control of vegetation or aquaculture without risking wild establishments. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has implemented a voluntary program that certifies triploidy to would be stocked populations, thereby providing an impartial means of ensuring low incidence of diploidy (Allen, 1987; Jacobson, 1994).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Ctenopharyngodon idella
Informations on Ctenopharyngodon idella has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Ctenopharyngodon idella in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) are voracious feeders. Many of their introductions have been for the control of aquatic vegetation. However, they are known to completely eliminate aquatic plants in introduced habitats altering trophic structure and inflicting widespread detrimental effects on ecosystems. They may also feed selectively on softer plants thereby enhancing development of tougher plants. Grass carp remove macrophyte cover, eliminate spawning substrate, disturb sediment and muddy waters, reduce water quality, increase nutrients in waters accelerating eutrophication, decrease oxygen levels, and promote alagal bloom. They compete with native invertebrates and fish for food and other important resources. Reported impacts on native fishes include the reduction of bluegill, sunfish, smelt, bully, and pike populations. Grass carp are believed to impact waterfowl by reducing aquatic vegetation, an essential food source. Significant declines of gadwall (Anas stepera), American wigeon (Anas americana), and American coot (Fulica americana) have been reported following grass carp introductions. They carry diseases and parasites which are transmittable to other fish and are believed to be the main vector for Asian tapeworms (Bothriocephalus opsarichthydis) known to infect several fishes in Canada including common carp (Cyprinus carpio), golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). One record cites grass carp as the vector for the infection of endangered woundfin (Plagopterus argentissimus) (Standish & Wattendorf 1987; Jordan, 2003; Jacobson & Kartalia, 1994; Nico et al. 2006; GSMFC, 2005; McKnight & Hepp, 1995; Mitchell, 1986; Elvira, 2001).
Red List assessed species 3: CR = 1; EN = 1; LC = 1;
Locations
BELARUS
GREECE
NEW ZEALAND
UNITED STATES
Mechanism
[4] Predation
Outcomes
[5] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Modification of natural benthic communities
  • [1] Modification of food web
  • [3] Reduction in native biodiversity
Management information
Preventative measures: Most of the United States have some form of regulation regarding the introduction of Ctenopharyngodon idella (Allen, 1987). Introduced populations should be securely contained. Grass carp migrate and are capable of dispersing long distances and establishing potentially harmful populations. They are known to leap fish barriers, so they should only be introduced to systems where escape is impossible. Also, stocking densities should be kept as low as possible to prevent adverse ecological effects (Jordan, 2003)

Chemical: The use of food pellets containing 1.0% anitmycin, a respiratory poison, were found to be readily consumed by and lethal to Ctenopharyngodon idella in studies (Kroon, 2005).

Biological: Induced tripoloidy, and the resultant sterilization, in grass carp provides an effective means of controlling Ctenopharyngodon idella. By inhibiting the second maturation division of meiosis in fertilized eggs, an extra chromosome set is retained in the second polar body, thereby producing a triploid zygote. This may be accomplished by cold shocks, which result in 50-100% triploidy with survival less than 20%, heat shocks yeilding about 87% triploids and up to 50% survival, or by hydrostatic pressure treatments of 7000 to 8000 psi, which consistently result in nearly 100% triploids with only 30% mortality. Upon proper seperation of diploids, these methods provide completely sterile populations that can be used for the control of vegetation or aquaculture without risking wild establishments. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has implemented a voluntary program that certifies triploidy to would be stocked populations, thereby providing an impartial means of ensuring low incidence of diploidy (Allen, 1987; Jacobson, 1994).

Bibliography
51 references found for Ctenopharyngodon idella

Managment information
Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.
Summary: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
The decision support tools are available from: http://cefas.defra.gov.uk/our-science/ecosystems-and-biodiversity/non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx [Accessed 13 October 2011]
The guidance document is available from http://www.cefas.co.uk/media/118009/fisk_guide_v2.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009].
Cudmore, B., and N.E. Mandrak. 2004. Biological synopsis of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Can. MS Rpt. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2705: v + 44p.
Summary: Available from: http://sbisrvntweb.uqac.ca/archivage/24061712.pdf [Accessed 4 March 2008]
Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (DPI&F) ., 2005. Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Queensland Government.
Summary: Available from: http://www2.dpi.qld.gov.au/fishweb/2373.html [Accessed 4 March 2008]
Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO). 2008. Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844)
Summary: Available from: http://www.fao.org/fishery/culturedspecies/Ctenopharyngodon_idella [Accessed 4 March 2008]
Frederieke J. Kroon, Peter C. Gehrke and Tagried Kurwie., 2005. Palatability of rotenone and antimycin baits for carp control. Ecological Management & Restoration. Vol 6 No 3 December 2005
Garc�a-Berthou.; C Alcaraz, Q Pou-Rovira, L Zamora, G. Coenders, and C. Feo,., 2005. Introduction pathways and establishment rates of invasive aquatic species in Europe et al. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. Ottawa: Feb 2005. Vol. 62, Iss. 2; pg. 453, 11 pgs
Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission (GSMFC), 2005. Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844)
Summary: Available from: http://nis.gsmfc.org/nis_factsheet.php?toc_id=182 [Accessed 4 March 2008]
Hill, Jeffrey E. and Paul Zajicek., 2007. National Aquatic Species Risk Analysis: A Call for Improved Implementation. Fisheries � Vol 32 no 11 � November 2007 � www.fisheries.org
Jordan, M. 2003. Review- Grass carp: are they a safe biological control agent for nuisance aquatic vegetation?
Summary: Available from: www.invasive.org/gist/moredocs/cteide02.rtf [Accessed January 31, 2010]
Loch J.J, Bonar S.A., 1999. Occurrence of Grass Carp in the Lower Columbia and Snake Rivers. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society: Vol. 128, No. 2 pp. 374�379
Summary: Abstract only
Marking, L.L, Bills T.D 1981. Sensitivity of Four Species of Carp to Selected Fish Toxicants. North American Journal of Fisheries Management: Vol. 1, No. 1 pp. 51�54
Summary: Abstract only
Mendoza, R.E.; Cudmore, B.; Orr, R.; Balderas, S.C.; Courtenay, W.R.; Osorio, P.K.; Mandrak, N.; Torres, P.A.; Damian, M.A.; Gallardo, C.E.; Sanguines, A.G.; Greene, G.; Lee, D.; Orbe-Mendoza, A.; Martinez, C.R.; and Arana, O.S. 2009. Trinational Risk Assessment Guidelines for Aquatic Alien Invasive Species. Commission for Environmental Cooperation. 393, rue St-Jacques Ouest, Bureau 200, Montr�al (Qu�bec), Canada. ISBN 978-2-923358-48-1.
Summary: In 1993, Canada, Mexico and the United States signed the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) as a side agreement to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The NAAEC established the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) to help the Parties ensure that improved economic efficiency occurred simultaneously with trinational environmental cooperation. The NAAEC highlighted biodiversity as a key area for trinational cooperation. In 2001, the CEC adopted a resolution (Council Resolution 01-03), which created the Biodiversity Conservation Working Group (BCWG), a working group of high-level policy makers from Canada, Mexico and the United States. In 2003, the BCWG produced the �Strategic Plan for North American Cooperation in the Conservation of Biodiversity.� This strategy identified responding to threats, such as invasive species, as a priority action area. In 2004, the BCWG, recognizing the importance of prevention in addressing invasive species, agreed to work together to develop the draft CEC Risk Assessment Guidelines for Aquatic Alien Invasive Species (hereafter referred to as the Guidelines). These Guidelines will serve as a tool to North American resource managers who are evaluating whether or not to introduce a non-native species into a new ecosystem. Through this collaborative process, the BCWG has begun to implement its strategy as well as address an important trade and environment issue. With increased trade comes an increase in the potential for economic growth as well as biological invasion, by working to minimize the potential adverse impacts from trade, the CEC Parties are working to maximize the gains from trade while minimizing the environmental costs.
Available from: English version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5516_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_en.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010]
French version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5517_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_fr.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010]
Spanish version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5518_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_es.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010].
Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR)., 2003. Stop the Invasion!
Summary: Available from: http://www.mnr.gov.on.ca/fishing/threat.html [Accessed 4 March 2008]
NatureServe Explorer., 2008. Ctenopharyngodon idella - (Valenciennes, 1844)
Summary: Available from: http://www.natureserve.org/explorer/servlet/NatureServe?searchName=Ctenopharyngodon+Idella+ [Accessed 4 March 2008]
Pierce, A. Barry., 1983. Grass carp status in the United States: A review. Environmental Management Volume 7, Number 2 / March, 1983
Summary: This is an informative review of grass carp and its history.
Shelton W.L 1986. Strategies for Reducing Risks from Introductions of Aquatic Organisms: An Aquaculture Perspective. Fisheries: Vol. 11, No. 2 pp. 16�19
Summary: Abstract only
Simon, P. Thomas., 2007. Biodiversity of fishes in the Wabash River: status, indicators, and threats. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 115.2 (Feb 12, 2007): p136(13).
Standish, Allen, K. Jr. and Robert J. Wattendorf., 1987. Triploid Grass Carp: Status and Management Implications. Fisheries, Vol. 12, 22 No. 4
General information
Bain, B. Mark., 1993. Assessing impacts of introduced aquatic species: Grass carp in large systems. Environmental Management Volume 17, Number 2 / March, 1993
Calisphere., 2007. History And Status of Introduced Fishes In California, 1871 � 1996. University of California
Summary: Available from: http://content.cdlib.org/xtf/view?docId=kt8p30069f&doc.view=frames&chunk.id=d0e4819&toc.depth=1&toc.id=d0e4575&brand=calisphere [Accessed 4 March 2008]
CONABIO. 2008. Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras en M�xico. Especies invasoras - Peces. Comisi�n Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Fecha de acceso.
Summary: English:
The species list sheet for the Mexican information system on invasive species currently provides information related to Scientific names, family, group and common names, as well as habitat, status of invasion in Mexico, pathways of introduction and links to other specialised websites. Some of the higher risk species already have a direct link to the alert page. It is important to notice that these lists are constantly being updated, please refer to the main page (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), under the section Novedades for information on updates.
Invasive species - fish is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Peces [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Spanish:
La lista de especies del Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras de m�xico cuenta actualmente con informaci�n aceca de nombre cient�fico, familia, grupo y nombre com�n, as� como h�bitat, estado de la invasi�n en M�xico, rutas de introducci�n y ligas a otros sitios especializados. Algunas de las especies de mayor riesgo ya tienen una liga directa a la p�gina de alertas. Es importante resaltar que estas listas se encuentran en constante proceso de actualizaci�n, por favor consulte la portada (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), en la secci�n novedades, para conocer los cambios.
Especies invasoras - Peces is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Peces [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Contreras-MacBeath, Topiltzin ., Humberto Mejia Mojica and Roberto Carrillo Wilson., 1998. Negative impact on the aquatic ecosystems of the state of Morelos, Mexico from introduced aquarium and other commercial fish. Aquarium Sciences and Conservation. Volume 2, Number 2 / June, 1998
Copp, G. H.; P. G. Bianco, N. G. Bogutskaya, T. Eros, I. Falka, M. T. Ferreira, M. G. Fox, J. Freyhof, R. E. Gozlan, J. Grabowska, V. Kovac, R. Moreno-Amich, A. M. Naseka, M. Penaz, M. Povz, M. Przybylski, M. Robillard, I. C. Russell, S. Stakenas, S. Sumer, A. Vila-Gispert and C. Wiesner., 2005. To be, or not to be, a non-native freshwater fish? J. Appl. Ichthyol. 21 (2005), 242�262
Economidis, P. S.; E. Dimitriou, R. Pagoni, E. Michaloudi, L. Natsis 2000. Introduced and translocated fish species in the inland waters of Greece Fisheries Management and Ecology 7 (3) , 239�250
Elder, H.S. and B.R. Murphy, 1997. Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in the Trinity River, Texas, Texas A&M Univeristy.
Summary: Abstract only
Available from: http://www.sgnis.org/publicat/eldemurp.htm [Accessed 4 March 2008]
FishBase, 2008. Ctenopharyngodon idella Grass carp: Common names
Summary: Available from: http://www.fishbase.org/comnames/CommonNamesList.php?ID=79&GenusName=Ctenopharyngodon&SpeciesName=idella&StockCode=88 [Accessed 4 March 2008]
FishBase, 2008. Ctenopharyngodon idella Grass carp: Countries
Summary: Available from: http://www.fishbase.org/Country/CountryList.php?ID=79&GenusName=Ctenopharyngodon&SpeciesName=idella [Accessed 4 March 2008]
FishBase, 2008. Ctenopharyngodon idella Grass carp: Ecosystem
Summary: Available from: http://www.fishbase.org/trophiceco/EcosysList.cfm?ID=79&GenusName=Ctenopharyngodon&SpeciesName=idella [Accessed 4 March 2008]
FishBase, 2008. Ctenopharyngodon idella Grass carp: Reproduction
Summary: Available from: http://www.fishbase.org/Reproduction/FishReproSummary.php?ID=79&GenusName=Ctenopharyngodon&SpeciesName=idella&fc=122&StockCode=88 [Accessed 4 March 2008]
FishBase, 2008. Ctenopharyngodon idella Grass carp: Summary
Summary: Available from: http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?ID=79&genusname=Ctenopharyngodon&speciesname=idella [Accessed 4 March 2008]
Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Species: Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844)
Summary: Available from: http://data.gbif.org/species/13526121 [Accessed 4 March 2008]
Goren, M.; B. S. Galil., 2005. A review of changes in the fish assemblages of Levantine inland and marine ecosystems following the introduction of non-native fishes. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 21 (4) , 364�370
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2008. Online Database Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1844)
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=163537 [Accessed 4 March 2008]
Leonardos, I. D.; I. Kagalou, M. Tsoumani, P. S. Economidis 2008. Fish fauna in a Protected Greek lake: biodiversity, introduced fish species over a 80-year period and their impacts on the ecosystem
McKnight, Keith S. & Gary R. Hepp ., 1995. Potential Effect of Grass Carp Herbivory on Waterfowl Foods. The Journal of Wildlife Management, Vol. 59, No. 4. (Oct., 1995), pp. 720-727.
National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research (NIWA)., 2007. NIWA Atlas of New Zealand Freshwater Fishes: Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)
Summary: Available from: http://www.niwa.cri.nz/rc/freshwater/fishatlas/species/grass_carp [Accessed 4 March 2008]
Nico, L. G., P. L. Fuller, and P. J. Schofield. 2006. Ctenopharyngodon idella. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL.
Summary: Available from: http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.asp?speciesID=514 [Accessed 4 March 2008]
Pflieger, W.L., 1978. Distribution and Status of the Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in Missouri Streams. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society: Vol. 107, No. 1 pp. 113�118
Summary: Abstract only
Povz, Meta., 1995. Status of freshwater fishes in the Adriatic catchment of Slovenia. Biological Conservation Volume 72, Issue 2, 1995, Pages 171-177
Povz, M; Sumer, S., 2005. A brief review of non-native freshwater fishes in Slovenia. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, Volume 21, Number 4, August 2005 , pp. 316-318(3)
Raibley, P.T., D. Blodgett, and R.E. Sparks, 1995. Evidence of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Reproduction in the Illinois and Upper Mississippi Rivers, Illinois Natural History Survey.
Summary: Abstract only
Vooren, C. M. 1972. Ecological aspects of the introduction of fish species into natural habitats in Europe, with special reference to the Netherlands. A literature survey . Journal of Fish Biology 4 (4) , 565�583
Contact
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