Global invasive species database

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  • Passiflora tarminiana flower (Photo: � John M Randall/The Nature Conservancy)
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Common name
banana passionfruit (English), tacso amarillo (Spanish, Ecuador), tumbo (Spanish, Peru, Bolivia), curuba ecuatoriana (Spanish, Colombia), bananadilla (English), curuba india (Spanish, Colombia), curuba (French), gulián (Spanish, Ecuador), curuba quiteña (Spanish, Colombia), banana passion flower (English), banana poka (English, Hawaii), banana passion vine (English)
Synonym
Passiflora mollissima
Passiflora mixta
Similar species
Passiflora tripartita, Passiflora mixta, Passiflora pinnatistipula, Passiflora antioquiensis
Summary
Passiflora tarminiana is an aggressively invasive tropical vine native to the Andes. It invades disturbed areas, smothers trees, reduces biodiversity and assists other invasive species, such as feral pigs, which feed on the fruit. Biological control programmes trialled in Hawaii have had very encouraging results, and New Zealand is now looking at introducing biocontrol agents. Passiflora tarminiana is a newly-described species, so older references to Passiflora mollissima (now Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima (Kunth) Holm Nielsen & Jørgensen)) may in fact be referring to Passiflora tarminiana.
Species Description
A climbing liana vine possessing trilobed, serrated leaves with soft, downy undersides, always hairless on top; minute subreniform, aristate, deciduous stipules; flower pendent; sepals and petals light pink to bright pink; floral tube light green; bracts ovate; fruit fusiform, growing larger at high elevations, to 150 g; pericarp soft and yellow to yellow-orange; pulp orange; numerous black seeds (Fruits from America, 2002).
P. tarminiana is a newly described species. It was formerly included with the species P. mollissima, and is still described under this name in many resources. The two species have a number of differing characteristics. P. tarminiana has flowers in which the petals and sepals open flat, or are reflexed back in some cases, and the sepals are close to the end of the floral tube. The nectary chamber is conspicuously wider than the floral tube. P. tripartita var. mollissima never opens its petals and sepals to more than a bell shape, and the sepals are short in relation to the length of the floral tube (Irvine, 2003). Its bracts form a narrow tube. Its stipules are much larger, embracing the stem, and permanent.P. tarminiana is highly tolerant or resistant to the anthracnose affecting fruits and leaves of P. tripartita var. mollissima and it regenerates more easily from the base. It seems more susceptible to attacks of Heliconiid butterfly larvae in the juvenile stage.
Notes
On the State of Hawai‘i noxious weed list, where it has invaded huge areas of native forest and the fruit provides a food source for feral pigs (PIER, 2003; Smith, 1998). Also a problem species in New Zealand and South Africa (Binggeli, 1997).
P. tarminiana is often confused with P. mollissima. This is especially true in Hawai‘i, where the 'banana poka', often described as P. mollissima, is actually P. tarminiana. P. tripartita var. mollissima is absent from Hawai‘i (Irvine, 2003).
Lifecycle Stages
Adult plants can reach an age of 20 years (Binggeli, 1997).
Uses
Often cultivated for fruit and as an ornamental plant, due to its attractive flowers (Binggeli, 1997). On Kauai, banana poka vines are woven into baskets (Starr, F., pers.comm., 2003).
Habitat Description
Found in disturbed habitats. Tolerates both high and low light levels, although seedlings do not tolerate dense shade. Tolerant of occasional frosts. Naturally occurs in the Andes, between 2000 and 3600 m a.s.l. Grows in areas with mean annual rainfall between 800 and 1300mm and a mean annual temperature of 11.4 to 15.0°C. Once reaching canopy height the vines spread laterally. (Binggeli, 1997)
In its region of origin, P. tarminiana only exists under cultivation as a fruit crop, with a few individuals escaped from cultivation, but never forming significant wild populations.
Reproduction
Feral pigs, when present, are the principal short-distance dispersal agents. Alien frugivorous and granivorous birds, as well as man, act as long distance dispersal agents (PIER, 2003).
Grows from seed to flowering in around one year. Mainly out-crosses, although self-pollinating may occur. Fruit contains numerous seeds (Binggeli, 1997). Hybridizes easily with other Passiflora species of subgenera Tacsonia and Manicata.
Pathway
Grown for its fruit in some areas (Binggeli, 1997).Often planted as an ornamental plant because of its attractive flowers (Binggeli, 1997).

Principal source: PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems At Risk), 2003.
Binggeli, P. 1997. Woody plant Ecology.

Compiler: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Dr. Geo Coppens Consultant, Tropical Fruit. CIRAD. France

Publication date: 2005-07-13

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Passiflora tarminiana. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=336 on 27-09-2016.

General Impacts
P. tarminiana can rapidly reach and smother the forest canopy when the sub-canopy vegetation is disturbed either naturally, by hurricanes and other high winds, or by man or feral pigs (Smith, 1985 in PIER, 2003). P. tarminiana suppresses tree regeneration, topples shallow-rooted trees, kills standing trees through shading, and lowers species richness (Binggeli, 1997).
Management Info
Physical: Small plants can be hand pulled; older ones must be dug out (PIER, 2003).

\r\n Chemical: Cut vines and treat with herbicide, such as Tordon, Roundup or Escort (Binggeli, 1997; DOC, 2003).

\r\n Biological: Three biocontrol agents have been released in Hawai‘i. Cyanotricha necryia, a foliage-feeding moth, was released in 1988 but failed to establish.
Another moth species, Pyrausta perelegans, was released in 1991. It feeds on the buds, leaves, fruit, and shoot tips of P. tarminiana. It has established but is not common. A leaf spot fungus, Septoria passiflorae, which was released in 1996, is now widespread and causing large disease epidemics. There have been P. tarminiana biomass reductions of 80-95% over more than 2000 ha, giving indications that the leaf spot fungus has great potential. Other agents that are being investigated include Zapriotheca nr. nudiseta, a fly that feeds on flower buds, as well as Josia fluonia and J. ligata, two species of defoliating moths (Landcare Research 1999; 2001). In damp areas P. tarminiana may suffer from slug herbivory (Binggeli, 1997).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Passiflora tarminiana
NATIVE RANGE
  • bolivia
  • colombia
  • ecuador
  • peru
  • south american andes
  • venezuela
Informations on Passiflora tarminiana has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Passiflora tarminiana in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
P. tarminiana can rapidly reach and smother the forest canopy when the sub-canopy vegetation is disturbed either naturally, by hurricanes and other high winds, or by man or feral pigs (Smith, 1985 in PIER, 2003). P. tarminiana suppresses tree regeneration, topples shallow-rooted trees, kills standing trees through shading, and lowers species richness (Binggeli, 1997).
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
NEW ZEALAND
UNITED STATES
Mechanism
[3] Competition
[1] Interaction with other invasive species
Outcomes
[4] Environmental Species - Population
  • [3] Reduces/inhibits the growth of other species
  • [1] Plant/animal health
[4] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Damage to agriculture
  • [3] Modification of landscape
Management information
Physical: Small plants can be hand pulled; older ones must be dug out (PIER, 2003).

\r\n Chemical: Cut vines and treat with herbicide, such as Tordon, Roundup or Escort (Binggeli, 1997; DOC, 2003).

\r\n Biological: Three biocontrol agents have been released in Hawai‘i. Cyanotricha necryia, a foliage-feeding moth, was released in 1988 but failed to establish.
Another moth species, Pyrausta perelegans, was released in 1991. It feeds on the buds, leaves, fruit, and shoot tips of P. tarminiana. It has established but is not common. A leaf spot fungus, Septoria passiflorae, which was released in 1996, is now widespread and causing large disease epidemics. There have been P. tarminiana biomass reductions of 80-95% over more than 2000 ha, giving indications that the leaf spot fungus has great potential. Other agents that are being investigated include Zapriotheca nr. nudiseta, a fly that feeds on flower buds, as well as Josia fluonia and J. ligata, two species of defoliating moths (Landcare Research 1999; 2001). In damp areas P. tarminiana may suffer from slug herbivory (Binggeli, 1997).

Locations
NEW ZEALAND
UNITED STATES
Management Category
Control
Monitoring
Bibliography
12 references found for Passiflora tarminiana

Managment information
Binggeli, P. 1997. Passiflora mollissima HBK. Bailey (Passifloraceae). Woody plant Ecology.
Summary: Some useful information on P mollissima/tarminiana. Minimal management information.
Available from: http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/docs/web-sp13.htm [Accessed 24 January 2003].
Gardner, D. E. 1998. Passiflora mollissima. University of Hawaii, Botany Department.
Summary: Has information on research being conducted as to the control of this species in Hawaii.
Available from: http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/gardner/biocontrol/banana%20poka/passiflora.htm [accessed 24 January 2003]
Landcare Research, 1999, What s New in biological control of Weeds? No. 13 Nov 1999.
Summary: A brief article about control of banana passionfruit in New Zealand.
Available from: http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/publications/newsletters/weeds/wtsnew13.pdf [Accessed 20 January 2003].
Landcare Research, 2001, What s New in biological control of Weeds? No. 19 Nov 2001.
Summary: Honey, I Shrunk the Weed . A very useful article with good pictures on the use of biological contol in Hawaii.
Available from: http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/publications/newsletters/weeds/wtsnew19.pdf [Accessed 20 January 2003]
Landcare Research, 2002. What s New in biological control of Weeds? No. 21 May 2002.
Summary: Has a small amount of information regarding biological control, and a footnote on Passiflora species in New Zealand.
Available from: http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/publications/newsletters/weeds/wtsnew21.pdf [Accessed 12 August, 2003].
PIER (Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk), 2003. Passiflora tarminiana
Summary: Contains a useful comparison between three species in the Passiflora spp. Ecology, synonyms, common names, distributions (Pacific as well as global), management and impact information.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/passiflora_tarminiana.htm [Accessed 12 August, 2003]
General information
d Eeckenbrugge, G. C., Barney, V. E., Jorgensen, P. M., and MacDougal, J. M. 2001. Passiflora tarminiana, a new cultivated species of Passiflora subgenus Tacsonia (Passifloraceae). Novon 11(1): 8-15
Summary: A description of P. tarminianaas a new species, distinct from P. mollissima
Fruits from America, 2002. CIRAD-FLHOR/IPGRI Project for Neotropical Fruits � International Plant Genetic Resources Institute 2002.
Summary: A good, brief summary of information about the species with clear pictures.
Available from: http://www.ciat.cgiar.org/ipgri/fruits_from_americas/frutales/Ficha%20Passiflora%20tarminiana.htm [Accessed 12 August, 2003]
Irvine, M. S. 2003. Passiflora tarminiana. � 2000-2003 Myles Stewart Irvine.
Summary: Contains a number of amateur pictures of P. tarminiana. Has good information on the differences between P. tarminiana and P. mollissima.
Available from: http://www.passionflow.co.uk/taxiseed.htm [Accessed 12 August, 2003]
Meyer, J.-Y., Loope, L., Sheppard, A., Munzinger, J., Jaffre, T. 2006. Les plantes envahissantes et potentiellement envahissantes dans l archipel n�o-cal�donien : premi�re �valuation et recommandations de gestion. in M.-L. Beauvais et al. (2006) : Les esp�ces envahissantes dans l�archipel n�o-cal�donien, Paris, IRD �ditions, 260 p.+ c�d�rom.
Smith, Clifford W. 1998. Hawaiian Alien Plant Studies. University of Hawaii, Botany Department.
Summary: Minimal information, but has a little on specific infestations in Hawaii.
Available from: http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/cw_smith/pas_mol.htm [Accessed 12 August, 2003].
Contact
The following 3 contacts offer information an advice on Passiflora tarminiana
d Eeckenbrugge,
Geo Coppens
Neotropical fruits
Organization:
CIRAD-FLHOR
Address:
Boulevard de la Lironde, TA50/PS4, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
Phone:
33 (0) 4 67 61 71 47
Fax:
34 (0) 4 67 61 58 39
J�rgensen,
Peter M�ller
My research interest lies in floristic, plant geography, and conservation. I am also interested in the systematic, phylogenetic, and evolutionary aspects of the families Passifloraceae, Santalaceae, and Olacaceae; and have started to get interested in the Verbenaceae. My interests in Passifloraceae are old and wide-ranging, covering the Neotropical area, and for the genus Passiflora even the old world. I am interested all ecological aspects of the family, but particularly their pollination. Dr. Carmen Ulloa and I are writing treatments of the Santalaceae and Olacaceae for the Flora of Ecuador, and our interest in those families are so far restricted to this geographical area.
Organization:
Adjunct Associate Professor and Research Associate Professor
Assistant Curator, Director of the
Address:
http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/Research/curators/jorgensen.shtml
Phone:
+ 1-314-577-9411
Fax:
+1-314-577-0820
Lavergne,
Christophe
Geographic region: Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Conservatoire Botanique National de Mascarin
Address:
2 rue du P�re Georges Domaine des Colima�ons 97436 SAINT LEU
Phone:
(33) 02 62 24 92 27
Fax: