Global invasive species database

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  • Cryptostegia grandiflora (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr (USGS))
  • Cryptostegia grandiflora (Photo:  Albert C. Perdeck, Arnhem, The Netherlands)
  • Cryptostegia grandiflora (Photo: Harry Evans, CABI BioScience)
  • Effects of Cryptostegia grandiflora in Australia (Photo: Ian Purvis, DNR&M)
  • Cryptostegia grandiflora as a self-supporting vine (Photo: Geoffrey Howard)
  • Cryptostegia grandiflora on the roadside (Photo: Geoffrey Howard)
  • Cryptostegia grandiflora on the roadside (Photo: Geoffrey Howard)
  • Cryptostegia grandiflora growing on Parkinsonia aculeata (Photo: Geoffrey Howard)
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Common name
India rubber vine (English), caucho de la India (Spanish, Galapagos), rubber vine (English), palay rubber vine (English), purple allamanda (English), liane de gatope (French, New Caledonia)
Synonym
Nerium grandiflorum , Roxb. ex R. Br.
Similar species
Summary
Cryptostegia grandiflora is a self supporting, many-stemmed vine that is capable of growing over trees up to 15m high, smothering and pulling them down. It occurs in dry and moist forests in disturbed situations where there is temporary or permanent water, such as in rainforest openings and along roadsides. C. grandiflora is poisonous to stock when consumed and it forms impenetrable thickets that may restrict stock access to water. It decreases water catchments due to increased transpiration resulting in a loss of trees and native vines, which in turn leads to a loss of biodiversity and habitat.
Species Description
Cryptostegia grandiflora, is a self supporting, scrambling, many-stemmed vine that grows to 2 metres tall with long trailing whips. A milky sap oozes from stems, leaves and seedpods when cut or broken. Leaves are dark green and glossy, 6-10cm long, 3-5cm wide and in opposite pairs. Roots have been found at a depth of 13 metres in mine shafts. Roots of seedlings are twice as long as shoots. The growth form of the vine differs depending on the surrounding conditions. They can form dense canopies of overpapping plants with long whips, form towers upto 30mts high the height of native trees and grow as freestanding shrubs in the absence of other vegetation. Flowers are large and showy, with five white to light purple petals in a funnel shape. The seedpods are rigid, 10-12cm long, 3-4cm wide and grow in pairs at the end of a short stalk. The flowers resemble those of the purple Allamanda (Allamanda violacea) (PIER, 2003).
Lifecycle Stages
Cryptostegia grandiflora produces seeds that last more than 12 months in the soil (Grice, 1996). Plants begin reproducing at about 200 days (CSIRO Australia, 2001).
Uses
Ornamental
Habitat Description
Cryptostegia grandiflora is an aggressive woody climbing shrub which is capable of growing over trees up to 30m high. Plants are common in disturbed situations where there is temporary or permanent water, such as along gullies, rivers, creeks, waterholes and in saltmarsh areas (Marohasy and Forster, 1991. In PIER, 2003). It found growing in dry forest, roadsides, moist forest, rainforest openings at low elevations (PIER, 2003).
Reproduction
Wind- and water-dispersed seeds. Seeds form in large pods about 15cm long which are often found in pairs, joined at the base. Each pod contains numerous seeds, each seed has a tuft of long white silky hairs. (WA, Department of Agriculture).
It can produce more than 8000 seeds in a single reproductive episode and can set seed at least twice per year. More than 90% of seeds will germinate within 10 days of moisture becoming available (Grice 1996). Each seed pod produces 340-840 seeds, and seeds can float in salt water for up to 40 days, and may still remain 60% viable after this.
Nutrition
Prefers high levels of soil moisture for rapid growth, and subsequently is often found bordering rivers, (WA, Department of Agriculture). However roots have been known to grow up to 13m deep allowing growth even in arid conditions.
Pathway
Introduced for cultivation in India to produce a poor quality rubber latex, (WA, Department of Agriculture).Initially introduced to Australia as an ornamental species, (CSIRO Australia, 2001). http://www.rareflora.com/cryptostegiagran.htm

Principal source: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk (PIER), 2003, 2009. Cryptostegia grandiflora Roxb. ex R.Br., Apocynaceae

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group
Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review: Dr Wayne Vogler. Weed Scientist Tropical Weeds Research Centre, Dept. Natural Resources and Mines, Queensland Australia

Publication date: 2010-10-04

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Cryptostegia grandiflora. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=347 on 31-08-2016.

General Impacts
Cryptostegia grandiflora forms impenetrable thickets and smothers vegetation resulting in a loss of trees and native vines which in turn leads to a loss of biodiversity and habitat, (CSIRO Australia, 2001). C. grandiflora is poisonous to stock when consumed and its rampant growth may restrict stock access to water points reducing productivity and pasture production, (WA, Department of Agriculture).
Management Info
Preventative measures: A Risk assessment of Cryptostegia grandiflora for Australia was prepared by Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) using the Australian risk assessment system (Pheloung, 1995). The result is a score of 16 and a recommendation of: reject the plant for import (Australia) or species likely to be a pest (Pacific).

The Rubber vine management manual includes a comprehensive range of techniques for controlling rubber vine, and a selection of case studies demonstrating landholder approaches and experiences. Several of the landholder case studies indicate that controlling rubber vine would have been easier if they had taken steps to remove it before it ‘took off’. Maintaining good pasture competition is also beneficial in preventing the establishment and spread of rubber vine.

The Weed Control Methods Handbook provides you with detailed information about the tools and techniques available for controlling invasive plants, or weeds, in natural areas. This Handbook is divided into eight chapters, covering a range of different control methods: manual, mechanical, promoting competition from native plants, grazing, biocontrol, herbicides, prescribed fire, solarization, flooding, and other, more novel, techniques. Each control method has advantages and disadvantages in terms of its effects against the target weed(s), impacts to untargeted plants and animals, risks to human health and safety, and costs.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Cryptostegia grandiflora
Informations on Cryptostegia grandiflora has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Cryptostegia grandiflora in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Cryptostegia grandiflora forms impenetrable thickets and smothers vegetation resulting in a loss of trees and native vines which in turn leads to a loss of biodiversity and habitat, (CSIRO Australia, 2001). C. grandiflora is poisonous to stock when consumed and its rampant growth may restrict stock access to water points reducing productivity and pasture production, (WA, Department of Agriculture).
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
AUSTRALIA
Outcomes
[5] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Modification of hydrology/water regulation, purification and quality /soil moisture
  • [1] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [1] Unspecified ecosystem modification
  • [1] Habitat degradation
  • [1] Soil or sediment modification: erosion
[1] Environmental Species - Population
  • [1] Reduces/inhibits the growth of other species
[4] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Damage to agriculture
  • [1] Reduce/damage livestock and products
  • [1] Limited access to water, land and other
  • [1] Other economic impact
Management information
Preventative measures: A Risk assessment of Cryptostegia grandiflora for Australia was prepared by Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) using the Australian risk assessment system (Pheloung, 1995). The result is a score of 16 and a recommendation of: reject the plant for import (Australia) or species likely to be a pest (Pacific).

The Rubber vine management manual includes a comprehensive range of techniques for controlling rubber vine, and a selection of case studies demonstrating landholder approaches and experiences. Several of the landholder case studies indicate that controlling rubber vine would have been easier if they had taken steps to remove it before it ‘took off’. Maintaining good pasture competition is also beneficial in preventing the establishment and spread of rubber vine.

The Weed Control Methods Handbook provides you with detailed information about the tools and techniques available for controlling invasive plants, or weeds, in natural areas. This Handbook is divided into eight chapters, covering a range of different control methods: manual, mechanical, promoting competition from native plants, grazing, biocontrol, herbicides, prescribed fire, solarization, flooding, and other, more novel, techniques. Each control method has advantages and disadvantages in terms of its effects against the target weed(s), impacts to untargeted plants and animals, risks to human health and safety, and costs.

Locations
Management Category
Prevention
Control
Bibliography
23 references found for Cryptostegia grandiflora

Managment information
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), 2001. Rubbervine. � Copyright 1999 - 2000, CSIRO Australia.
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Kriticos, D.J.; R.W. Sutherst; J.R. Brown; S.W. Adkins and G.F. Maywald, 2003. Climate change and biotic invasions: a case history of a tropical woody vine. Biological Invasions 5: 145�165, 2003.
PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk), 2003, 2009. Cryptostegia grandiflora
Summary: Ecology, synonyms, common names, distributions (Pacific as well as global), management and impact information.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/cryptostegia_grandiflora.htm [Accessed 4 July 2010]
Renter�a, Jorge Luis; Rachel Atkinson, Ana Mireya Guerrero, Johanna Mader 2006. Manual de Identification y Manejo de Malezas en las Islas Gal�pagos. Segunda edici�n, Fundaci�n Charles Darwin, Santa Cruz, Gal�pagos, Ecuador.
Summary: An illustrated guide providing practical information for the effective control of the worst invasive plant species in Galapagos. Designed for farmers and other land managers, it describes manual and chemical control methods. It also includes 8 species that are potential problems for Galapagos. Language: Spanish
Una gu�a con ilustraciones que provee informaci�n para el control efectivo de las peores plantas invasoras en Gal�pagos. Esta dise�ada para los agricultores y personas involucradas en conservaci�n. De una forma clara y simple se describe los m�todos de control manuales y qu�micos; tambi�n incluye 8 especies que potencialmente podr�an ser un problema para Gal�pagos. Lenguaje: Espa�ol.
Renter�a, Jorge Luis; Rachel Atkinson & Chris Buddenhagen., 2007. Estrategias para la erradicaci�n de 21 especies de plantas. Fundaci�n Charles Darwin, Departamento de Bot�nica. Programa de Especies Invasoras en Gal�pagos potencialmente invasoras en Gal�pagos.
Summary: This document comprises costed eradication plans for 21 invasive species in Galapagos. The plans were developed as part of a GEF funded project ECU/00/G31 �Control of Invasive species in the Galapagos Archipelago�. The management plans report projects at different stages of development and for species that have invaded to different extents. Three of the projects have already been finished successfully, 5 have yet to be started, and for the rest the projects have been running for between 1 and 6 years. The cost and time needed for eradication varies considerably by species and demonstrates the importance of species eradication as soon as possible after detection
Resumen
El presente documento proporciona planes de manejo y el costo para la erradicaci�n de 21 especies que se encuentran presentes en Gal�pagos. Los planes fueron desarrollados como parte del proyecto ECU/00/G31 Control de las especies invasoras en el Archipi�lago de las Gal�pagos , suscrito por el Gobierno Ecuatoriano, representado por el Ministerio del Ambiente, con el Fondo para el Medio Ambiente Mundial (GEF). El Proyecto es implementado por el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (UNDP), tiene como instituciones ejecutoras al Servicio Parque Nacional Gal�pagos (SPNG), Instituto Nacional Gal�pagos (INGALA), Servicio Ecuatoriano de Sanidad Agropecuaria-Gal�pagos (SESA-Gal�pagos), y Fundaci�n Charles Darwin (FCD). Los planes de manejo representan proyectos en diferentes estados de desarrollo y dimensi�n. Tres de estos proyectos ya han sido desarrollados completamente, trece est�n en proceso y cinco a�n no se han iniciado. El costo y tiempo para la erradicaci�n varia considerablemente seg�n la especie y se muestra la importancia econ�mica que implica desarrollar proyectos de erradicaci�n tan pronto las especies son detectadas.
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
General information
Barthelat, pers. comm., 2007
Summary: Personal communication with Fabien Barthelat, an expert of flora of Mayotte.
Conservatoire Botanique National De Mascarin (BOULLET V. coord.) 2007. Cryptostegia grandiflora - Index de la flore vasculaire de la R�union (Trach�ophytes) : statuts, menaces et protections. - Version 2007.1
Summary: Base de donn�es sur la flore de la R�union. De nombreuses informations tr�s utiles.
Available from: http://flore.cbnm.org/index2.php?page=taxon&num=fb87582825f9d28a8d42c5e5e5e8b23d [Accessed March 19 2008]
Florence J., Chevillotte H., Ollier C.,& Meyer J.-Y. 2007. Cryptostegia grandiflora. Base de donn�es botaniques Nadeaud de l Herbier de la Polyn�sie fran�aise (PAP).
Summary: Base de donn�es sur le flore de Polyn�sie Fran�aise.
Available from:http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf/Selection_Taxonomie.php?id_tax=3042 [Accessed 19 March 2008]
Grice, A. C. 1996. Seed production, dispersal and germination in Cryptostegia grandiflora and Ziziphus mauritiana, two invasive shrubs in tropical woodlands of northern Australia. Australian Journal of Ecology, 21(3), 324-331.
Summary: Information about seed numbers, germination rates, and methods of dispersal for C. grandiflora and Ziziphus mauritiana
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2004. Online Database Cryptostegia grandiflora
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/taxastep?king=every&p_action=containing&taxa=Cryptostegia+grandiflora&p_format=&p_ifx=plglt&p_lang= [Accessed December 31 2004]
MacKee, H.S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultiv�es en Nouvelle-Cal�donie, 2nd edn. MNHN, Paris.
Summary: Cet ouvrage liste 1412 taxons (esp�ces, sous esp�ces et vari�t�s) introduits en Nouvelle-Cal�donie. L auteur pr�cise dans la majorit� des cas si l esp�ce est cultiv�e ou naturalis�e.
Meyer, J.-Y., Loope, L., Sheppard, A., Munzinger, J., Jaffre, T. 2006. Les plantes envahissantes et potentiellement envahissantes dans l archipel n�o-cal�donien : premi�re �valuation et recommandations de gestion. in M.-L. Beauvais et al. (2006) : Les esp�ces envahissantes dans l�archipel n�o-cal�donien, Paris, IRD �ditions, 260 p.+ c�d�rom.
Western Australia (WA), Department of Agriculture, 2002. Cryptostegia grandiflora
Summary: General information about the weed Rubber Vine in an Australian context.
Available from: http://www.agric.wa.gov.au/programs/app/Weeds/rubbervine.htm [Accessed 3 July 2003]
Contact
The following 2 contacts offer information an advice on Cryptostegia grandiflora
Grice,
Dr Tony
Organization:
Senior Research Scientist (Ecologist) CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems
Address:

Phone:
Fax:
Meyer,
Jean-Yves
Geographic region: Pacific, Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Expert in the botany of French Polynesia and the Pacific Islands, and has worked on ecology and biological control of Miconia calvescens in French Polynesia.
Organization:
D�l�gation � la Recherche
Address:
D�l�gation � la Recherche, Gouvernement de Polyn�sie fran�aise. B.P. 20981, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, Polyn�sie fran�aise
Phone:
689 47 25 60
Fax: