Global invasive species database

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  • Ivy gourd habit, Kualoa Park, Oahu, Hawaii (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr, USGS)
  • Ivy gourd flower with Apis melifera, Kihei Maui, Hawaii (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr, USGS)
  • Ivy gourd climbing on Zingiber zerumbet, Honokawai, Maui, Hawaii (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr, USGS)
  • Ivy gourd leaf Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr, USGS)
  • Ivy gourd fruit Kahului, Maui, Hawaii (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr, USGS)
  • Ivy gourd crawling on fence, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr, USGS)
  • Ivy gourd climbing habit, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr, USGS)
  • Ivy gourd Bishop Museum specimen, Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr, USGS)
  • Ivy gourd half eaten fruit and leaf, Kapalua, Maui, Hawaii
  • Ivy gourd on powerline, Maui Meadows, Kihei Maui, Hawaii
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Common name
kundru (English, Fiji), kiuri awia (English, Marshall Islands), ivy gourd (English), aipikohr (English, Pohnpei), scarlet-fruited gourd (English)
Synonym
Bryonia grandis , L.
Coccinia cordifolia , auct. non (L.) Cogn.
Bryonia grandis , L.
Coccinia cordifolia , (L.) Cogn.var. alceifolia(Willd.) Cogn.
Cephalandra indica , Naudin
Coccinia cordifolia , (L.) Cogn.var. wightiana (M.Roem.) Cogn.
Coccinia grandis , (L.) Voigt var. wightiana(M.Roem.) Greb.
Coccinia indica , Wight & Arn.
Coccinia loureiriana , M.Roem.
Coccinia wightiana , M.Roem.
Cucumis pavel , Kostel.
Momordica bicolor , Blume
Momordica covel , Dennst.
Momordica monadelpha , Roxb.
Bryonia alceifolia , Willd
Similar species
Summary
Coccinia grandis is a noxious vine that smothers vegetation and other objects forming a dense canopy. It acts as a host for melon fly and is a reservoir for other crop pests possibly including ring spot virus. It has become invasive in Guam, Saipan and Hawai‘i where it is a severe pest in gardens, on utility poles, roadsides, and in natural areas.
Species Description
\"Dioecious perennial herbaceous vine. Stems mostly glabrous, produced annually from a tuberous rootstock; tendrils simple, axillary. Leaves alternate, simple, blade broadly ovate, 5-lobed, 5-9 x 4-9cm, acute and mucronate at the apex, cordate with a broad sinus at the base; surfaces glabrous or scaly, with 3-8 glands near the base; margins denticulate; petiole 1-5cm long. Inflorescence usually of solitary, axillary flowers. Calyx of 5 subulate, recurved lobes 2-5mm long on the hypanthium; peduncle 1-5cm long. Corolla campanulate, white, 3-4.5cm long, deeply divided into 5 ovate lobes. Stamens 3, present as staminodes in female flowers. Ovary inferior. Fruit a smooth, bright red, ovoid to ellipsoid berry 2.5-6cm long\" (PIER, 2003).
Lifecycle Stages
Seeds do not exhibit dormancy, (PIER, 2003).
Uses
The shoot tips are used in Asian cooking, (PIER, 2003).
Habitat Description
In Hawai‘i, “naturalised and rapidly spreading in disturbed sites, 0-100 m” (PIER, 2003). In Fiji, “a naturalised weed of waste places, canefields, roadsides, etc., near sea level, perhaps originally intentionally introduced; a sprawling or creeping vine” (PIER, 2003).
Reproduction
Pieces of vines or cuttings, bird-dispersed seeds, probable dispersal by feral pigs. On Guam, only one sex of the plant is present (male), so spread is entirely by roots, pieces, and cuttings. The shoot tips are used in Asian cooking, so long-range dispersal is often the result of introduction by humans. (PIER, 2003)
Nutrition
The roots and stems are succulent and capable of storing water throughout the dry season, (ERDC).
Pathway
The shoot tips are used in Asian cooking, so long-range dispersal is often the result of introduction by humans. (PIER, 2003)

Principal source: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk, (PIER)

Compiler: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Kenneth K. Teramoto. Chief, Biological Control Section, Plant Pest Control Branch, Hawaii Department of Agriculture. Hawaii USA.

Publication date: 2005-06-24

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Coccinia grandis. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=348 on 09-12-2016.

General Impacts
Smothers vegetation and other objects forming a dense canopy (NMC Crees, 1997). Smothering vine, very aggressive, with extensive tuberous root system, (PIER, 2003). Acts as a host for melon fly and may also be a reservoir for ring spot virus (NMC Crees, 1997). Very aggressive weed on Guam and Saipan, in many places smothering the forest, (PIER, 2003). In Hawai‘i a severe pest in gardens, on utility poles, roadsides, and in natural areas, (Thomas, 1998).
Management Info
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of \rCoccinia grandis for Hawai‘i and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The alien plant screening system is derived from Pheloung et al. (1999) with minor modifications for use in Pacific islands (Daehler et al. 2004. The result is a score of 21 and a recommendation of: \"Likely to cause significant ecological or economic harm in Hawai‘i and on other Pacific Islands as determined by a high WRA score, which is based on published sources describing species biology and behaviour in Hawai‘i and/or other parts of the world.\"
A Risk assessment of Coccinia grandis for Australia was prepared by Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) using the Australian risk assessment system (Pheloung, 1995). The result is a score of 9 and a recommendation of: reject the plant for import (Australia) or species likely to be a pest (Pacific).

Physical: Cutting has little effect (PIER, 2003).

\r\nChemical: A single application of herbicide (Garlon®) may be insufficient to prevent regrowth. Roundup® is only effective against young plants. Because of its climbing habit, use of foliar herbicides is difficult without causing damage to the underlying vegetation. \"Susceptible to basal bark applications of 2,4-D or triclopyr, however finding basal stems difficult in dense stands. Foliar applications of 2,4-D, glyphosate or metsulfuron ineffective; triclopyr and dicamba, each at 1 lb/acre provided excellent knockdown of foliage. This suggests knockdown of foliage followed by basal stem treatments when the plants begin to re-sprout may be successful. Seeds do not exhibit dormancy so ivy gourd may be eradicable from a defined area.\" (PIER, 2003).

Biological: \"To control this weed, three natural enemies, Melittia oedipus Oberthur (Sesiidae), Acythopeus cocciniae O’Brien (Curculionidae) and Acythopeus burkhartorum O’Brien (Curculionidae) were introduced to the Hawai‘ian Islands from East Africa. These natural enemies are being cultured at the Quarantine Laboratory in Guam\" (PIER, 2003). In Hawai‘i two species of weevils have recently been released for biological control (Thomas, 1998).Some regions, including Hawai‘i, are experimenting with biological control of A.coccinia primarily using Acythopeus burkhartorum and A. cocciniae, two nonindigenous weevils, to control infestations of Coccinia grandis or ivy gourd, (Thomas, 1998). A decade of lower rainfall in Hawai‘i has not provided ideal conditions for the proliferation of ivy gourd so the true impact of the biocontrol agents is difficult to assess (Kenneth K. Teramoto, pers. comm, 2003).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Coccinia grandis
NATIVE RANGE
  • africa
  • asia
  • china
  • india
  • indonesia
  • malaysia
  • new guinea
  • papua new guinea
  • philippines
  • thailand
  • viet nam
Informations on Coccinia grandis has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Coccinia grandis in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Smothers vegetation and other objects forming a dense canopy (NMC Crees, 1997). Smothering vine, very aggressive, with extensive tuberous root system, (PIER, 2003). Acts as a host for melon fly and may also be a reservoir for ring spot virus (NMC Crees, 1997). Very aggressive weed on Guam and Saipan, in many places smothering the forest, (PIER, 2003). In Hawai‘i a severe pest in gardens, on utility poles, roadsides, and in natural areas, (Thomas, 1998).
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS
Mechanism
[1] Competition
[1] Interaction with other invasive species
Outcomes
[1] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Habitat degradation
[1] Environmental Species - Population
  • [1] Plant/animal health
[1] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Damage to agriculture
Management information
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of \rCoccinia grandis for Hawai‘i and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The alien plant screening system is derived from Pheloung et al. (1999) with minor modifications for use in Pacific islands (Daehler et al. 2004. The result is a score of 21 and a recommendation of: \"Likely to cause significant ecological or economic harm in Hawai‘i and on other Pacific Islands as determined by a high WRA score, which is based on published sources describing species biology and behaviour in Hawai‘i and/or other parts of the world.\"
A Risk assessment of Coccinia grandis for Australia was prepared by Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) using the Australian risk assessment system (Pheloung, 1995). The result is a score of 9 and a recommendation of: reject the plant for import (Australia) or species likely to be a pest (Pacific).

Physical: Cutting has little effect (PIER, 2003).

\r\nChemical: A single application of herbicide (Garlon®) may be insufficient to prevent regrowth. Roundup® is only effective against young plants. Because of its climbing habit, use of foliar herbicides is difficult without causing damage to the underlying vegetation. \"Susceptible to basal bark applications of 2,4-D or triclopyr, however finding basal stems difficult in dense stands. Foliar applications of 2,4-D, glyphosate or metsulfuron ineffective; triclopyr and dicamba, each at 1 lb/acre provided excellent knockdown of foliage. This suggests knockdown of foliage followed by basal stem treatments when the plants begin to re-sprout may be successful. Seeds do not exhibit dormancy so ivy gourd may be eradicable from a defined area.\" (PIER, 2003).

Biological: \"To control this weed, three natural enemies, Melittia oedipus Oberthur (Sesiidae), Acythopeus cocciniae O’Brien (Curculionidae) and Acythopeus burkhartorum O’Brien (Curculionidae) were introduced to the Hawai‘ian Islands from East Africa. These natural enemies are being cultured at the Quarantine Laboratory in Guam\" (PIER, 2003). In Hawai‘i two species of weevils have recently been released for biological control (Thomas, 1998).Some regions, including Hawai‘i, are experimenting with biological control of A.coccinia primarily using Acythopeus burkhartorum and A. cocciniae, two nonindigenous weevils, to control infestations of Coccinia grandis or ivy gourd, (Thomas, 1998). A decade of lower rainfall in Hawai‘i has not provided ideal conditions for the proliferation of ivy gourd so the true impact of the biocontrol agents is difficult to assess (Kenneth K. Teramoto, pers. comm, 2003).

Locations
NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS
UNITED STATES
Management Category
Prevention
Control
Bibliography
13 references found for Coccinia grandis

Managment information
Daehler, C.C; Denslow, J.S; Ansari, S and Huang-Chi, K., 2004. A Risk-Assessment System for Screening Out Invasive Pest Plants from Hawaii and Other Pacific Islands. Conservation Biology Volume 18 Issue 2 Page 360.
Summary: A study on the use of a screening system to assess proposed plant introductions to Hawaii or other Pacific Islands and to identify high-risk species used in horticulture and forestry which would greatly reduce future pest-plant problems and allow entry of most nonpests.
Gardner, Donald E. Biocontrol of Forest Weeds. University of Hawaii, Botany Department.
Summary: Biocontrol of forest weeds.
Available from: http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/gardner/biocontrol/biocontrol.htm [Accessed 9 July 2003]
NMC Crees, 1997. Scarlet Gourd in Saipan.
Summary: About the Scarlet Gourd in Saipan.
Available from: http://www.crees.org/weeds/scarlet-gourd.htm [Accessed 10 July 2003]
PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk), 2003. Coccinia grandis
Summary: Ecology, synonyms, common names, distributions (Pacific as well as global), management and impact information.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/coccinia_grandis.htm [Accessed 9 July 2003]
General information
Conservatoire Botanique National De Mascarin (BOULLET V. coord.) 2007. Coccinia grandis.- Index de la flore vasculaire de la R�union (Trach�ophytes) : statuts, menaces et protections. - Version 2007.1
Summary: Base de donn�es sur la flore de la R�union. De nombreuses informations tr�s utiles.
Available from: http://flore.cbnm.org/index2.php?page=taxon&num=c0d58683701171db454d0456f2508f90 [Accessed March 2008]
Delnatte, pers. comm., 2007
Summary: Personal communication with C�sar Delnatte from the herbier de Cayenne
Department of Agriculture and Food - Western Australia (WA). 2002. Ivy Gourd. � Chief Executive Officer of the Department of Agriculture 2002.
Summary: Information on Ivy gourd in Western Australia.
Available from: http://www.agric.wa.gov.au/agency/offices/Derby/rubb.htm [Accessed 10 July 2003]
ERDC. Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt (Ivy Gourd). Waterways Experiment Station (WES). U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC).
Summary: Small amount of information on Coccinia grandis in the US.
Florence J. Chevillotte H. Ollier C.& Meyer J.-Y. 2007. Coccinia grandis. Base de donn�es botaniques Nadeaud de l Herbier de la Polyn�sie fran�aise (PAP).
Summary: Base de donn�es sur le flore de Polyn�sie Fran�aise.
Available from:http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf/Selection_Taxonomie.php?id_tax=20262 [Accessed March 2008]
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2004. Online Database Coccinia grandis
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=22358 [Accessed December 31 2004]
Thomas, P.A, 1998. Ivy gourd. Hawaiian ecosystems at Risk, (HEAR).
Summary: Information on Ivy gourd in Hawaii.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/ivygourd/index.html [Accessed 10 July 2003].
Contact
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Coccinia grandis